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Lamson DD- 18 - History

Lamson DD- 18 - History


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Lamson
(DD-18; dp. 700; 1. 293'10"; b. 26': dr. 8': s. 28.6 k.:
cpl. 107; a. 4 3", 3 18" tt.; cl. Smith)

The first Lamson (DD-18) was laid down 18 March 1908 by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa.
launched 16 June 1909; sponsored by Mrs. Henry S. Gore, and commissioned 10 February 1910, Lt. Comdr. J. M. I,udy in command.

Assigned to the Atlantic Squadron, Lamson operahd along the east coast and in the Caribbean from 1910 until 1916 participating in torpedo exercises, fleet maneuvers, and coastal patrol. Departing Key West 7 May 1916, the destroyer arrived Dominican Republic 2 days later to support the U.S. Marines sent by President Wilson to protect American interests during the Dominican revolt.

She returned to Key West in mid-June before sailing on the 28th for Vera Cruz. She joined other American ships in Mexican waters as the Mexican political situation was still in turmoil. Foilowing her return to Rey West 11 July, Lamllon operated along the east coast and in the Gulf of Mexico until the United States entered World War I.

During the early months of the war she patrolled the coastline before preparing for oversee service. Arriving Delgada, Azores, 26 July 1917, the destroyer performed escort and patrol duty for the next 3 months. Lamson departed the Azores e October for escort operations out of Brest, France. She assisted survivors of Fim land on 28 October after the merchant ship had been torpedoed by a German submarine.

The destroyer continued escort and patrol operations for the rest of the war, and aided in the victory of Allied forces by neutralizing the German U-boat threat to convoys. After the Armistice Lameon departed Brest 11 December 1918 and arrived Charleston, S.C., 31 December. She decommissioned 16 July 1919 and was sold 21 November 1919.


U.S.S. SIERRA

USS Sierra (AD-18) was built by the Tampa Shipbuilding Company of Tampa, Florida. She was launched on 23 February 1943 and after fitting out was commissioned on 20 March 1944.

AD-18 was the second USS Sierra. The first USS Sierra as commerical passenger ship built in 1900. In 1918, she was aquired by the US Navy and named Sierra. She first carried troops to France and then returned them after the November 11, 1918 end of the war. She was returned to her pre-war service in 1919.

USS Sierra (AD-18) completed fitting out at Tampa and, on 13 April, sailed for Hampton Roads, Virginia, arriving there on 18 April. After a 10-day shakedown cruise in the Chesapeake Bay area and yard period, on 18 MAY 1944 USS Sierra sailed for the Panama Canal and began her service in the Pacific War against the Japanese. Sierra followed and supported the fleet as it adavnced across the Pacific. She was stationed at various times in Pearl Harbor, Manus Island in the Admiralties, Purvis Bay in the Solomon Islands, Ulithi Island in the Carolines, and Pedro Bay in the Philippines.

After the Japanese surrender in August 1945, USS Sierra called on Okinawa Incheon, Korea and Shanghai, China. She was on station in Shanghai from October 1945 to February 1946, then returned to San Francisco.

Post war USS Sierra remained attached to the Pacific Fleet, aternating State-side support of the fleet with deployment to the Far East. In June 1949 she left the Pacific by transiting the Panama Canal and taking up station in Norfolk, Virginia. From Norfolk she deployed twice to the Mediterranean, January 1950 to June 1950, then June to November 1951. The balance of the 1950s were spent in Norfolk and Hampton Roads area supporting the Atlantic Fleets destroyers. In June 1959 USS Sierra deployed to the Mediterranean returning to Norfolk in December 1959.

USS Sierra spent four months in Guantanamo Bay at the end of 1961, then in March 1962 started her FRAM II overhaul at Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Exiting NNSY in September 1961, she resumed her normal duties as THE SHIP WITH THE HELPING HANDS.

In January 1974, USS Sierras homeport was shifted to Charleston, South Carolina. From Chraleston she deployed twice to the Mediterranean. During late 1979, while undergoing overhaul in Mobile, Alabama, USS Sierras crew, commanded by CAPT. Stephen Kingsley, assisted in the cleanup of Mobile after Hurricane Frederick. After overhaul, in 1981, Sierra worked up at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

On October 15, 1993 USS Sierra was decommissioned. She was eventually scrapped.

The USS Sierra (AD-18) operational history and significant events of her service career follow:


Life Outdoors: This old knife (and fork)

Back in September 2011, a column was titled &ldquoThis Old Spoon.&rdquo It started as a riff on looking as brandmarks on some family keepsake spoons in the kitchen odds and ends drawer, then segued to not particularly valuable collectables, such as Indian clubs or ice tongs. The column has been reposted to www.maynardlifeoutdoors.com.

