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|1962 Agreement Establishes Malaysia Federation An agreement was reached on the establishment of a Malaysian federation comprising Malaysia, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and British Borneo. The agreement was signed in London, and was to go into effect on September 16, 1963.|
|1962 Border War between China and India China and India disputed their mutual border. The terrain was mountainous and often difficult to defend. In 1962, battles broke out between the two countries. On October 20, China launched a full scale attack on Indian positions. The Chinese routed the Indians, and India asked for US support. Two days later, the Chinese announced that they were implementing a cease-fire and withdrawing.|
|1962 Burundi Becomes Independent Burundi was a part of Belgian Mandated Territory. It petitioned the U.N. for full independence, which was granted in 1962. Burundi remained under the domination of the Tutsi tribe.|
|1962 Uganda Gains Independence From Great Britian Upon Uganda's achieving independence, Milton Obote became the first leader. A federal form of government was enacted in order to insure the rights of the King of Uganda, Edward Mutesa.|
|1962 Israel Finds Adolf Eichman Guilty Adolf Eichmann was in charge of the Jewish Department of the Nazi SS (Gestapo). As such, he was directly responsible for carrying out the Nazi's "final solution" - the extermination of European Jewry.|
After World War II, Eichmann fled to South America. In May 1960, Eichmann was captured by Israel's Intelligence Agency (the Mossad), smuggled out of Argentina and brought to Israel to stand trial.
Eichmann's trial began on April 11, 1961, at Binyanei Ha Uma, in Jerusalem. A special bullet-proof cage was built for Eichmann's protection. After a 14-week trial, Eichmann was convicted and sentenced to die for crimes against humanity.
After his appeal was denied, Eichmann was executed on May 31, 1962, making him the only person ever officially executed by the State of Israel.
|1962 Algeria Granted Independence Algerian Nationalists, organized in the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale), began an armed rebellion against French rule in Algeria. The rebellion gained momentum throughout the 1950's. After DeGaulle became President of France in 1959, he offered Algeria the option of a referendum to determine whether the people wanted independence from France. Cease-fire negotiations began between the government and the FLN.|
French Nationalists attempted to derail the peace process, staging two revolts in Algeria: the first in 1960, and the second in 1961. The revolt by the OAS (Organization de L'Armée Secrete) was suppressed in a few days, but the OAS continued to oppose the independence of Algeria until the bitter end.
On July 1, Algerians voted overwhelmingly for independence. On July 3, Algeria declared its independence. In September, Be Bella became Premier.
|1962 Steel Prices Rolled Back The steel industry voluntarily rolled back its prices. It did this after President Kennedy exerted both public and private pressure to do so. He stated publicly that it was unacceptable for a tiny handful of steel executives to show utter contempt for the American people.|
|1962 US Commitment to Vietnam Deepens The US commitment to Vietnam grew in early 1962 as troop strength was increased to 8,000 men. President Kennedy gave the order to US troops to fire on the Viet Cong if they encountered hostile fire themselves.|
|1962 Prayer Unconstitutional in School In the decision of Engel v. Vitale, the US Supreme Court ruled that state-sponsored prayer in schools was unconstitutional. The Court did not outlaw prayer in school entirely, only school-sponsored prayer. The Supreme Court decision launched a controversy that has continued unabated until today.|
|1962 Environment Movement Launched Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring, was published in September 1962. By describing the effects of the use of pesticides and other chemicals on the enviroment, Carson launched the enviromental movement.|
|1962 First Black at University of Mississpi Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black ordered the immediate admittance of James Meredith to the University of Mississippi. Mississippi's governor, Ross Barnett, attempted to bar Meredith's entry. President Kennedy, however, federalized the National Guard, which then forced his admittance.|
|1962 First American in Space On July 21, Alan Shepard became the first American in space. Shepard's flight lasted only 15 minutes. Earlier in the year, President Kennedy had announced the goal of landing a man on the moon by the end of the decade, and on February 20, 1962, John Glenn became the first American to go into orbit.|
|1962 Cuban Missile Crisis In late August, 1962, American spy planes detected the building of missile sights in Cuba. Initially the government believed that these sites were defensive in nature. In fact, the Soviets, under Khrushchev, had decided to redress the strategic gap between the two world powers in one quick swoop by placing missiles in Cuba, thus providing the US with a very limited warning if attacked.|
On October 15th, US intelligence brought the President conclusive proof that the Soviets were installing medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba. After much discussion with his advisors, Kennedy ruled out an early air-strike as too risky, and instead decided on a blockade of Cuba.
On the evening of October 22nd President Kennedy addressed the nation, announcing the discovery of missiles in Cuba and the imposition of a blockade on all Soviet ships attempting to deliver weapons to Cuba. The US made it clear that it would fire on Soviet ships which did not observe the "quarantine."
Many felt that nuclear war was imminent. Suddenly, those Soviet ships en route to Cuba reversed course.
