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Rashidun Government Timeline

Rashidun Government Timeline


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History

The first four Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad are often quoted as the Khulafah Rashidun.

The Rashidun were either elected by a council (see The election of Uthman and Islamic democracy) or chosen based on the wishes of their predecessor. In the order of succession, the rashidun were:

Hasan ibn Ali was appointed as Caliph in 661 following the death of Ali and is also regarded as a righteous ruler by Sunni Muslims ΐ] , although he was recognized by only half of the Islamic state and his rule was challenged and eventually ended by the Governor of Syria, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan.

In addition to this there are several views regarding additional rashidun. Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (Umar ІІ), who was one of the Ummayyad caliphs, is sometimes regarded as one of the Rashidun and is quoted by Taftazani. In the Ibadhi tradition, only Abu Bakr and Umar are considered to be the Two Rightly Guided Caliphs. Suleiman the Magnificent and Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman period are regarded by some to be amongst the rightly guided Caliphs.

Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani includes the Khulafah of the Bani Abbas (i.e., the Abbassids) in his enumeration.

Abu Bakr

Soon after Muhammad's death a gathering of prominent Ansar and some of the Muhajirun, in Medina, acclaimed Abu Bakr as the successor to Muhammad or the Caliph.

Following his succession, various Arab tribes rebelled against Abu Bakr, refusing to pay the zakat, claiming that they would make the salah but wouldn't give charity. Abu Bakr insisted that the zakat and the salah both must be done to be a complete Muslim. This was the start of the Ridda wars (Arabic for the Wars of Apostasy).

After restoring peace in Arabia, Abu Bakr directed his generals towards the Byzantine and Sassanid empires.

Some traditions about the origin of the Qur'an say that Abu Bakr was instrumental in preserving it in written form, as he was the first to order the collection of the sacred revelations.

Abu Bakr died in 634 in Medina, naming Umar ibn al-Khattab as his successor shortly before his death.

Umar ibn al-Khattab

Umar was named caliph through the same deliberation process that had brought Abu Bakr into leadership. During Umar's reign Muslims conquered Mesopotamia, parts of Persia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, North Africa and Armenia.

The general social and moral tone of the Muslim society at that time is well-illustrated by the words of an Egyptian who was sent to spy on the Muslims during their Egyptian campaign. He reported:

"I have seen a people, every one of whom loves death more than he loves life. They cultivate humility rather than pride. None is given to material ambitions. Their mode of living is simple. Their commander is their equal. They make no distinction between superior and inferior, between master and slave. When the time of prayer approaches, none remains behind. "

Umar (in English usually called Omar) was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. In 639, his fourth year as caliph and the seventeenth year 17 since the Hijra, he decreed that the years of the Islamic era should be counted from the year of the Hijraand. Umar died in 644, after he was stabbed by Abu-Lu'lu'ah in the Masjid al Nabawi mosque in Medina.

Whilst on his deathbed, he was urged to select a successor, which he refused to do. He did however put a process in place for selection of a successor. This comprised the remaining members of the ten companions promised paradise (Al-Asharatu Mubashsharun) to elect from amongst themselves a Caliph within 3 days. The result of this process following his death was Uthman ibn Affan.

Uthman ibn Affan

Uthman (in English often called Othman) also referred to as Usman or Osman in other dialects. reigned for twelve years, and during his rule, all of Iran, most of North Africa, the Caucasus and Cyprus were conquered and incorporated into the Islamic empire. His rule was characterized by increasingly centralized control of revenues from the provinces, aided by governors drawn largely from his kinsmen in the Umayyad clan. Uthman appointed many of his kinsmen as governors of the new domains. Some of his governors were accused of corruption and misrule.

Uthman is perhaps best known for forming the committee which compiled the basic text of the Qur'an as it exists today. During the end of his reign, Uthman ordered the compilation of the text. He sent copies of the sacred text to each of the Muslim cities and garrison towns, and destroyed alternative versions.

Ali ibn Abi Talib

After the death of Uthman, Medina was in political chaos for a number of days. Many of the companions approached Ali to take the role of Caliph, which he refused to do initially.