The spark for this week&rsquos column was Thanksgiving, a bird to carve (Cornish game hen for two rather than the traditional turkey for 10), and a close look at a carving knife and fork that have been in the family&rsquos possession since 1961. And not new then, but rather a kitchen drawer find in a purchased Pennsylvania summer cottage. Viewed through a magnifying glass, the knife&rsquos brandmark reads &ldquoLAMSON Stainless Steel, Made in USA&rdquo. The mark includes an oval with the company&rsquos symbol &mdash a ship&rsquos anchor entwined in rope.

The company&rsquos origin dates to 1834, when Silas Lamson (1778-1855) devised a way to mass-produce curved snaths (wooden handles) that greatly improved the ergonomic efficiency of scythes used to harvest hay and wheat. Three years later, he partnered with two of his sons, Nathanial and Ebenezer, and his wife&rsquos nephew, Abel Goodnow, to start the manufacturing firm of Lamson and Goodnow, in Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts. They hired skilled metalworkers from cutlery centers in Sheffield, England, and Solingen, Germany, and began manufacturing high quality agricultural implements, general-purpose knives and kitchenware, later adding fine tableware to their offerings. Silas died in 1855. Ebenezer had succeeded him as president of the company years earlier.

By the time of the Civil War, the company had become the largest cutlery manufacturer in the country, employing more than 500 workers to meet demand for its products. The company&rsquos annual purchases exceeded 200 tons of steel. Its catalogs depicted a vast variety of items with ivory, horn, bone or exotic wood handles. In 1869, a dinner set of 62 pieces was gifted to President Ulysses S. Grant, with half of the pieces set in mother-of-pearl handles and half in ivory.

During the postwar westward expansion, L&G knives went to fur trappers, buffalo hide skinners, sheep farmers, cattle ranchers, cowboys and the U.S. Calvary. The U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs bought thousands and thousands of blades for treaty reparations to western tribes. If someone were to ask what the most common knife found in the hands of a Plains Indian warrior would have been, odds were very high that it was from Lamson & Goodnow.

Good times did not last forever. Historical records suggest that by 1890 the Lamson and Goodnow families were no longer involved in the management of the company. Toward the middle to end of the 20th century, manufacturing jobs of all sorts fled New England. Competition for high-end kitchen knife manufacture continued to come from Germany and then also from Japan, tableware competition from Korea and China. Lamson filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2014. A year later, the firm was bought by Longmeadow Capital. The original 18-acre factory complex on the Deerfield River was sold. Production of kitchenware was moved to Westfield, Massachusetts. The company (www.lamson.com) retains a factory outlet store in Shelburne Falls.

Our carving set remains undated. An email query to Lamson yielded a quick but not-helpful reply. The company could not even identify when the brandmark changed from Lamson & Goodnow to just Lamson. Perhaps, what with the bankruptcy and relocation much in the way of historical archives were lost. Similar &mdash but not identical &mdash antler-handled sets can be found on Ebay for under $60, so our piece of history does not have a high monetary value. However, its nostalgic value ensures it will be passed to the next generation.

There is history, and there is history. Researching &ldquoLamson&rdquo as a business unearthed the information incorporated into the text above. But researching &ldquoSilas Lamson&rdquo as a person yielded an entirely different take on the backstory. Silas &ldquobecame known as an eccentric for his religious beliefs and personal appearance.&rdquo That is an understatement. He was an avid abolitionist and anti-Adventist. He cultivated a long white beard, took to wearing only white clothes, at times white robes, and was passionate to communicate his "firmness of purpose to unveil and ridicule all that he deemed ridiculous in law, custom and religion," preaching his beliefs wherever he could. He often brought a scythe with him when he spoke, causing concern amongst those charged with escorting him away from the podium so that others could speak.

Silas did not approve of government oversight. He was routinely placed in jail for failing to pay his tithes, and finally, due to his constant preaching, was condemned to the Worcester Lunatic Asylum for several years, until a court decision proclaimed his incarceration as a lunatic was illegal. Released (he said &ldquoThe angels let him out.&rdquo), Silas continued sharing his beliefs with others at every opportunity. Meanwhile, his son Ebenezer, who was only 23 years old when the knife company was founded in 1837, charted its course to its phenomenal success.

&mdash Mark is busy planting the last of this year&rsquos daffodil bulbs for Trail of Flowers.


18 GUILTY IN 'PIZZA CONNECTION' TRIAL

NEW YORK, MARCH 2 -- Eighteen men were convicted today of operating an international heroin and cocaine ring that distributed more than $1.6 billion in drugs through pizza parlors in the Northeast and Midwest.