The affair was officially resolved when the United States agreed not to invade Cuba, and the Soviets agreed to withdraw their forces and missiles from Cuba. The event was a serious setback for the Soviets. Their strategic weakness forced them to withdraw from what had been a very risky venture.
|1962 Last Bendix Race Won by B- 58 The end of an era was reached when the B-58 won the last Bendix race. The race, that had been held for nearly 30 years, symbolized man's continued striving for a faster aircraft. That striving ended in the 1960s. In fact, one of the aircraft designed in the early 1960s, the SR-71, is still in service, and still holds the world aircraft speed record.|
|1962 Telstar Broadcast Live Satellite The first international satellite broadcast of television took place. Satellite TV communication slowly tranformed the way the world received news information.|
Jan 1 Western Samoa becomes independent from New Zealand.
Jab 3 Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro.
Jan 12 Indonesia's Army confirms that it has begun operations in Dutch New Guinea (West Irian).
Jan 18 The US tries to help the Saigon regime by spraying foliage with pesticide to reveal the whereabouts of Vietcong guerrillas.
Jan 20 In Malaya it is announced that men with four wives will receive no tax relief.
Jan 23 The British spy Kim Philby defects to the Soviet Union.
Feb 7 Employing the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, President Kennedy bans trade with Cuba except for food and medicines.
Feb 10 In Berlin, former U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is exchanged for the Soviet spy, Rudolf Abel.
Feb 20 Lt. Colonel John Glenn becomes the first US citizen to orbit the earth.
Mar 1 The Joint Chiefs of Staff and Deputy Defense Sec. Roswell Gilpatric have approved a plan to "lure or provoke Castro, or an uncontrollable subordinate, into an overt hostile reaction against the US."
Mar 2 In Burma General Ne Win ends democracy with a military coup. He announces the pursuit of the "Burmese way to socialism" and the creation of a military Revolutionary Council to be based on Buddhism.
Mar 10 The New York Times reports that Japan is sending skilled men and investment funds to most of the nations of Asia.
March 15 In a session of the United Nations Security Council the Soviet Union's representative asserts that the United States "is openly preparing within its own armed forces units of mercenaries to engage in a new intervention against Cuba."
Mar 17 The Soviet Union asks the United States to remove its military personnel from South Vietnam.
Mar 18 After seven and a half years of war, negotiations have produced a declared armistice in Algeria &ndash the Évian Accords. Algerians are permitted to continue freely circulating between their country and France for work. Europeans in Algeria remain French citizens, with guaranteed freedom of religion and property rights, but thousands are bitter toward de Gaulle and begin leaving Algeria for France.
Mar 22 FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, talks with President Kennedy about telephone calls between the President and Judith Exner, calls Exner had made to Kennedy from the home of mobster Sam Giancana. Kennedy ends phone conversations with Exner.
Mar 23 President Kennedy expands the ban against all imports from Cuba to include all goods made from or containing Cuban materials even if made in other countries.
Mar 25 Republican political strategists launch a campaign to label Democratic Party liberals in Congress as advocates of international surrender.
Apr 15 The Kennedy administration is afraid that opposition to Indonesia's demands concerning Dutch New Guinea might push Indonesia toward Communism. It urges the Dutch to negotiate a transfer of power in New Guinea to Indonesia.
Apr 16 Walter Cronkite succeeds Douglas Edwards at "The CBS Evening News."
Apr 16 Senator Barry Goldwater accuses the Kennedy Administration of attempting to "socialize the business of this country."
Apr 30 In the United States, Under Secretary of State George W. Ball predicts that the war against the Communists in South Vietnam will be a "long, slow, arduous" struggle of a type that is not "congenial to the American temperament." Ball is older than Kennedy and his "whiz kids" and is not awed by them. And he has had a closer association with the French and understands their struggle in Vietnam better.
May 2 The Organisation Armée Secrète (OAS) continues its opposition to Algerian independence by a terrorist bomb attack in Algeria, which kills 110 and injures 147.
May 14 In Yugoslavia, President Tito's old comrade in arms and would be successor, Milovan Djilas, in recent years a dissident but still describing himself as a Communist, has his prison term extended for having sneaked his book Conversations with Stalin to a publisher.
May 23 In France, the founder of the OAS, a former general, Raoul Salan, is sentenced to life imprisonment.
May 24 In Lima, Peru, an unpopular ruling in a soccer match leads to a riot and panic that leaves 300 dead and over 500 injured.
May 30 Premier Cyrille Adoula of the Congo and President Moise Tshombe of Katanga Province announced an agreement on integrating the Katanga gendarmerie into the Congolese Army under the auspices of the United Nations.
May 31 The Israelis hang Adolf Eichmann.
Jun 1 Lee Harvey Oswald, his Russian wife and daughter, leave the Soviet Union for the United States.
