History Podcasts

Martin H. Ray DE-338 - History

Martin H. Ray DE-338 - History

Martin H. Ray DE-338

Martin H. Ray

Martin H. Ray, Jr., was born 9 August 1913, in Philadelphia, Pa., and educated in Yonkers, -N.Y. After 1 year at New York University he entered the Naval Academy, graduating with the class of 1934. Following 5 years service on battleship Pennsylvania, he received orders to Hanmmann. in 1939. While assisting the stricken Yorktown in the last stages of the Battle of Midway, 6 June 1942, Hammann took a torpedo, Lieutenant Ray as engineering

officer was lost attempting to save the rapidly sinking vessel and evacuate the space below decks. The Navy Cross was awarded "For extraordinary heroism and extreme disregard of personal safety . ."

(DE-338; dp. 1,200; 1. 306'; b. 36'7"; dr. 8'7"; s. 21 k.; cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 6 40mm., 10 20mm., 2 dct. 8 dcp., 1 dcp.

(h.h.) ; cl. Edsall)

Martin H. Ray (DE-338) was laid down 27 October 1943 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, Tex.; launched 23 December 1943; sponsored by Mrs. M. H. Ray, Jr., widow of Lt. Ray, and commissioned 28 February 1944, Lt. V. Tucker, Jr., in command.

After a month's shakedown cruise to Bermuda, Martin H. Ray spent 3 weeks at Norfolk training prospective destroyer-escort crews. June 1944 marked the beginning of a 12-month period in which not one ship was lost by the 14 convoys she escorted. Coastal assignments yielded to transatlantic voyages when she sailed from Norfolk, I July, bound for Naples. After two voyages to Italy she departed New York 29 October on the first of five voyages to the British Isles and France. Besides depth charging every probable submarine contact Martin H. Ray and the other escorts honed their professional effectiveness by additional training periods at the conclusion of each of these passages.

Following Nazi Germany's collapse, new orders directed the ship to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, for training before joining the Pacific Fleet. She transited the Panama Canal. 2 August 1945, and was at Pearl Harbor when the conflict ceased An abbreviated "Magic Carpet" voyage terminated at San Diego, 11 September, with the debarkation of 58 military passengers. Two days later she sailed to the Philadelphia Navy Yard to prepare for assignment to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. Martin H. Ray decommissioned in March 1946, at Green Cove Springs, Fla., and was ,truck from the Navy list 1 May 1966. The following September she was scrapped.


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Contents

The historic periodic table was roughly ordered by increasing atomic weight, but in a few famous cases the physical properties of two elements suggested that the heavier ought to precede the lighter. An example is cobalt having a weight of 58.9 and nickel having an atomic weight of 58.7.

Henry Moseley and other physicists used x-ray diffraction to study the elements, and the results of their experiments led to organizing the periodic table by proton count.

Since the spectral emissions for the heavier elements would be in the soft X-ray range (absorbed by air), the spectrometry apparatus had to be enclosed inside a vacuum. [4] Details of the experimental setup are documented in the journal articles "The High-Frequency Spectra of the Elements" Part I [1] and Part II. [2]

Moseley found that the K α > lines (in Siegbahn notation) were indeed related to the atomic number, Z. [2]

Following Bohr's lead, Moseley found that for the spectral lines, this relationship could be approximated by a simple formula, later called Moseley's Law.

Moseley derived his formula empirically by line fitting the square roots of the X-ray frequencies plotted by atomic number, [2] and his formula could be explained in terms of the Bohr model of the atom.

It is assumed that the final energy level is less than the initial energy level.

Considering the empirically found constant that approximately reduced (or apparently "screened") the energy of the charges, Bohr's formula for Moseley's K α > X-ray transitions became:

or (dividing both sides by h to convert E to ν ):

ν = E h = m e q e 4 8 h 3 ε 0 2 ( 3 4 ) ( Z − 1 ) 2 = ( 2.47 ⋅ 10 15 H z ) ( Z − 1 ) 2 >=>q_< ext>^<4>><8h^<3>varepsilon _<0>^<2>>>left(<4>> ight)(Z-1)^<2>=(2.47cdot 10^<15> mathrm )(Z-1)^<2>,>

The coefficient in this formula simplifies to a frequency of 3 / 4h Ry, with an approximate value of 2.47 × 10 15 Hz .

A simplified explanation for the effective charge of a nucleus being one less than its actual charge is that an unpaired electron in the K-shell screens it. [7] [8] An elaborate discussion criticizing Moseley's interpretation of screening can be found in a paper by Whitaker [9] which is repeated in most modern texts.