The convictions of the men, who include former leaders of the Sicilian Mafia and the New York-based Bonnano crime family, follow the convictions late last year of the members of a ruling Mafia commission.

"It is a tremendous victory in the effort to crush the Mafia," U.S. Attorney Rudolph W. Giuliani said. "Five years ago nobody would have thought it possible to convict the head of the Sicilian Mafia and the head of a major part of an American Mafia family."

He added, "The impact on the Mafia of these cases has been devastating. If this continues, there's not going to be a Mafia."

The 17-month trial, known as the "Pizza Connection," was one of the longest criminal cases in federal court history. It involved 15,000 exhibits, surveillance in the United States and abroad and testimony from 250 witnesses that filled 41,000 pages of transcript.

One of the original defendants, Gaetano Mazzara, was murdered in an apparent gangland "rubout" in December. His bludgeoned body was found in a garbage bag on a Brooklyn Street. Another defendant, Pietro Alfano, 51, an Oregon, Ill., pizzeria owner, was shot on a Greenwich Village street last month.

Law enforcement officers have speculated that the killings were prompted by a feud between Sicilian and American defendants. Six men, including a reputed captain of the Gambino Mafia family, were arrested after the second killing.

Under the scheme, according to testimony, morphine paste was brought from Turkey to Sicily where it was converted in laboratories to heroin. The heroin was smuggled to the United States and distributed through pizzerias in New York, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin.

Lesser amounts of cocaine were imported from Latin America.

Profits from the massive decade-long operation were laundered through Swiss and Caribbean banks and accounts with Merrill Lynch and E.F. Hutton brokerage firms, according to testimony.

Assistant U.S. Attorney Louis Freeh had told the anonymous jury in closing arguments, "What made it work so well, so secretly, was the umbrella of the Mafia."

A key aspect of the case was the revelation of cooperation between Italian and American Mafia groups. One of the main defendants was Gaetano Badalamenti, former chief of the Sicilian Mafia, known in Italy as "the boss of bosses" until his ouster in 1978 in an internal struggle.

Giuliani said the convictions would not have been possible without unprecedented cooperation from the governments of Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Brazil, Turkey and Canada.

Robert Stutman, special agent in charge of the Drug Enforcement Administration, said the case "is one of the two or three largest heroin cases in the history of the country." The "French Connection" case, for example, involved 44 kilos of heroin. The "Pizza Connection" distributed as much as one metric ton of heroin.

Stutman said that as a result of this case and others, the Italian-American Mafia families today control less than half of the heroin trade, whereas three years ago they controlled 90 percent of the heroin available in New York.

Other criminal groups, including Orientals, Pakistanis, Indians and Nigerians have stepped in, he said, with Southeast Asian heroin increasing most significantly.

Badalamenti and the main American defendant, Bonnano family captain Salvatore Catalano, face up to life imprisonment without parole for narcotics conspiracy and racketeering. Of the other defendants, 11 were members and associates of the Sicilian Mafia and five of the Bonnano family. The only defendant acquitted was Badalamenti's son, Vito.


USS Semmes (DDG 18)

USS SEMMES - the second ship in the Navy to bear the name - was the 17th ship in the CHARLES F. ADAMS - class of guided missile destroyers and was homeported in Charleston, SC.

USS SEMMES was stricken from the navy list on September 13, 1991, and was given to Greece the same day. There, SEMMES was renamed KIMON and is still in service.

General Characteristics: Awarded: July 21, 1959
Keel laid: August 15, 1960
Launched: May 20, 1961
Commissioned: December 10, 1962
Decommissioned: September 12, 1991
Builder: Avondale Shipyards, Inc., New Orleans, La
Propulsion system: 4 - 1200 psi boilers 2 geared turbines
Propellers: two
Length: 437 feet (133.2 meters)
Beam: 47 feet (14.3 meters)
Draft: 20 feet (6.1 meters)
Displacement: approx. 4,500 tons
Speed: 31+ knots
Aircraft: none
Armament: two Mk 42 5-inch/54 caliber guns, Mk 46 torpedoes from two Mk-32 triple mounts, one Mk 16 ASROC Missile Launcher, one Mk 13 Mod.0 Missile Launcher for Standard (MR) and Harpoon Missiles
Crew: 24 officers and 330 enlisted

This section contains the names of sailors who served aboard USS SEMMES. It is no official listing but contains the names of sailors who submitted their information.


“West Memphis Three” released from prison after 18 years

On August 19, 2011, three men, Damien Echols, Jason Baldwin and Jessie Misskelley, who were convicted as teenagers in 1994 of the murders of three boys in Arkansas, are released from prison in a special legal deal allowing them to maintain their innocence while acknowledging that prosecutors had sufficient evidence to convict them. Echols, 36, had been on death row, while Baldwin, 34, and Misskelley, 36, were serving life sentences. Collectively known as the “West Memphis Three,” the men had always maintained their innocence, and questions about the evidence used to convict them had persisted for years. Their case attracted widespread attention and the support of a number of celebrities.