Jun 25 The US Supreme Court decides a landmark case, Engel v. Vitale. Religious activity for children (including prayer) in public schools is judged to be in violation of the Establishment Clause in the First Amendment to the Constitution. Some devout Christians begin a campaign of threats, hate and harrassment against the families that intitiated the lawsuit.
Jun 30 The last of the French Foreign Legion leaves Algeria.
Jul 1 Rwanda and Burundi gain independence from Belgium.
Jul 1 In Algeria 99 percent vote in favor of independence.
Jul 17 The last atomic bomb is tested above ground in Nevada.
Jul 21 President Moise Tshombe of Katanga denounces UN Secretary General U Thant describing him and his government as "a bunch of clowns."
Jul 31 Algeria becomes officially independent from France.
Aug 3 "Battle-hardened" Australian "jungle fighters" arrive in South Vietnam to teach anti-guerrilla tactics.
Aug 5 Actress Marilyn Monroe is found dead, apparently from an overdose of sleeping pills.
Aug 5 In South Africa, Nelson Mandela has been in hiding and politically active for seventeen months. He is found, arrested and charged with incitement to rebellion.
Aug 6 Jamaica becomes independent of Britain.
Aug 15 Indonesian and Dutch negotiators have agreed on Indonesia control over Dutch New Guinea beginning in May, 1963. The agreement stipulates that within six years the Papuans will be free to decide between Indonesian control and independence. Papuans were expecting the independence that the Dutch had promised them, and they are angry.
Aug 20 Pakistan has been asked by the United Nations to provide a military force to keep order in Dutch New Guinea.
Aug 22 Members of the OAS attempt to assassinate President de Gaulle &ndash to be portrayed in the book and film Day of the Jackal.
Aug 24 From a speedboat, Cuban refugees fire weapons at a Havana hotel.
Aug 24 The Fourth Asian Games start in Jakarta. Despite rules of the Asian Games Federation, Indonesia's government has refused visas for the Israeli and Taiwanese delegations, the government succumbing to pressure from Arab countries and the People's Republic of China.
Aug 31 The islands of Trinidad and Tobago become independent of Britain and together form a republic.
Sep 2 The Soviet Union believes that the US intends to attack Cuba. It agrees with Cuba to send arms to deter an attack.
Sep 3 The Fourth Asian Games end with Indonesians booing India's athletes, its flag and national anthem.
Sep 16 Britain is planning independence for the remainder of its empire in Southeast Asia. It creates Malaysia by combining Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo.
Sep 19 Yemen's monarch, Imam Ahmad, dies at the age of 71.
Sep 21 Border fighting erupts again between China and India.
Sep 26 In the US Congress, anger rises against the Soviet Union's plans to build a fishing port in Cuba.
Sep 26 In Yemen, the 35-year-old heir of Imam Ahmad is assassinated in his palace by a military faction, which proclaims a "free republic."
Sep 27 Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring is published. In June excerpts were published in New Yorker magazine. She is a marine biologist, a scientist who cites evidence for her claims. A storm of protest and hyperbole rises from chemical companies, including Monsanto, and a few scientists friendly with the chemical industry. This gives her book more publicity. The environmentalist movement is stimulated.
Sep 28 The new regime in Yemen executes ten former government officials.
Sep 29 Egypt (the United Arab Republic) recognizes the Republic of Yemen.
Sep 30 Khrushchev invites Kennedy to visit the Soviet Union.
Oct 1 Escorted by Federal Marshals, James Meredith becomes the first black to register at the University of Mississippi.
Oct. 7 According to Egyptian radio, Yemeni troops and planes are fighting a "pitched battle" against Saudi Arabian forces on Yemen's northern frontier.
Oct 8 Algeria becomes a member of the United Nations.
Oct 9 Uganda becomes independent of Britain and chooses to be a member of the Commonwealth.
Oct 10 The New York Times correspondent, David Halberstam, reports that In a Vietnamese village, Communist guerrillas have thrown a party for local people and served food, tea and weapons.
Oct 11 Pope John XXIII convenes the first ecumenical council in 92 years, called Vatican II.
Oct 14 The Soviet Union's long-range missiles are ineffective. There has been no missile-gap. Khrushchev has effective "medium range" missiles and has decided to put them in Cuba. A U-2 flight over Cuba takes photos of Soviet nuclear weapons being installed.
Oct 16 President Kennedy is informed of the missiles in Cuba.
Oct 19 The Cuban Missile Crisis begins. Air Force chief of staff General Curtis LeMay argues that the blocking Cuba and political talks without accompanying military action will lead to war, that the Soviet Union will not move against West Berlin if we act in Cuba but will so move if we fail to act. He concludes, "I just don't see any other solution except direct military intervention right now."
Oct 22 Senate leaders have called for air strikes against Cuba. Kennedy has decided on an arms blockade. A broadcast from Moscow says that unusual activity in Washington indicates that the United States "once again [is] raising its armed fist over Cuba." Kennedy tells the public that "Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island." In the Soviet Union and Cuba there is objection to the missile sites being described as offensive.