After his appointment as caliph, Ali dismissed several provincial governors, some of whom were relatives of Uthman, and replaced them with trusted aides such as Malik ibn Ashter . Ali then transferred his capital from Medina to Kufa, the Muslim garrison city in what is now Iraq. The capital of the province of Syria, Damascus, was held by Mu'awiyah, the governor of Syria and a kinsman of Uthman, Ali's slain predecessor. Α]

His caliphate coincided with the First Fitna. The First Fitna, 656� CE, followed the assassination of the third caliph ,Uthman Ibn Affan, continued during the caliphate of Ali, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyah's assumption of the caliphate. This civil war is often called the Fitna, and regretted as the end of the early unity of the Islamic ummah (nation). This civil war created permanent divisions within the Muslim community and Muslims were divided over who had the legitimate right to occupy the caliphate. Β]

According to tradition, three Muslim zealots (purists later termed Kharijites) attempted to assassinate Ali, Mu'awiyah and `Amr, as the authors of disastrous feuds among the faithful. However, only the assassination of Ali succeeded. He died on the 21st of Ramadan in the city of Kufa (Iraq) in 661 CE.


Abu Bakr, the first caliph, ruled for two years. He was able to keep the Islamic world together but not all was well. As soon as he was appointed caliph, some Arab tribes who had only been part of the community because of Muhammad pulled out of the political coalition. This forced Abu Bakr to go to war against them to bring them into submission. He insisted that they had not just submitted to Muhammad but to the Muslim community. By 633 AD, Abu Bakr had unified almost the entire Arabian Peninsula under his caliphate.


During his reign, Abu Bakr established the Bayt al-Mal (state treasury). Umar expanded the treasury and established a government building to administer the state finances. [14]

Upon conquest, in almost all cases, the caliphs were burdened with the maintenance and construction of roads and bridges in return for the conquered nation's political loyalty. [15]

Civil activities

Civil welfare in Islam started in the form of the construction and purchase of wells. During the caliphate, the Muslims repaired many of the aging wells in the lands they conquered. [16]

In addition to wells, the Muslims built many tanks and canals. Many canals were purchased, and new ones constructed. While some canals were excluded for the use of monks (such as a spring purchased by Talhah), and the needy, most canals were open to general public use. Some canals were constructed between settlements, such as the Saad canal that provided water to Anbar, and the Abi Musa Canal to provide water to Basra. [17]

During a famine, Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered the construction of a canal in Egypt connecting the Nile with the sea. The purpose of the canal was to facilitate the transport of grain to Arabia through a sea-route, hitherto transported only by land. The canal was constructed within a year by 'Amr ibn al-'As, and Abdus Salam Nadiv writes that "Arabia was rid of famine for all the times to come." [18]

After four floods hit Mecca after Muhammad's death, Umar ordered the construction of two dams to protect the Kaaba. He also constructed a dam near Medina to protect its fountains from flooding. [15]

Settlements

The area of Basra was very sparsely populated when it was conquered by the Muslims. During the reign of Umar, the Muslim army found it a suitable place to construct a base. Later the area was settled and a mosque was erected. [19] [20] [21]

Upon the conquest of Madyan, it was settled by Muslims. However, soon the environment was considered harsh, and Umar ordered the resettlement of the 40,000 settlers to Kufa. The new buildings were constructed from mud bricks instead of reeds, a material that was popular in the region, but caught fire easily.

During the conquest of Egypt the area of Fustat was used by the Muslim army as a base. Upon the conquest of Alexandria, the Muslims returned and settled in the same area. Initially the land was primarily used for pasture, but later buildings were constructed. [22]

Other already populated areas were greatly expanded. At Mosul, Arfaja al-Bariqi, at the command of Umar, constructed a fort, a few churches, a mosque and a locality for the Jewish population. [23]


Battle of Marathon

http://i.picresize.com/images/2014/06/01/EHOmu.jpg
Part of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greece (Athens, Plataea) vs Persian Empire
Decisive Greek victory

The first Greek victory in the Persian invasion of Greece, this battle showed that the Persians weren't, in fact, invincible, a major psychological victory for the Athenians. The victory showed the young Athenian democracy that their system could survive, and marked the start of the Greek Golden Age. If the Persians hadn't been turned back, Athens would have been destroyed before it could basically invent western culture, and all of European history (and subsequently world history) would have been unrecognizable.