A list of experimentally found X-ray transitions is available at NIST. [5] Theoretical energies can be computed to a much greater accuracy than Moseley's law using a particle physics simulation method such as Dirac-Fock. [10]


Martin H. Ray DE-338 - History

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Little Rock School Desegregation

Three years after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal, nine African American students—Minnijean Brown, Terrance Roberts, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls—attempted to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. The students, known as the Little Rock Nine, were recruited by Daisy Bates, president of the Arkansas branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). As president of the Montgomery Improvement Association, Martin Luther King wrote President Dwight D. Eisenhower requesting a swift resolution allowing the students to attend school.

On 4 September 1957, the first day of school at Central High, a white mob gathered in front of the school, and Governor Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the black students from entering. In response to Faubus’ action, a team of NAACP lawyers, including Thurgood Marshall, won a federal district court injunction to prevent the governor from blocking the students’ entry. With the help of police escorts, the students successfully entered the school through a side entrance on 23 September 1957. Fearing escalating mob violence, however, the students were rushed home soon afterward.

Observing the standoff between Faubus and the federal judiciary, King sent a telegram to President Eisenhower urging him to “take a strong forthright stand in the Little Rock situation.” King told the president that if the federal government did not take a stand against the injustice it would “set the process of integration back fifty years. This is a great opportunity for you and the federal government to back up the longings and aspirations of millions of peoples of good will and make law and order a reality” (King, 9 September 1957). Aware that the Little Rock incident was becoming an international embarrassment, Eisenhower reluctantly ordered troops from the Army’s 101st Airborne Division to protect the students, who were shielded by federal troops and the Arkansas National Guard for the remainder of the school year. In a 25 September telegram, King praised the president’s actions: “I wish to express my sincere support for the stand you have taken to restore law and order in Little Rock, Arkansas.… You should know that the overwhelming majority of southerners, Negro and white, stand firmly behind your resolute action” (Papers 4:278).

At the end of the school year, Ernest Green became the first African American to graduate from Central High School. King attended his graduation ceremony. In honor of their momentous contributions to history and the integration of the Arkansas public school system, in 1958 the Little Rock Nine were honored with the NAACP’s highest honor, the Spingarn Medal.

Before schools opened in the fall of 1958, Faubus closed all four of Little Rock’s public high schools rather than proceed with desegregation, but his efforts were short lived. In December 1959, the Supreme Court ruled that the school board must reopen the schools and resume the process of desegregating the city’s schools.


Collier County Tax Collector

Welcome to our website.
I’m Rob Stoneburner, your Collier County Tax Collector.

Our Mission

This website places our office and its services at your fingertips. It is continuously being updated to provide you, the tax payer, with the latest information available. It has been designed to answer many of the most frequently asked questions we receive. Through this website, you can also make payment for several services we offer. Please take a minute to look it over.

If you still have an unanswered question, you can call or visit any of our offices. All locations, telephone numbers, and business hours are listed under the “Locations” tab.

Whether you email, call, or visit, I guarantee you will receive answers.


Mission

The HistoryMakers is a national 501(c)(3) non-profit research and educational institution committed to preserving and making widely accessible the untold personal stories of both well-known and unsung African Americans. Through the media and a series of user-friendly products, services and events, The HistoryMakers enlightens, entertains and educates the public, helping to refashion a more inclusive record of American history.

Background

Since 1999, The HistoryMakers has been recording African American oral histories to refashion a more inclusive record of American history and to educate and enlighten millions worldwide.

What is the mission of The HistoryMakers?
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Find the answers to frequently asked questions here.

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Our work is guided by some of the best minds in the country and it takes talent, commitment, passion, hard work and a team to do what we do.

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Namesake

Martin H. Ray Jr. was born on 9 August 1913, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was educated in Yonkers, New York. After one year at New York University he entered the U.S. Naval Academy, graduating with the class of 1934. Following five years service on the battleship USS Pennsylvania, he received orders to USS Hammann in 1939.

While assisting the stricken USS Yorktown in the last stages of the Battle of Midway on 6 June 1942, Hammann was hit by an Imperial Japanese Navy torpedo. Lieutenant Ray as engineering officer died attempting to save the rapidly sinking vessel and evacuate the space below decks. He was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross.


How Martin Luther King Jr.'s Children Are Carrying on His Legacy 50 Years After His Death

B ernice King, the youngest daughter of Martin Luther King Jr., spent more than 30 years resisting her father’s teachings.