Oct 23 Khrushchev's quick response to the appeal by British philosopher Bertrand Russell is welcomed by the British government as a sign that the Soviet Union will back away from a showdown over Cuba.
Oct 24 Soviet ships on their way to Cuba receive radio orders to hold their position. Talking with his advisors, Kennedy says that if the US invades Cuba within the next ten days, some of the missiles in Cuba will likely be fired at US targets. He asks about evacuating people from cities a few days before the invasion. He is told that cities provide the best protection against radiation. Talking alone with his brother Robert, Kennedy entertains the idea that Khrushchev is trying to influence the Congressional Elections just a couple of weeks away.
Oct 25 The US aircraft carrier Essex hails the Soviet tanker Bucharest. The tanker's hatches are too small to accommodate missiles and the ship claims that it is now carrying cargo quarantined by the US The Essex allows the Bucharest to proceed to Cuba, but it is shadowed by a US destroyer.
Oct 26 Castro cables Khrushchev, urging a nuclear strike against the US in the event of an invasion of Cuba. Khrushchev sends a note to Kennedy offering to withdraw missiles from Cuba if the US closes its military bases in Turkey.
Oct 27 A SAM missile shoots down a U-2 aircraft over Cuba. The US pilot is killed. Kennedy decides against ordering an attack on the missile site but agrees to strike at all SAM missile sites if any more US airplanes are attacked. Discussing Khrushchev's proposal concerning Turkey, Kennedy complains that "last year we tried to get the missiles out of there because they were not militarily useful." General Taylor reports that the Joint Chiefs of Staff want an air strike against Cuba no later than the morning of the 29th unless there is irrefutable evidence that the missiles are being dismantled.
Oct 28 Kennedy promises Khrushchev not to invade Cuba and Khrushchev agrees to the removal of Soviet missiles in Cuba.
Oct 29 Many in the world are happy to be alive.
Oct 30 Khrushchev writes to Castro: "Had we, yielding to the sentiments prevailing among the people, allowed ourselves to be carried away by certain passionate sectors of the population and refused to come to a reasonable agreement with the US government, then a war could have broken out, in the course of which millions of people would have died and the survivors would have pinned the blame on the leaders for not having taken all the necessary measures to prevent that war of annihilation."
Nov 1 As promised, the Soviet Union begins dismantling their missiles in Cuba.
Nov 4 Halberstam reports that Communist guerrillas consider the mountainous territory north of Saigon as their own and that the Saigon regime's military officers tend to agree.
Nov 4 The kingdoms of Jordan and Saudi Arabia are supporting the royalist forces in Yemen. Egypt is assisting Yemen's republican forces.
Nov 5 Saudi Arabia breaks diplomatic relations with Egypt.
Nov 6 The U.N. General Assembly calls for member states to end military and economic ties with South Africa.
Nov 9 A fifth Saudi Arabian prince has joined his brothers in exile in Egypt. They have renounced their titles and have pledged to work for a "free Saudi Arabia."
Nov 11 Royalist forces in Yemen claim to have killed 250 Egyptian soldiers.
Nov 20 Fifty US helicopters carry Saigon troops on an operation against what has been regarded as a Communist sanctuary.
Nov 21 China agrees to a cease-fire on the India-China border. At the U.N. the Soviet Union agrees to withdraw bomber aircraft from Cuba. Kennedy ends the arms quarantine against Cuba.
Dec 2 On a trip to Vietnam at President Kennedy's request, Senator Mike Mansfield of Montana reports that US money poured into Vietnam in the last seven years has accomplished nothing. He blames the Diem regime for its failure to share power and win support from the South Vietnamese people. Mansfield's view surprises and irritates President Kennedy.
Dec 8 In Britain's colony Brunei an army backed by Indonesia rebels. The Sultan of Brunei escapes. The army seizes oil fields and takes European hostages. In the evening, British and Gurkha troops arrive from Singapore.
Dec 9 Tanganyika becomes independent of British rule and a republic within the Commonwealth.
Dec 16 In Brunei, the British claim to occupy all major rebel centers.
Dec 19 The United States recognizes the Republic of Yemen.
Dec 21 Juan Bosch, a 53-year-old novelist and political science professor, is elected president of the Dominican Republic by a vast margin.
Dec 24 Cuba exchanges 1,113 participants in the Bay of Pigs invasion for $53 million worth of food.
Dec 30 UN troops take over the last of the rebel positions in Katanga Province. Moise Tshombe, moves to South Rhodesia.
Virginia History Timeline
Offers a chronological timeline of important dates, events, and milestones in Virginia history.
The geographic region now known as Virginia is inhabited for at least 3,000 years by groups of Native Americans, including the Algonquin, the Iroquoian, and the Siouan. Much of eastern Virginia is inhabited by the Powhatan Confederacy, which is largely destroyed by European settlers by 1646.