In May 1993, the bodies of three 8-year-old boys, Christopher Byers, Steve Branch and Michael Moore, were found naked and hog-tied in a drainage ditch in a wooded section of West Memphis, Arkansas. Investigators initially had few solid leads however, because the bodies appeared to have been mutilated, rumors circulated about a possible connection to satanic cult activities. A tip eventually led investigators to focus on the teenage Echols, a high school dropout who grew up poor, was interested in witchcraft and regularly wore black clothing. Then, Misskelley, an acquaintance of Echols, confessed to the murders following a lengthy interrogation by authorities, and implicated Echols and Baldwin. Described as having a below-average IQ, Misskelley provided information about the crime that conflicted in key ways from details known to the police, and he soon recanted his confession. Nevertheless, in February 1994, he was convicted of first- and second-degree murder, and sentenced to life in prison plus 40 years.


A Brief History Of The Worst 'Harry Potter And The Goblet Of Fire' Mistake Ever

Ten years ago today, on November 18, 2005, "Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire" officially released in theaters across the U.S., and there was much rejoicing.

But within two hours, a great cry had erupted from the Potter-loving masses. A cry of horror. A cry of outrage. A cry that would echo on the internet forever, because we still can't believe that happened.

And by "that," obviously, we mean the part immediately after Harry Potter's name emerges on the binding list of Tri-Wizard Tournament competitors, when Albus Dumbledore comes raging down the stairs, grabs Harry by the collar, and bellows, "HARRY! DID YOU PUT YOUR NAME IN THE GOBLET OF FIRE. "

Of all the things that got lost in translation when "Harry Potter" made the move from page to screen, this is the one screw-up that fans are still talking about. It's the gaffe that must not be named the Voldemort of mistakes.

And today, in honor of the movie's tenth anniversary, we're taking a closer look at it.

Needless to say, this scene played out pretty differently in J.K. Rowling's novel, where Dumbledore was described as asking the question calmly -- and where he definitely didn't pull that crazy shoulder-grabbing move, which probably terrified Harry and gave him a near-fatal case of shaken-wizard syndrome.

Truth: The GOBLEDDA FIYAH moment was just the most egregious example of the wise old wizard being portrayed in a way that was wildly out of character. J.K. Rowling's Dumbledore was ancient, wise, and always in quiet control (albeit infuriatingly vague at times.) Gambon's Dumbledore? Much more shouty. Like, at least 5000% more shouty.

Warner Bros.

The best-case scenario? Ignorance. Unlike Richard Harris (who played Dumbledore in the first two "Harry Potter" films before his death in 2002), Gambon has a personal policy against reading the books that he's starring in adaptations of -- which means he had no idea, going in, that Book Dumbledore was such a soft-spoken guy.

When asked about acting in the "Harry Potter" series, he famously replied, "I don’t have to play anyone really. I just stick on a beard and play me, so it’s no great feat." (So basically, that's not even Dumbledore we were watching. It's just Michael Gambon in a prosthetic beard.)

Hundreds of tweets, thousands of reblogs, and at least one "DID YA PUT YA NAME IN DA GOBLEDDAH FIYAH" Facebook group later, Michael Gambon had better hope he never ends up stuck in an elevator with one of the millions of fans who will hold a grudge about this for the rest of their lives.


Parallels In Time A History of Developmental Disabilities

In 1975, when Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, education for all children with disabilities changed dramatically. Regardless of the type or degree of disability, each school-aged child had the right to a "free appropriate public education."

This Act included "transportation, and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services (including speech pathology and audiology, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation and medical and counseling services, except that such medical services shall be for diagnostic and evaluation purposes only) as may be required to assist a child [with disabilities] to benefit from special education, and includes the early identification and assessment of handicapping conditions in children.

Children with a wide range of disabilities were now enrolled in public schools. A team of individuals, including parents and students, participated in the development of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) to assure that the unique needs of each student were met.

The IEP includes a statement of the student's present level of educational performance, a statement of annual goals, a statement of the specific educational services and related services to be provided and the extent to which the student will be able to participate in regular educational programs, the projected duration of services, and evaluation procedures for determining if the goals are being achieved. This team planning process gave parents an opportunity to have some influence over their child's education.


Video: IEP (Individual Education Plan) Transition Planning, Minnesota Department of Education, 1994

PGI 253.219-70 DD Form 2579, Small Business Coordination Record.

(a) Use the DD Form 2579 as prescribed in DFARS 219.201(10)(B).