Battle of Cannae

http://i.picresize.com/images/2014/06/01/nGjRr.jpg
Part of the Second Punic War
Carthaginian Republic vs Roman Republic
Carthaginian tactical victory

Rome, determined to defeat Hannibal (the Carthaginian general) who had invaded Rome from the north by crossing the Alps, sent a massive army to meet him at Cannae. In what has been called one of the greatest tactical feats in military history, Hannibal's much smaller army annihilated the Roman army. Although Carthage went on to lose the war, because it was such a devastating defeat, it had significant effects on Rome. Rome reformed the structure of its army (introducing the cohort system they used to conqueror the known world) and gave singular command to Scipio Africanus, illegal under the Roman constitution, which foreshadowed the decline of the Roman political institutions. If Rome would have won the battle, they may not have learned their lesson in the Punic Wars, and have had a harder time conquering their neighbors later on.

Battle of Actium

http://i.picresize.com/images/2014/06/01/Zexyr.jpg
Part of The Final War of the Roman Republic
Octavian vs Mark Antony and Ptolemaic Egypt
Decisive Octavian victory

This was a confrontation between rivals Octavian and Mark Antony, who both vied for power in Rome after Julius Caesar's supposed assassination (we know that he really lived, and today teaches at Granite Hills). Octavian's victory left him with complete control of the Mediterranean, and he changed his name to Augustus Caesar, becoming the first emperor of Rome. As well as marking the end of the Republic and the start of the Empire, the battle marked the end of the Hellenistic period, as Rome gained full control over Mark Antony's ally, Egypt. If Mark Antony would have won, he may have preserved the Republic, or may have become emperor himself, but with more eastern interests.

Battle of the Teutoburg Forest

http://i.picresize.com/images/2014/06/01/yxrZt.jpg
Part of the Roman-Germanic wars
Germanic tribes vs Roman Empire
Decisive Germanic victory

As the Roman commander Varus was marching his army to put down an uprising in Germania, his adviser Arminius slipped away to command a Germanic army that waited to ambush the Roman army. Varus walked right into the trap, and his army was completely destroyed. This was the last time Rome tried to conquer Germanic territory east of the Rhine, which has obvious consequences for the development of the region. If Rome had won, they would have had control over Germania, and it would have been integrated into the Empire and Romanized like other provinces, leading to a completely different history of the region.


French Intervention in Mexico and the American Civil War, 1862–1867

In 1862, French Emperor Napoleon III maneuvered to establish a French client state in Mexico , and eventually installed Maximilian of Habsburg , Archduke of Austria, as Emperor of Mexico. Stiff Mexican resistance caused Napoleon III to order French withdrawal in 1867, a decision strongly encouraged by a United States recovered from its Civil War weakness in foreign affairs. Earlier, during the Civil War, U.S. Secretary of State William Henry Seward followed a more cautious policy that attempted to keep relations with France harmonious and prevent French willingness to assist the Confederacy. Consequently, Maximilian’s government rebuffed Confederate diplomatic overtures.

In 1857, Mexico became embroiled in a civil war that pitted the forces of Liberal reformist Benito Juárez against Conservatives led by Félix Zuloaga. Conservatives exerted control from Mexico City, and the Liberals from Veracruz. The United States recognized the Juárez government in 1859, and in January of 1861, Liberal forces captured Mexico City, greatly strengthening Juárez’s position and legitimacy. However, continued instability had coincided with growing foreign debt that was increasingly difficult for the Mexican government to pay. Secretary of State Seward offered a plan that would provide mining concessions in exchange for American loans. In the event that the debts were not repaid, Mexico would agree to the cession of Baja California and other Mexican states. The terms of the loan were onerous to the Mexican government, but U.S. diplomat Thomas Corwin successfully negotiated a treaty with Mexican representative Manuel Maria Zamacona . Ultimately, though, the U.S. Congress rejected the treaty on grounds that it would drain money from Civil War expenditures.

With no other options, Juárez suspended payments on Mexican debt for two years. In response, representatives from the Spanish, French, and British governments met in London, and on October 31, 1861, signed a tripartite agreement to intervene in Mexico to recover the unpaid debts. European forces landed at Veracruz on December 8. Juárez urged resistance, while Conservatives saw the intervening forces as valuable allies in their struggle against the Liberals. Although the British and Spanish governments had more limited plans for intervention, Napoleon III was interested in reviving French global ambitions, and French forces captured Mexico City, while Spanish and British forces withdrew after French plans became clear. In 1863, Napoleon III invited Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, to become Emperor of Mexico. Maximilian accepted the offer and arrived in Mexico in 1864. Although Maximilian’s Conservative government controlled much of the country, Liberals held on to power in northwestern Mexico and parts of the Pacific coast.