One of the 13 original colonies, Virginia was the first part of the country permanently settled by the English, who established Jamestown on the banks of the James River in 1607.
16th Century Virginia History Timeline
1558 - Queen Elizabeth succeeds Queen Mary.
- Jean Ribault establishes Huguenot colony (Charles Fort) at Port Royal in South Carolina.
- John Hawkins makes his first voyage to the West Indies.
1563 - Charles Fort abandoned.
- Second colony of Huguenots under Rene de Laudonniere established on St. John's River in Florida.
- John Hawkins second voyage to the West Indies and Guinea.
1565 - St. Augustine established.
1567 - John Hawkins departs on third voyage.
1568 - Hawkins fights Spanish at Battle of Vera Cruz, later set ashore at Tampico, Mexico, where three of his men began a 12 month march to the north, reaching Cape Breton.
1576 - Martin Frobisher's first voyage.
1577 - Martin Frobisher's second voyage.
- Martin Frobisher's third voyage.
- England and Netherlands sign treaty to fight Spain.
- Humphrey Gilbert sailed for America with 350 men but was forced to return.
1580 - Sir Francis Drake returns to England from voyage around the world.
1583 - Sir Humphrey Gilbert's voyage to Newfoundland and his ship was lost on the return voyage.
- Name "Virginia"Suggested, Virginia was named for Queen Elizabeth I of England (she was known as the Virgin Queen). Sir Walter Raleigh may have suggested the name.
- Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe reach Roanoke Island in July, returned to England in September.
1585 - Raleigh's fleet of seven vessels under Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane, with 108 men, reach Roanoke Island in June.
- In June, Sir Francis Drake arrives from Florida and removes the Lane colony to England.
- Sir Richard Grenville and three ships arrive at Roanoke in August.
1587 - John White with 150 men, women, and children sent by Sir Walter Raleigh to plant the Cittie of Raleigh on the Chesapeake Bay, landed at Hatorask on July 22.
1590 - John White returns to Roanoke Island.
1592 - Capt. Christopher Newport sailed for the West Indies
1596 - Capts. Amias Preston and George Somers sail to the West Indies.
17th Century Virginia History Timeline
- Sir Walter Raleigh sent Samuel Mace of Weymouth on a voyage to Virginia (North Carolina) to gather plant materials and to search for survivors of the Lost Colony.
- Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, Capt. Bartholomew Gilbert, Capt. Gabriel Archer, and others sent on voyage to New England coast.
- Nova Scotia visited regularly by English traders.
- Capt. Martin Pring sent to New England coast by Bristol merchants.
- Capt. Bartholomew Gilbert sent on voyage to Chesapeake Bay, Gilbert and 4 others went ashore (likely the Eastern Shore) and were killed by Indians.
- James VI of Scotland becomes James I.
1606 - Fleet leaves London on December 20
- April 30 - Ships at Cape Comfort, a vanguard boat stopped at Kecoughtan where the natives welcomed the English.
- May 14+ - Newport, Smith Percy, Archer, and others spent 6 days exploring the James River up to the falls and Powhatan's village.
- 200 armed Indians attack Jamestown, killing 1 and wounding 11.
- May 28 - "we laboured, pallozadoing our fort" Gabriel Archer (Arber)
- June 4 - "by breake of Day. 3. Of them had most adventurously stollen under our Bullwark and hidden themselves in the long grasse. " Gabriel Archer (Arber)
- June 10 - John Smith released from arrest and sworn in as member of the Council.
- June 22 - Newport sails for England.
- September 10 - President Wingfield deposed, Ratcliffe elected
- Early December - Smith captured by Opechancanough
- January - Newport returns with the First Supply and about 100 new settlers, finds only 38 survivors.
- Powhatan releases Smith.
- January 7 - Fire destroyed "all the houses in the fort"
- March (?) - "repairing our Pallizadoes" John Smith
- April 10 - Newport sails for England
- September 10 - Smith elected President
- October - Newport arrives with the Second Supply and first two women and 8 Dutchmen or Poles who were "glasse-men." No more supplies from England until May of 1610.
- End of Year - Newport returns to England carrying with him
- May 23 - Virginia Company replaces Council with Governor who has absolute control.
- August - Seven ships arrive at Jamestown, Sea Venture wrecked on Bermuda. 200-300 men, women, and children.
- September 10 - Capt. George Percy replaces Capt. John Smith as president of the Council, Smith returned to England.
- May 23 - Gates (acting as Virginia's first governor until arrival of Thomas West-Lord De La Warr), John Rolfe, Ralph Hamor, Sir George Somers, and other survivors of the Sea Venture wrecked at Bermuda arrive at Jamestown. Find 60 survivors of the starving time.
- May24 - Gates issues The Divine, Moral, and Martial Laws.
- June 7 - Gates decides to abandon Jamestown.
- June 8 - Gates' convoy meets Lord De La Warr's ships at Mulberry Island.