“Initially, I rejected him. What I mean by that is, I spent time in my late teenage years to my early- to mid-30s purposely not studying him myself,” she told TIME. She was just 5 years old when Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and killed on April 4, 1968, and she was raised with consistent reminders of the work he had started during his life.

“What I didn&rsquot want to be is a mini-Martin Luther King Jr., in the sense that I was just spouting out these things from my head,” she said. “I wanted them to be a part of my heart. I had to discover me first, so that if I adopted any of him, it would be genuine and it wouldn&rsquot be something that I was just doing because I heard it or because it was just the right thing to do. I believe and subscribe to these things from the depth of my soul.”

Wednesday marks 50 years since Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination. Since then, his four children, three of whom are alive today, have faced the challenge of growing up without their father and within his shadow, becoming their own people while carrying on his legacy and that of their mother, who died in 2006. (Yolanda King, their sister, died in 2007.) They’ve each done that in their own ways, switching off as leaders of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change and speaking out on issues from gun control and voting rights to climate change and President Trump&rsquos rhetoric.

Bernice King, a minister who has served as CEO of the King Center since 2012, set out to study her father’s work later in life, seeking guidance on the problems facing the country today. She is most drawn to sharing his beliefs on nonviolence &mdash “one of the greatest aspects of his legacy.&rdquo And she sees it as her primary responsibility now to “bring along others to embrace it as a lifestyle,” visiting schools and speaking to students about nonviolence through the King Center.

Her older brother, Martin Luther King III, a human rights and civil rights activist, focuses on what his father once called the “triple evils” of poverty, racism and militarism. “I think a culture of nonviolence will help create the condition where poverty is unacceptable, where racism is way behind us and not something that we have to deal with on a frequent basis, and where militarism and violence are reduced almost to be nonexistent,” he told TIME.

When he thinks about the renewed threat of nuclear war amid tensions with North Korea, he remembers his father&rsquos warning that the alternative to nonviolence is nonexistence. He is planning to launch an initiative this year promoting nonviolence with members of Mahatma Gandhi&rsquos and Nelson Mandela&rsquos families.

His 9-year-old daughter, Yolanda Renee King, the only grandchild of Martin Luther King Jr., spoke at the March for Our Lives last month to call for an end to gun violence. “My grandfather had a dream that his four little children will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character,” she said to a crowd of hundreds of thousands. “I have a dream that enough is enough, and that this should be a gun-free world.” Martin Luther King III said she came up with the words herself, having heard her grandfather’s speech many times before.


The Home Is Where Our Story Begins

Self-reliance. Resilience. Tireless optimism. These are the traits of our customers. We built The Home Depot for them, to provide them with the products, services and knowledge they need to create the homes of their dreams. Decades later, they’re still the No. 1 reason we wear the orange apron. Our story, now almost 40 years in the making, is also theirs.

Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank dreamed up The Home Depot from a coffee shop in Los Angeles in 1978. Avid DIYers, they envisioned a superstore that would offer a huge variety of merchandise at great prices and with a highly trained staff. Employees would not only be able to sell, but they would also be able to walk customers at every skill level through most any home repair or improvement.

With help from investment banker Ken Langone and merchandising guru Pat Farrah, Marcus and Blank opened the first two Home Depot stores in Atlanta the following year. The 60,000-square-foot warehouses dwarfed the competition with more items than any other hardware store. But the heart of Home Depot was the expertly trained floor associates who could teach customers how to handle a power tool, change a fill valve or lay tile. It wasn’t enough to sell or even tell — associates also had to be able to show. Soon, The Home Depot began offering DIY clinics, customer workshops and one-on-one sessions with customers.

Marcus and Blank implemented a customer “bill of rights,” which stated that customers should always expect the best assortment, quantity and price, as well as the help of a trained sales associate, when they visit a Home Depot store. These commitments were an extension of the company’s “whatever it takes” philosophy.

But that philosophy extended beyond the store walls. After The Home Depot went public in 1981, Marcus and Blank made a commitment to give back to the communities where their stores were located. Following through on that commitment, legions of Team Depot volunteers, backed by The Home Depot Foundation, work tirelessly on their own free time to help our nation’s veterans and communities across the country.

From those two stores in Atlanta, Home Depot has grown to more than 2,200 stores in three countries, but in every store, our goal is the same: to earn our customers’ respect by offering the highest level of service, the broadest selection of products and the most competitive prices. As Marcus says in his and Blank’s book, “Built From Scratch,” “At the end of the day, we’re in the people business.”


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