Before the conspiracy

Householder represents 72nd House District, including as speaker 2001-2004.

U.S. Department of Justice Public Integrity Unit closes investigation against Householder without charges. He says the inquiry was "politically motivated."

U.S. Department of Justice Public Integrity Unit closes investigation against Householder without charges. He says the inquiry was "politically motivated."


Making an impact at the United Nations

(© Evan Vucci/AP Images)

2017: Nikki Haley was elected the first female governor of South Carolina when she was just 38 years old. She became the first Indian American to serve in a Cabinet-level position when President Trump selected her as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations.


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  • June 5: First official reporting of what will be known as AIDS.
    • A report described Pneumocystis pneumonia in previously healthy, gay men in LA. This is the first official reporting of what will be known as the AIDS epidemic. Link to the first official report of what will be known as the AIDS epidemic
    • About 30 Epidemic Intelligence Service officers and staff participated.
    • Link to the report of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia in 26 homosexual men in New York and California
    • September 24: CDC uses the term "AIDS" for the first time and releases the first case definition for AIDS.
    • CDC reports a case of AIDS in an infant who received a blood transfusion. Link to CDC reports a case of AIDS in an infant who received a blood transfusion
    • MMWR reports 22 cases of unexplained immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections in infants. Link to Reports of AIDS hinting of perinatal transmission

    • CDC establishes the National AIDS Hotline to respond to public inquiries about the disease.
    • January 7: Report of AIDS in female sexual partners of males with AIDS.
      • Link to report of AIDS in female sexual partners of males with AIDS
      • MMWR suggests that AIDS may be caused by an infectious agent that is transmitted sexually or through exposure to blood or blood products and issues recommendations for preventing transmission. Link to report of most cases of AIDS have been among homosexual men, injection drug users, Haitians, and people with hemophilia
      • Link to report of CDC first recommendations to prevent occupational exposure for healthcare workers
      • Link to report of CDC identification of all major routes of transmission
      • July 13: Needle-sharing identified as transmission method.
        • CDC states that avoiding injection drug use and reducing needle-sharing "should also be effective in preventing transmissions of the virus." Link to report from CDC to avoid injection drug use and reduce needle sharing should also be effective in preventing transmission of the virus
        • CDC, along with colleagues from Zaire and Belgium, establishes Project SIDA, which would become the largest HIV/AIDS research project in Africa in the 1980s.

        • January 11: Revised AIDS case definition notes AIDS is caused by HIV. Blood screening guidelines issued.
          • Link to report of CDC revised AIDS case definition notes causes by HIV Blood screening guidelines

          • October 22: Surgeon General, C. Everett Koop, issues the Surgeon General's Report on AIDS. The report makes it clear that HIV cannot be spread casually and calls for a nationwide education campaign (including early sex education in schools), increased use of condoms, and voluntary HIV testing.
            • Link to report of Surgeon General, C. Everett Koop on AIDS/
            • August: CDC holds the first national conference on HIV and Communities of Color in New York.
            • August 14: CDC issues Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Public Health Service Guidelines for Counseling and Antibody Testing to Prevent HIV Infections and AIDS.
            • CDC begins working in Côte d'Ivoire, establishing a field station in Abidjan and launching the Retrovirus Côte d'Ivoire (CDC Retro-CI).

            • The brochure "Understanding AIDS" is sent to every household in the US—107 million copies in all.
              • News article: Link to the news article of mailing to every household in US about Understanding AIDS
              • Brochure: Link to brochure called Understanding AIDS
              • June 16: CDC issues first guidelines for preventing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).
                • Link to CDC report on preventing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)

                • July 27: CDC reports possible transmission of HIV to a patient through a dental procedure performed by a dentist living with HIV.

                • July 12: CDC issues recommendations for healthcare workers with HIV.
                  • Link to CDC report on recommendations for healthcare workers with HIV
                  • Congress enacts a law requiring states to adopt the CDC restrictions or to develop and adopt their own.
                  • AIDS becomes the number one cause of death for US men aged 25-44.
                    • Link to CDC report on AIDS becomes the number one cause of death for US men aged 25-44
                    • Labor Responds to AIDS begins in 1995.
                    • CDC expands case definition for AIDS, declaring those with CD4 count below 200 to have AIDS. Link to CDC report on expanding case definition for AIDS, declaring those with CD4 count below 200 to have AIDS

                    • Community-planning process launched.
                      • CDC institutes the community-planning process to better target local prevention efforts.
                      • May 20: CDC publishes guidelines for preventing HIV transmission through tissue and organ transplants.
                        • Link to CDC report on guidelines for prevention of HIV transmission through tissue and organ transplants
                        • July 14: CDC issues first guidelines to help healthcare providers prevent OIs in people living with HIV.