- June 10 - Relanded all his men at the fort again
- August 9 - English launch major attack on the Paspahegh village, capturing and executing the Queen and her children, burning houses and cutting down corn fields. Subsequent use of word Paspahegh in documents refers to their former territory.
- March 28 - De La Warr leaves for England, George Percy is Deputy Governor until arrival of Thomas Dale, about 150 people left.
- May 12 - Dale arrives off Point Comfort.
- August - Sir Thomas Gates, Lt.-Governor returns to Virginia with 280 people and assumes control.
- September - Dale with 350 men start building Henricus.
- Early Fall - William Strachey leaves Virginia for England
- John Rolfe imports tobacco seeds from Trinidad, Nicotiana tabacum, native tobacco was Nicotiana rustica.
1612 - John Rolfe exports first crop of improved tobacco.
- April - Pocahontas captured and brought to Jamestown.
- June - John Rolfe makes first shipment of West Indian tobacco grown in Virginia to England.
- February - Gates leaves Virginia, leaving Dale as Deputy Governor.
- April 5 - John Rolfe and Pocahontas married at Jamestown
- June - Argall and Ralph Hamor depart from Virignia for England.
- May - John Rolfe, Pocahontas, and son depart Virginia for England.
- June 2 - Thomas Dale arrives in London, leaving Virgina in hands of Capt. George Yeardly.
1619-1632 - First Legislative Meeting - Jamestown Virginia's General Assembly met for eleven years in the choir of the church at Jamestown. This building was the only one large enough to hold the Council, the Governor, and the 22-member House of Burgesses (as it was known until 1775).
1632-1656 - First State House - Jamestown. The Council and the House of Burgesses met in the colonial governor's home (Sir John Harvey), at his expense. They used this house until 1656.
1656-1660 - Second State House - Jamestown. The second state house lasted just four years. They are still unsure of the exact location of this house. It was destroyed in 1660.
1660-1665 - During these five years, the legislature met in one of the
1665-1676 - Third State House - Jamestown. The third capitol was located about a half mile west of the first state house. This building and the Jamestown settlement were burned in 1676 during Bacon's Rebellion.
1674 - The Bacon rebellion fights for colonial rights in Western Virginia
1676-1685 - The first Assembly after the fire was held at "Green Spring." This is where the governor lived, which was outside of town. As buildings began to go up in Jamestown again, the legislators met once more in taverns and in private homes.
1685-1699 - Fourth State House - Jamestown. The fourth capitol was built on the ruins of the third. They met here for 14 years. In 1699, this last Jamestown state house went up in smoke. Its foundations were found and identified in 1903. Jamestown was no longer the capital after the fire that burned this 4th state house.
1693 - The College of William and Mary is founded
18th Century Virginia History Timeline
1699-1704 - In 1699 the town of Williamsburg was established and was designated as the capital of the colony. The General Assembly met temporarily in the Wren Building at The College of William and Mary.
1704-1747 - Fifth State House - First Williamsburg Capitol. This brick capitol was in the form of an H, each wing of which was two stories high. There were many visitors to Williamsburg when the General Assembly was in session. In 1747 this capitol was destroyed by fire.
1732 - Birth of George Washington. George Washington was born in Westmoreland County on February 22, 1732. He was the 1st US President,
serving from 1789 to 1797.
1747-1753 - After the capitol building in Williamsburg was destroyed by fire, Virginia's legislators again met in the Wren Building at The College of William and Mary.
1751 - Birth of James Madison. James Madison was born. James Madison, at 5-foot, 4-inches, was the shortest president.
1753-1780 - Sixth State House - Second Williamsburg Capitol. The sixth state house was built on the same site as the fifth and was built in the same H shape, but was not as elaborate. When the state government moved to Richmond in
1780, this building was used by George Wythe, professor of law at The College of William and Mary, to train future leaders by doing moot courts and mock legislatures.The building was destroyed by fire in 1832. All that is left now is a marker to show where the building once stood.
1758 - James Monroe born in Westmoreland County, Virginia with items he purchased at an auction of possessions belonging to the executed Queen Marie Antoinette of France.
1770 - William Clark born in Caroline County. Soldier, explorer born in Caroline County, Va. He shared command of the famous Lewis and Clark expedition (1804--06) with Meriwether Lewis. William Clark is also known for his fine maps and illustrations of the animals of the territory.
1771 - Richmond Flood
1773 - William Henry Harrison was born at Berkley Harrison served as US President for 31 days before he died of pneumonia. He died on April 4, 1841, the first President to die in office.
1774 - Meriwether Lewis born in Albemarle County, Virginia
1776 - Virginia adopts its first constitution and declares independence
1780-1788 - The Capitol - Richmond. Richmond was established as the new capital. The General Assembly met in a building at the corner of Pearl (now 14th) and Cary Streets until permanent buildings were built. In 1781 with the threat of British invasion and possible captivity, the legislators met in Charlottesville, but the lawmakers were not safe there either. They escaped and met on June 7 at the Episcopal church in Staunton - prepared to flee farther west if necessary. In October the Assembly moved back to Richmond, in their "temporary capitol". This temporary capitol was demolished sometime before 1851 and is now marked
by a small bronze plaque.