(1) The Contracting Officer is responsible for the coordination and completion of the form.

(2) Coordination on this form is not required when the agency will satisfy a requirement through the use of a mandatory source listed at FAR 8.002 or FAR 8.003.

(c) Specific instructions for completion of DD Form 2579.

(1) BLOCK 1—CONTROL NO. Reserved for use by the Small Business Professional to create a unique identification number for each coordination record.

(2) BLOCK 2—PURCHASE REQUEST/REQUISITION NO. Locally assigned purchase request/requisition number.

(3) BLOCK 3—TOTAL ESTIMATED VALUE. Enter the total estimated value for the acquisition, including all options. For multiple award task or delivery order contracts, enter the total estimated value of the entire acquisition including all orders expected to be awarded.

(i) Block 4a—PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFIER (PIID). Enter the PIID assigned to the solicitation, contract, or order in Block 4a. (FAR 4.1601, DFARS 204.1601).

(ii) Block 4b—INDEFINITE DELIVERY VEHICLE (IDV) PIID. If applicable, enter the PIID assigned to the IDV against which the solicitation or order identified in Block 4a is issued.

(5) BLOCK 5—MODIFICATION/AMENDMENT NUMBER (MOD/AMDMT No.). Enter the contract or order modification number or solicitation amendment number. (FAR 4.1601, DFARS 204.1601).

(6) BLOCKS 6a through 6e—CONTRACTING OFFICER NAME, DOD ACTIVITY ADDRESS CODE (DODAAC), OFFICE SYMBOL, EMAIL ADDRESS, PHONE NO. Enter the appropriate information in Blocks 6a through 6e.

(i) BLOCK 7a—ITEM and/or SERVICE DESCRIPTION. Enter description of planned acquisition, including quantity, unique delivery requirements, and other descriptors. For services, include the type of service and place of performance, and attach a copy of the Performance Work Statement (PWS), Statement of Work (SOW), Statement of Objectives (SOO), or other specifications and statements as appropriate.

(ii) BLOCK 7b—PRODUCT OR SERVICE CODE (PSC). For the Product and Service Codes Manual, go to http://acquisition.gov.

(iii) BLOCK 7c—NORTH AMERICAN INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATION (NAICS) CODE. For the NAICS codes and definitions, go to http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics.

(iv) BLOCK 7d—SMALL BUSINESS SIZE STANDARD. For the applicable small business size standard, go to http://www.sba.gov/content/table-small-business-size-standards.

(8) BLOCK 8—PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE/DELIVERY DATES. Enter the estimated beginning and end dates.

(9) BLOCK 9—PURPOSE OF COORDINATION. Check one box indicating the purpose of the action being reviewed: Initial Coordination, Withdrawal (see FAR 19.506), or a Change to the form. Note: Any significant change in the acquisition strategy or plan described on this form will require reevaluation by the Small Business Professional and the Small Business Administration (SBA) Procurement Center Representative (PCR), if applicable.

(10) BLOCKS 10a through 10j—RECOMMENDATION. Check all that apply, e.g., a small business set-aside could also be a multiple-award. For Blocks 10c through 10d, attach justification if applicable in accordance with FAR 19.1306(a), and 19.1406(a), respectively.

(11) BLOCKS 11a through 11c:

(i) BLOCK 11a—ACQUISITION PLAN/MARKET RESEARCH. Attach the written acquisition plan (FAR 7.104(d)), if required, and the results of market research, including any resulting justification and approval (FAR 6.3) or sole source/brand name justification (FAR 13.106 or 13.501). Include findings that demonstrate efforts to locate qualified small business sources e.g., sources sought (FAR 5.205), requests for information synopses, or waivers to the nonmanufacturer rule (FAR 19.5) and attach additional pages as necessary).

(ii) BLOCK 11b—SYNOPSIS REQUIRED. Check “Yes” or “No.” If “No,” provide explanation and the exception under FAR 5.202, if applicable.

(iii) BLOCK 11c—SMALL BUSINESS PROGRESS PAYMENTS. Check “Yes” or “No” (DFARS 232.501-1(a)).

(12) BLOCK 12—CONSOLIDATED OR BUNDLED. Select either “Consolidated” or “Bundled,” and check “Yes” or “No” for each. If “Yes,” attach required documentation for consolidation or bundling (FAR 7.107).

(13) BLOCK 13—SUBCONTRACTING PLAN REQUIRED. Check “Yes” or “No.” For recommendations 10g, 10h, or 10i, or if Block 12 recommendation is “Yes,” specify actions that will be taken to maximize small business participation. Consider requirements of FAR 19.7, acquisition history, anticipated subcontracting goals, market research to identify small business capability at the subcontract level, source selection evaluation factor for small business utilization (DFARS 215.304 , 215.305), incentives, contract performance metrics, etc. State detailed objectives for subcontract (attach additional pages as necessary).