                        • UNAIDS established.
                        • CDC reports the first substantial decline in AIDS deaths in the US.
                          • AIDS-related deaths in the US decline by 47% from the previous year, due largely to the use of HAART. Link to CDC report on first substantial decline in AIDS deaths in the US

                          • CDC reports that African Americans account for 49% of US AIDS-related deaths.
                            • The AIDS-related mortality for African Americans is almost 10 times that of whites. Link to CDC report on African Americans accounts for 49% of US AIDS-related deaths
                            • Link to CDC report on the first national treatment guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults and adolescents with HIV
                            • July: Leadership and Investment in Fighting an Epidemic (LIFE) launched to combat AIDS in Africa.
                              • President Bill Clinton launches the LIFE Initiative to expand efforts to combat AIDS in Africa, and CDC provides critical technical support. Link to President Bill Clinton launch of the LIFE Initiative to expand efforts to combat AIDS in Africa

                              • July: Congress enacts Global AIDS and TB Relief Act authorizes $600 million in funding.

                              • CDC announces a new HIV Prevention Strategic Plan to cut annual HIV infections in the US by half within the five years.
                                • Link to CDC announcement on a new HIV Prevention Strategic Plan to cut annual HIV infections in the US by half within the five years
                                • $500 million mother-to-child HIV prevention initiative in Africa and Carribean.
                                  • President George W. Bush announces a $500 million initiative to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and improve health care delivery in 14 African and Caribbean countries. Link to President George W. Bush announcement on $500 million initiative to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV

                                  • Over two-thirds of new HIV infections in US are from those who do not know they are infected.
                                    • CDC estimates that 27,000 of the estimated 40,000 new infections that occur each year in the US result from transmission by individuals who do not know they are infected. Link to CDC report that estimates 27,000 of the 40,000 new infections that occur each year in US result from transmission by individuals who do not know they are infected
                                      aims to reduce barriers to early diagnosis and increase access to, and utilization of, quality medical care, treatment, and ongoing prevention services for those living with HIV.
                                    • Congress authorizes PEPFAR (the "US Leadership Against HIV/ AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003" or Global AIDS Act), a 5-year, $18 billion approach to fighting HIV/AIDS, making it the largest commitment by any nation for an international health initiative dedicated to a single disease.
                                    • January 30: CDC releases guidance for HIV testing during labor and delivery for women of unknown HIV status.
                                      • Link to CDC report on guidance for HIV testing during labor and delivery for women of unknown HIV status
                                      • PEPFAR's Track 1.0 Antiretroviral Therapy Program is launched in partnership with Ministries of Health in 13 countries, and CDC, along with HHS sister-agency HRSA, plays a leading role.
                                      • January 21: CDC releases recommendations to prevent HIV after non-occupational exposure to the virus.
                                        • These recommendations, called non-occupational post- exposure prophylaxis or nPEP, noted that antiretrovial drugs might be beneficial in preventing HIV infection after exposure through sex or injection drug use begun within 72 hours after exposure. Link to CDC report on recommendation to prevent HIV after non-occupational exposure to the virus
                                        • September 22: CDC releases new HIV testing recommendations.
                                          • CDC releases revised HIV testing recommendations: All adults and adolescents aged 13-64 should be screened at least once, with annual screening for those at high risk. Link to CDC report releases revised HIV testing recommendations for All adults and adolescents aged 13-64

                                          • October: CDC launches Prevention IS Care campaign for healthcare providers who deliver care to people living with HIV.
                                            • The campaign emphasizes the importance of helping patients stay on HIV treatment.
                                            • Link to CDC report over 562,000 people have died of AIDS in the US since 1981
                                            • PEPFAR, with CDC support, announces a public-private partnership with Becton Dickinson to strengthen laboratory capacity in four African countries the partnership was renewed for an additional five years in 2013.
                                            • August 6: CDC estimates there are 56,300 new HIV cases each year in the United States.
                                              • CDC releases new domestic incidence estimates that are higher than previous estimates (56,300 new infections per year vs 40,000). The new estimates do not represent an actual increase in the numbers of HIV infections, but reflect a more accurate way of measuring new infections. Link to CDC report on new domestic incidence estimates of HIV infections
                                              • Congress reauthorizes PEPFAR (the "Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008") and expands the initiative by more than tripling its funding to $48 billion. The global response emphasizes a shift to building sustainable, country-owned programs that integrate HIV/AIDS services into broader health systems.