1784 - Zachary Taylor born in Virginia. The first time Zachary Taylor voted was when he voted for himself in the 1849 presidential election.
1788 - June 25 - Virginia entered Statehood Virginia becomes the 10th state.
1788-1904 - First Permanent Capitol - Richmond. The capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson, is modeled after the Maison Carree in France. In the center of this building is the life-size statue of George Washington (made by Houdon). In this area there are also busts of the seven other Virginia-born presidents and of Lafayette (a French volunteer who fought for America and for Virginia during the American Revolution). The General Assembly met here for 116 years, except
in 1849 when there was a cholera epidemic and they decided to meet elsewhere.
1789-1797 - George Washington served as President of the United States
In the center of the capitol in Richmond is the life-size statue of George Washington (made by Houdon). This is said to be the only statue that Washington ever posed for.
1790 - John Tyler born in Virginia. John Tyler was the first Vice President to become President due to the death of his predecessor-William Henry Harrison.
19th Century Virginia History Timeline
1831 - Nat Turner led a slave revolt
- Virginia's state flag adopted in 1861 - The flag has a blue background with a white circle in the center. In the center are the words "VIRGINIA," and "SIC SEMPER TYRANNIS" (Latin for "thus always to tyrants").
- Virginia secedes and joins the Confederacy the Civil War begins
- May 24-25 - Union troops occupy Arlington Heights and Alexandria. Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth is killed after removing a Confederate flag from the Marshall House in Alexandria.
- June 1 - Cavalry clash at Fairfax Court House. First Confederate officer killed.
- June 17 - Troops clash at Vienna
- July 21 - First Battle of Manassas
- Oct. 21 - Battle of Ball's Bluff
- Dec. 21-22 - Battle of Dranesville
- Aug. 22 - Confederate raid at Catlett's Station
- Aug. 29-30 - Battle of Second Manassas
- Sept. 1 -Battle of Chantilly
- Sept. 4-6 - Confederate army passes through Leesburg on the march to Maryland
- West Virginia is formed from northwestern Virginia
- March 17 - Raid on Kelly's Ford
- March 30 - Mosby raids Catlett's Station
- June 19-21 - Stuart's cavalry fights screening action along modern Route 50
- Oct. 14 - Battle of Bristoe Station
- July 13-16 - Early crosses back into Virginia after Maryland excursion
- Nov. 6 - Mosby attacks workers on Manassas Gap Railroad at Salem
- April 9 - General Lee surrendered
- April 21 - Mosby disbands his Rangers, rather than surrender them
- Virginia reenters the United States
- Capitol Disaster. A hot debate over a case involving a mayor attracted a
large crowd to the second floor room above the chamber of the House of Delegates. The floor collapsed because of the weight of all of the people- killing 62 and injuring 251.
- Virginia's Constitution provides for public schools. The first public law on schooling separates the races.
1873 - Virginia writer and poet Ellen Glasgow born Writer, poet born in Richmond, Va. She grew deaf starting in 1889. She wrote poetry, essays, and short stories.
1876 - Coal Discovered in Southwestern Virginia
1877 - Richmond Flood
1895 - Association for the Preservation of Virginia's Antiquities (APVA) is created.
1899 - The brick church and the Ambler House are all that remains to indicate the past of Jamestown Island. Mr. and Mrs. Edward E. Barney give 22.5 acres on Jamestown Island to the APVA.
20th Century Virginia History Timeline
1901 - Began passing Jim Crow Laws, created segregation
1902 - Constitution of 1902
1903 - Maggie Lena Walker opened the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank for African- Americans.
1904 - Present Day Capitol - Richmond. In 1904 extensive renovation and additional construction to the Capitol were begun. Wings were added to the
west of the original structure as a new Senate chamber and to the east as new quarters for the House of Delegates.
1913-1921 - Woodrow Wilson served as the 28th President of the United States
He officially proclaimed the second Sunday in May to be Mother's Day.
1914 - World War I begins in Europe Woodrow Wilson (from Virginia) president
1917 - US declares war
1918 - World War I ends- US and allies wins!
1920 - 19th Amendment- women can vote
1929 - Great Depression starts people lost jobs
- September 8 - Patsy Cline born in Winchester, VA Country singer.
- 1932 - Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president
1936 - Richmond Flood
1939-40 - Aline Black and Melvin Austin go to court to secure equal pay for Black teachers in Norfolk, Virginia.
1941-1943 - Pentagon built in Arlington. The construction of the Pentagon was ordered by Brigadier General Brehon Sommervell. It was to consolidate 17 War Department buildings and cost $83 million dollars.
1941-1948 - Black parents and students fight for busing, equal facilites, and equal curricula.