(14) BLOCKS 14a through 14c—ACQUISITION HISTORY:

(i) BLOCK 14a—NEW REQUIREMENT. Check “Yes” or “No” and follow the applicable guidance for each selection.

(ii) BLOCK 14b—PREVIOUSLY CONSOLIDATED OR BUNDLED. Check “Yes” or “No” for each. If “Yes,” attach required documentation for previous acquisition.

(iii) BLOCK 14c—DETAILS OF PREVIOUS AWARD(S). For each contractor that received an award for any portion of the immediately preceding acquisition, include the following information—

—Small business socioeconomic categories of the awardee.

—NAICS code and size standard.

—Subcontracting History. (Small business subcontracting goal achievement (CPARS and eSRS data) and any additional small business utilization requirements included in the contract resulting from a source selection factor used when making the previous contract award.)

(15) BLOCK 15a through 15d—CONTRACTING OFFICER SIGNATURE. Complete 15a through 15d. Digital signature is desired.

(16) BLOCKS 16 through 16f—SMALL BUSINESS PROFESSIONAL/SMALL BUSINESS DIRECTOR REVIEW. Complete 16 through 16f. Digital signature is desired. If “non-concur” is checked, attach rationale or include in Block 16f, along with any other remarks. Block 16e must be completed when any of the conditions in FAR 19.202-1(e) applies to indicate when the acquisition package was provided to the Small Business Administration (SBA).

(17) BLOCKS 17 through 17e—SBA PROCUREMENT CENTER REPRESENTATIVE (PCR) REVIEW. Complete 17 through 17e (see FAR 19.402(a) when a PCR is not assigned to the contracting activity or administration office). Digital signature is desired. If “non-concur” is checked, the PCR shall attach rationale and recommendations or include in Block 17e, along with any other remarks (see FAR 19.402).

(18) BLOCKS 18 through18c—CONTRACTING OFFICER REVIEW. The Contracting Officer shall complete this block if the Small Business Professional and/or the SBA PCR have “non-concurred” in Blocks 16 and 17. Block 18c shall include the Contracting Officer’s rationale for decision. Send copies of the completed form to the Small Business Professional and the SBA PCR within 5 working days if rejecting the PCR’s recommendation, in accordance with FAR 19.505.


Contents

Mahan displaced 1,500 long tons (1,524 t) at the standard load and 1,725 long tons (1,753 t) at the deep load. The ship's overall length was 341 feet 3 inches (104.0 m), the beam was 35 feet 6 inches (10.8 m) and her draft was 10 feet 7 inches (3.2 m). She was powered by two of General Electric's geared steam turbines, which developed a total of 46,000 shaft horsepower (34,000 kW) for a maximum speed of 37 knots (69 km/h 43 mph). Four Babcock & Wilcox or four Foster Wheeler water-tube boilers generated the superheated steam needed for the turbines. Mahan carried a maximum of 523 long tons (531 t) of fuel oil, with a range of 6,940 nautical miles (12,850 km 7,990 mi) at 12 knots (22 km/h 14 mph). Her peacetime complement was 158 officers and enlisted men. [1] The wartime complement increased to approximately 250 officers and enlisted men. [2]

Mahan had a tripod foremast and a pole mainmast. To improve the anti-aircraft field of fire, the tripod foremast was constructed without nautical rigging. [3] In silhouette, the ship was similar to the larger Porter class that immediately preceded her. [4] She was fitted with the first emergency diesel generators, replacing the storage batteries of earlier destroyers. Gun crew shelters were built fore and aft for the superimposed weapons. A third quadruple set of torpedo tubes was added, with one mount on the centerline and two in the side positions. This required relocating one 5 inch/38 caliber gun to the aft deckhouse. Mahan incorporated a new generation of land-based steam propulsion machinery. With boiler pressures increasing to 600 PSI (pounds per square inch), and high-pressure turbines that had double reduction gears, which ran faster and more efficiently than that of her predecessors. [3]

The main battery of Mahan consisted of five 5 inch/38 caliber guns, later four in 1942, equipped with the Mark 33 ship gun fire-control system. [1] Each gun was dual-purpose, configured for surface and aerial targets. [3] Her anti-aircraft battery originally had four water-cooled .50 caliber machine guns. [5] The ship was fitted with three quadruple torpedo-tube mounts for twelve 21 inch (533 mm) torpedoes, guided by the Mark 27 torpedo fire-control system. [1] Depth charge roll-off racks were rigged on the stern of the ship. [6]