                                              • Global Health Initiative announced.
                                                • President Barack Obama announces the Global Health Initiative, a 6-year initiative to develop a comprehensive approach to global health with PEPFAR at its core.
                                                • PEPFAR and CDC establish The Shuga Initiative in partnership with the MTV Networks Africa, MTV Staying Alive Foundation, Gates Foundation, and UNICEF to increase HIV-risk perception, increase uptake of HIV-testing and counseling services, and increase knowledge of HIV-prevention strategies among youth in Kenya, Nigeria, and Botswana.
                                                • CDC and the White House launch Act Against AIDS, a multiyear, multifaceted communication campaign designed to reduce HIV incidence in the United States.
                                                • HIV infection removed from disease list that prevents non-US citizens from entering country.
                                                  • Department of Health & Human Services and CDC remove HIV infection from the list of diseases that prevent non-US citizens from entering the country.
                                                  • CDC launched the project to shift HIV-related activities to meet goals of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Twelve health departments in cities with high AIDS burdens participated.

                                                  • CDC launches the Link to High Impact HIV Prevention (HIP) framework to reduce new HIV infections in the United States.
                                                    • HIP focuses on using combinations of scientifically proven, cost-effective, and scalable interventions targeted to the right populations in the right geographic areas in order to increase the impact of HIV prevention efforts.
                                                    • Link to CDC report on interim guidance to health care providers on the use of PrEP as an HIV prevention strategy among men who have sex with men
                                                    • CDC studies TDF2s and Partner PrEP provide the first evidence that a daily oral dose of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection can also reduce HIV acquisition among uninfected individuals exposed to the virus through heterosexual sex.
                                                    • The annual number of new HIV infections in the United States was relatively stable at approximately 50,000 new infections each year between 2006 and 2009. However, HIV infections increased among young gay and bisexual men, driven by increases among young, black gay and bisexual men – the only subpopulation to experience a sustained increase during the time period. Link to CDC report on new HIV incidence estimates
                                                    • Link to CDC press release on fourth National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, CDC awars $55 million to 34 community-based organizations to expand HIV prevention for young gay and bisexual men of color and transgender youth of color
                                                    • Link to CDC vital signs report of people living with HIV
                                                    • Link to CDC launching Testing Makes Us Stronger, national HIV testing campaign for young African American gay and bisexual men
                                                    • NIH's HPTN 052 study results are released demonstrating that treatment reduces transmission of HIV by nearly 96% and ushers in the concept of "treatment as prevention."
                                                    • CDC transitions PEPFAR programs to Ministries of Health and indigenous organizations in 13 countries.
                                                      • CDC transitions its Track 1.0 Antiretroviral Therapy programs in 13 countries from US-based organizations and grantees to Ministries of Health and indigenous organizations.
                                                      • Link to CDC campaign on Take Charge. Take the Test. for HIV testing and awareness among African American women
                                                      • CDC convenes East African faith leaders for a meeting in Kenya to examine the role of faith-based organizations in the response to HIV/AIDS.
                                                      • Link to CDC report on pilot project to train pharmacists and retail store clinic staff to deliver confidential rapid HIV testing
                                                      • Link to CDC launch of Let's Stop HIV together campaign
                                                      • Link to CDC report showing only a quarter of Americans with HIV their virus under control
                                                      • Link to CDC interim guidance on use of medication to prevent HIV infection among heterosexually active adults
                                                      • Link to CDC vital sign report that young people between ages 13 and 24 represent 26% of new HIV infection each year