In early 1942, the Mahan-class destroyers began a wartime armament refitting process, but most of the class was not fully refitted until 1944. Mahan was refitted in June 1944 at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard. [7] The notable refits to the Mahan-class included the removal of one 5 inch/38 gun, typically replaced with two twin Bofors 40 mm guns and five 20 mm Oerlikon guns. [8]

Mahan was built by United Dry Docks (successor to the Morse Dry Dock and Repair Company) in Staten Island, New York. Her keel was laid down on 12 June 1934 and she was launched on 15 October 1935, sponsored by Kathleen H. Mahan (the admiral's great-granddaughter). The ship was commissioned on 18 September 1936, with Commander J. B. Waller in command. The ship departed for Caribbean and South American ports within two months of her commission, combining her initial training and shakedown cruise with a goodwill tour. She remained in the Atlantic until July 1937, then headed to the Southern California coast for fleet training before steaming to her new station at Pearl Harbor. [9]

Rising tension between Japan and the United States stretched back to 1931 with Japan's invasion of Manchuria in the Mukden Incident. Japan's continued aggression, instigating the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and invading French Indochina in 1940—to which the United States and European powers responded with embargoes on iron and oil imports—further heightened the tension. The Japanese thereafter decided to attack the Western powers in Asia, beginning with a surprise attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor. [10] [11] [12] When the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, Mahan was at sea with the aircraft carrier Lexington, three cruisers and four destroyers as part of Task Force 12. [9] Lexington ' s mission was to ferry Marine aircraft to reinforce Midway Island. [13] After news of the attack on Pearl Harbor, the task-force commander received orders to terminate the ferry mission and to search for the Japanese strike force. Unable to locate them, the task force returned to Pearl Harbor on 12 December. [9]

She put to sea in late December with 103 Marines to reinforce their detachment at Johnston Island (about 750 nautical miles—860 miles, or 1,390 km—west of Hawaii), and evacuated 47 civilians to Hawaii the following month. [14] A convoy assignment took Mahan to Samoa, where she joined Task Force 17 (including the carrier Yorktown, two cruisers and five destroyers). The task force carried out raids on Jaluit Atoll, Mili Atoll and Makin Atoll (Butaritari) in the Marshall Islands and Gilbert Islands. [15] Mahan moved on to Canton Island in late February 1942, temporarily assigned to offshore patrol duty. [16] By early April, she was at sea with a convoy bound for San Pedro, California. The ship then steamed north to the Mare Island Naval Shipyard for overhaul, docking on 18 April 1942. [17]

Mahan was back operating in the waters off Pearl Harbor in August 1942. [9] By mid-October, she had steamed out of Pearl Harbor as part of Task Force 16 with the carrier Enterprise, the battleship South Dakota, two cruisers and seven destroyers. On 24 October they joined Task Force 17, which included the carrier Hornet, four cruisers and six destroyers. [18] The two carrier groups formed Task Force 61 under the command of Rear Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid, and was ordered to the Santa Cruz Islands to strike the Japanese if they moved on Guadalcanal. [19]

After the task force anchored off the islands on the morning of 26 October, Enterprise ' s search planes spotted the enemy carrier force and dropped two 500-pound bombs on the Japanese aircraft carrier Zuiho, setting the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands in motion. When it subsided, the Navy had lost 74 aircraft, the carrier Hornet and one destroyer Enterprise, South Dakota, one cruiser and one destroyer were damaged. The Japanese lost about 100 aircraft, but their ship casualties were much lower. Nimitz and Halsey expressed their satisfaction with Kinkaid's force and their battle against heavy odds, and the destroyers in the Hornet and Enterprise screens were commended for a stellar effort. [19]

En route to Noumea, New Caledonia, on 27 October, a Japanese submarine contact caused the American ships to take evasive action. In the confusion, Mahan and battleship South Dakota collided: both ships were seriously damaged. Commander R. W. Simpson was Mahan's captain at the time, having taken command in early 1941. [19] Temporary repairs were made to Mahan at Noumea, and she headed back to Pearl Harbor for a new bow. [9]

Fully repaired, Mahan left Pearl Harbor on 9 January 1943 for the South Pacific. In subsequent months she escorted convoys between the New Hebrides and the Fiji Islands, performed patrol assignments off New Caledonia, and engaged in operations in Australian waters. [9] By August her base of operations was Milne Bay, New Guinea, which along with Buna, Papua New Guinea, was used as a staging area for an advance to gain possession of the Japanese-held northeast coast of New Guinea. [20] The operation began in August 1943, with plans to strike Lae, New Guinea. Two weeks earlier, Mahan, under Lieutenant Commander James T. Smith, and three other US destroyers had cleared the Lae approaches and the waters between Salamaua and Finschhafen, bombarding Japanese installations at Finschhafen. [21] In early September the Lae Task Force, under Rear Admiral Daniel E. Barbey, left Milne Bay for Lae with 8,000 Australian troops. By the evening of 4 September, the troop landing was completed. On 11 September Salamaua was under Allied control, and Lae was taken by 16 September. Mahan and other US destroyers had provided cover for the amphibious landings. [22]