                                                      • June: CDC launches Reasons/Razones, a national, bilingual campaign that asks Latino gay and bisexual men to consider their reasons for getting tested for HIV.
                                                        • Link to CDC new campaign called Reasons/Razones for getting tested for HIV
                                                        • The "PEPFAR Stewardship and Oversight Act of 2013" reauthorizes PEPFAR,extends a number of existing authorities, and strengthens the oversight of the program through updated reporting requirements.
                                                        • February: CDC releases report showing about one-third of blacks living with HIV have their virus under control.
                                                          • Among blacks who have been diagnosed with HIV, 75 percent were linked to care, 48 percent stayed in care, 46 percent were prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and 35 percent achieved viral suppression. Link to CDC report showing about one-third of blacks living with HIV have their virus under control
                                                          • Link to CDC report for new clinical guidelines on health care providers considering PrEP for patients with substantial risk for HIV
                                                          • Start Talking. Stop HIV. encouraging gay and bisexual men to talk openly with their sexual partners about HIV risk and prevention strategies. Link to Start Talking Campaign
                                                          • We Can Stop HIV One Conversation at a Time, a bilingual communication campaign encouraging Latinos to talk openly about HIV with their families and friends. Link to We Can Stop HIV campaign
                                                          • HIV Treatment Works, encouraging treatment and care for people living with HIV. Link to HIV Treatment works campaign
                                                          • Declines were observed in several key populations, but increases were found among certain age groups of gay and bisexual men, especially young men. Link to CDC report on annual HIV diagnosis rate declined by 30% from 2002-2011
                                                          • Only half of gay and bisexual men diagnosed with HIV are receiving treatment for their infections. Link to CDC report that finds gaps in care and treatment among gay men diagnosed with HIV
                                                          • Among Latinos who have been diagnosed with HIV, just over half (54 percent) were retained in care. Fewer than half (44 percent) of those diagnosed have been prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and just 37 percent have achieved viral suppression. Link to CDC report that finds gaps in care and treatment among Latinos diagnosed with HIV
                                                          • Link to CDC report that only 30% of Americans with HIV had virus under control in 2011 and approximately two-thirds of those whose virus was not controlled had been diagnosed but were no longer in care



                                                          • February 25: 184 cases of HIV linked to injection drug use in Indiana.
                                                            • Indiana state health officials announce an HIV outbreak linked to injection drug use in the southeastern portion of the state. By the end of the year, Indiana will confirm 184 new cases of HIV linked to the outbreak.
                                                            • http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2130723
                                                            • http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6424a2.htm
                                                            • http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6439a2.htm
                                                            • http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6446a4.htm?s_cid=mm6446a4_w
                                                            • CDC announces that annual HIV diagnoses in the US fell by 19% from 2005-2014. There were steep declines among heterosexuals, people who inject drugs, and African Americans (especially black women), but trends for gay/bisexual men varied by race/ ethnicity. Diagnoses among white gay/bisexual men decreased by 18%, but they continued to rise among Latino gay/bisexual men and were up 24%. Diagnoses among black gay/bisexual men also increased (22%), but the increase has leveled off since 2010. https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/factsheets/hiv-data-trends-fact-sheet-508.pdf
                                                            • February: CDC announced lifetime risk of HIV at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunisitic Infections.
                                                              • CDC estimates that 1 in 2 gay/bisexual black men, 1 in 4 gay/ bisexual Latino men, and 1 in 6 gay/bisexual men will be diagnosed with HIV if current trends continue. The overall lifetime risk of HIV diagnosis in the United States is 1 in 99.
                                                              • Press release: http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-press-release-risk.html
                                                              • CDC releases study showing if PrEP use increases in high-risk populations, almost 20% of the estimated 265,330 new HIV infections expected to occur through 2020 could be prevented. The number could be even higher if NHAS targets are achieved.
                                                              • 1 in 10 HIV diagnoses are among people who inject drugs.
                                                              • The use of syringe services has increased, but access to sterile needles still needs to improve for effective HIV prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/hiv-drug-use/index.html

                                                              • February: CDC announces annual new HIV infections in the U.S. fell 18% between 2008 and 2014. The decline signals HIV prevention and treatment efforts are paying off, but not all communities are seeing the same progress.
                                                              • March: The first study of PrEP use by race and risk group shows that African Americans and Latinos account for the smallest percentage of prescriptions, despite comprisingm two-thirds of people who could potentially benefit from the preventive medicines.

                                                              • March: CDC publishes an article showing an association between increased PrEP coverage and decreased HIV diagnosis rates in recent years.
                                                                • Data table: https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/images/2018/hiv/PrEP-table_highres.jpg

                                                                * Estimates of persons living with HIV infection (diagnosed or undiagnosed) were derived by using back-calculation on HIV data for persons aged ≥13 years at diagnosis in the 50 states and the District of Columbia

                                                                ** The methodology to derive the estimated annual number of new HIV infections (also called HIV incidence) has changed over the years. From 1980 through 2006, numbers of HIV infections were calculated using back-calculation methodology. From 2006 through 2010, HIV infections were estimated from a statistical method that applied a stratified extrapolation approach using results from a test for recent HIV infection and HIV testing history data collected by jurisdictions that conducted HIV incidence surveillance.

                                                                *** The estimate of the number of persons diagnosed with HIV are based on HIV surveillance data for persons aged≥ 13 at time of diagnosis in the 50 states and District of Columbia.


                                                                Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1903.

                                                                On July 17, 1903, U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands Stanford Newel presented his credentials as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Luxembourg. He remained resident at the The Hague .

                                                                Change from The Hague to Brussels, 1923 .

                                                                On October 23, 1923, U.S. Ambassador to Belgium Henry P. Fletcher presented his credentials as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Luxembourg he remained resident at Brussels .

                                                                Closure of Legation Luxembourg, 1940 .

                                                                Germany occupied Luxembourg on May 10, 1940, and the American Legation closed on July 15, 1940.

                                                                Luxembourg Government in Canada, 1941 .

                                                                U.S. Ambassador to Canada Jay Pierrepont Moffat was accredited to the Government of Luxembourg in Canada he remained resident at Ottaw a.

                                                                Luxembourg Government in the United Kingdom, 1943 .

                                                                The Government of Luxembourg moved to the United Kingdom on October 14, 1943. Anthony J. Drexel Biddle Jr. presented his credentials to the Government of Luxembourg in London on November 12th but he departed London shortly thereafter. Although Rudolph E. Schoenfeld was appointed Chargé d’Affaires on March 21, 1944, he did not present his credentials before his appointment was superseded with the reestablishment of Legation Luxembourg.


                                                                Timeline of Compromises over Slavery

                                                                From the nation's very inception, the existence of slavery stood in glaring contrast to the ideals of liberty and justice expressed in the preamble to the Constitution. The Constitution itself protected the institution of slavery (while never actually using the word slave) through a number of compromises worked out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions. These constitutional compromises did not resolve the conflict, however, and Congress passed other compromises in an effort to prevent the young nation from breaking apart.

                                                                &ldquoWe the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.&rdquo

                                                                &mdashPreamble to the United States Constitution

                                                                The Constitution

                                                                The &ldquoThree-Fifths Compromise&rdquo provided a formula for calculating a state&rsquos population, in which three-fifths of &ldquoall other persons&rdquo (i.e., slaves) would be counted for purposes of representation and taxation. The Constitution also included a provision to ban the importation of slaves starting in 1808, and a fugitive slave clause requiring escaped slaves to be returned to their owners.

                                                                Fugitive Slave Act (1793)

                                                                Required that escaped slaves found in free states be caught and returned to their masters. The Act also denied freed slaves the right to a jury trial and other constitutional rights.

                                                                Missouri Compromise (1820)

                                                                Banned slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36° 30&rsquo parallel, except within the borders of the state of Missouri, which would be admitted as a slave state Maine to be admitted as a free state.

                                                                Second Missouri Compromise (1821)

                                                                Missouri was admitted as a state despite a provision in its constitution excluding &ldquofree negroes and mulattoes&rdquo from the state.

                                                                &ldquoGag rule&rdquo in Congress (1831-1844)

                                                                When abolitionists began submitting petitions about ending slavery to Congress, proslavery representatives passed a "gag rule" that prevented those petitions from being discussed.

                                                                Compromise of 1850

                                                                Necessary to determine whether slavery would be allowed in states created by the territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican-American War. California was admitted as a free state, while the Territory of New Mexico (including present-day Arizona and part of Nevada) allowed slavery. The Compromise also included a measure banning the slave trade (but not slavery itself) within the District of Columbia, as well as a new and more forceful Fugitive Slave Law.

                                                                Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

                                                                Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and provided that residents of those territories would vote to determine whether the two territories would allow slavery. This resulted in violence between pro-slavery and anti-slavery advocates who moved to the territories.

                                                                Crittenden Compromise (1860)

                                                                An unsuccessful attempt by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky to resolve the secession crisis by making concessions to slave states. Crittenden proposed a constitutional amendment to guarantee the permanent existence of slavery in the slave states along the boundaries established by the Missouri Compromise line.