Defeated at Lae, the Japanese pulled back to Finschhafen, which the Americans and Australians chose as the site of their next offensive. [23] On 21 September an assault force under Barbey left Buna, escorted by US destroyers including Mahan, and stopped at Lae to pick up an Australian infantry brigade. Additional US destroyers were attached to the force, preceding the convoy to the rendezvous point. [24] On 22 September, before daylight, the amphibious force stormed the beach at Finschhafen by noon, all troops were ashore. [23] As the destroyers began to withdraw from the area, ten Japanese torpedo planes winged across the water, targeting Mahan and five other US destroyers. The ships returned fire, shooting down eight of the ten planes the remaining two escaped. This scrimmage ended without any hits by enemy planes. [24] By 2 October, Finschhafen was in the hands of the Allies. [25]

On 14 December 1943, the amphibious force led by Barbey mustered at Buna, New Guinea, in preparation for the landing at Arawe, New Britain. With it was a bombardment group, composed of Mahan and four other US destroyers. [26] Setting sail on the 14th, the force dropped anchor off Arawe early the next morning, and Mahan and her sister ships bombarded the Japanese shore defenses at the main landing point. The shelling from the 5"/38 guns and the bazooka-fired rockets sent the Japanese into retreat, and by mid-morning the beachhead was secured. [27] Christmas 1943 found Mahan steaming with Barbey's amphibious force to Borgen Bay, near Cape Gloucester, New Britain. [28] The entrance to Borgen Bay was risky, with uncharted waters Mahan and Flusser were picked to sound out the channel and mark the way. They moved through the channel, with two minesweepers laying buoys in their wake. The force shadowed the buoys, and made its way through the passage. [29] On the morning of the 26th, the Marines landed on the beach unopposed. The Japanese struck forcefully later that afternoon, but the Americans would not be dislodged. [30]

In late February 1944, Mahan was in action with the Seventh Fleet supporting the troop landing at Los Negros Island in the Admiralty Islands. Although the supporting ships came under heavy fire, the troops made it ashore. Three weeks later, the Japanese force at Los Negros was defeated. [31]

In early 1944, after extended wartime duty in the Pacific, the veteran destroyer was ordered to California for overhaul and moored again at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard. Mahan left the yard in early July for Pearl Harbor, participating in exercises there until 15 August. She returned to New Guinea on 20 October via Eniwetok, Jaluit, Guam, Saipan and Ulithi, escorting convoys between Hollandia (Jayapura) and Leyte. By the end of November 1944, Mahan was performing anti-submarine patrol off Leyte in the Philippines. [9]

In November 1944, bad weather and hostile terrain bogged down the ground campaign to seize Leyte from the Japanese. The chief impediment to retaking Leyte was the Japanese ability to reinforce and resupply its headquarters at Ormoc City, on the west side of Leyte, and the Americans' inability to counter this advantage. [32] Thus, the unavoidable decision was made for an amphibious attack on Ormoc. [33]

On the morning of 7 December 1944, three years to the day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, troops of the US 77th Infantry Division landed south of Ormoc City. At the same time, Mahan was patrolling the channel between Leyte and Ponson Island. [34] The amphibious strike by the infantry met with little opposition, but nine Japanese bombers and four escort fighters converged on Mahan. [35] In Kamikaze (1997), Raymond Lamont-Brown wrote: "Observers were to record of this, one of the most unusual and devastating of kamikaze assaults of 1944, that the Japanese aircraft used torpedo-launching tactics, but when they had been hit . they switched to kamikaze attacks, diving on Mahan". [36] During the assault, US Army fighters downed three Japanese aircraft and damaged two more. Mahan shot down four but took three direct kamikaze hits, [35] as David Sears observed in At War With the Wind (2008), ". the most calamitous [being] a direct hit to the superstructure near the No. 2 gun." [37]

Exploding and awash in flames, Mahan was turned by Commander E. G. Campbell toward the picket line in a last hope to save her before issuing the order to abandon ship. The destroyers Lamson and Walke rescued the survivors one officer and five men were missing, and thirteen seriously wounded (including burns). A US destroyer sank Mahan with torpedoes and gunfire because she was not salvageable. [38]

Mahan’s captain praised the performance of his crew during the ordeal. He described their response as disciplined and courageous. [39]

Mahan received five battle stars for her World War II service. [9]