1941 - December 7th - Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japanese US declare war
1943 - July 10 - Arthur Ashe born in Richmond, VA. Arthur Ash was the first and only African-American male tennis player to win the "Gentleman's Singles" title at Wimbledon. In 1975 Ashe was ranked No. 1 in the world.
1945 - End of World War II
1950 - School desegregation begins in Virginia when the first Black student attends the Law School at the University of Virginia.
1953 - The first Black student is admitted to Virginia Tech.
1954 - May - Segregation declared unconstitutional
1958 - Virginia declares no integrated schools would receive funding
1959 - Some schools desegregated (in Norfolk, Charlottesville, and elsewhere), but Prince Edward county closes its schools rather than comply with court ordered desegregation.
1960's - Most schools in Virginia integrated
1962 - Washington Dulles Airport opened. This terminal was designed by Finnish-born architect Eero Saarinen.
1981 - December 28 - Elizabeth Jordan Carr born in Norfolk. She was the 1st American test tube baby.
1989 - L. Douglas Wilder of Virginia becomes first African American elected governor.
1992 - In Bermuda, the Sea Venture's contents are recovered and fully documented.
1990-1994 - Douglas Wilder served as Governor of Virginia. A Richmond attorney, Governor Wilder served in the Senate of Virginia and as Lieutenant Governor before becoming the first elected African-American governor in
1999 - September 6 -Ten year Old Enters College Gregory Smith (10), boy genius, began his first day of class at Randolph-Macon College in Ashland.
21st Century Virginia History Timeline
2003 - Over 1 million customers lost electricity due to Hurricane Isabel
Chinese Revolution timeline: 1962 to 1976
This Chinese Revolution timeline lists significant events and developments from 1962 to the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. This timeline has been written and compiled by Alpha History authors. If you would like to suggest an event for inclusion in this timeline please contact Alpha History.
August 15th: A 20-year-old PLA soldier, Lei Feng, is killed in an accident in Anshan.
September: Mao initiates the Socialist Education Movement, a rectification-style campaign to remove reactionaries from the CCP.
November: China wins a brief war with India over disputed borders.
March: The diaries of Lei Feng are published and distributed as pro-Mao and pro-party propaganda. The ‘Learn From Lei Feng’ campaign commences.
April: The first publication of Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong, the famous ‘little red book’.
October 16th: China explodes an atomic weapon at Lop Nur, becoming the world’s fifth nuclear power after the US, Britain, Soviet Russia and France.
November 10th: Yao Wenyuan publishes critical reviews of the play Hai Rui Dismissed from Office.
May: The CCP Politburo formally proclaims the beginning of the Cultural Revolution.
May: The first organised brigade of Red Guards is formed at Tsinghua University High School.
June: The People’s Daily, the party’s official newspaper, calls for the purging of all “imperialists” from the government, the CCP and the bureaucracy.
July 16th: ‘Mao’s Good Swim’: the 72-year-old leader takes a leisurely swim across the Yangzte River, dispelling rumours about his failing health.
August 6th: A Mao Zedong-penned article titled “Bombard the Headquarters” calls for mass purges of rightists.
August 8th: The CCP Central Committee issues its 16 Points, calling for a mass revolution.
August 18th: The first of eight Red Guard rallies in Tiananmen Square.
September: Lin Biao gives a speech encouraging students to criticise and purge “Khrushchevists”.
September: More than a thousand people in Shanghai are murdered or forced to suicide by Red Guards.
October: Peng Dehuai is publicly ridiculed and beaten by Red Guards.
Schools and universities resume teaching classes.
January: Lin Biao and Jiang Qing initiate the ‘January storm’, a purging of Shanghai city officials.
October: Liu Shaoqi, under pressure from the Red Guards, resigns all his government and party posts.
October 31st: Liu Shaoqi is formally expelled from the CCP.
December: Mao initiates an ‘Up to the Mountains, Down to the Countryside’ movement, forcing many urban students to relocate and work in rural areas.
March: Chinese forces clash with USSR troops in the Ussiri River border region.
April: Mao proclaims the ‘active’ phase of the Cultural Revolution to be over.
April: CCP ninth congress formalises Lin Biao as Mao’s second-in-charge and successor.
November 12th: Liu Shaoqi dies in prison after months of beatings and denial of medical treatment.
September 6th: The Ninth Party Congress winds up, after purging Chen Boda and ordering his arrest.
April 10th: A table tennis team from the United States accepts an invitation to visit Beijing. This ‘ping-pong diplomacy’, as it becomes known, contributes to a thaw in US-Chinese relations.
July 9th: US National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger makes a secret visit to China.
September 11th: Assassination attempts against Mao and a thwarted coup attempt, allegedly orchestrated by Lin Biao.
September 13th: Lin Biao and his family die after their plane crashes attempting to flee China.
November: China is granted one of five seats in the United Nations Security Council.
February 1st: US president Richard Nixon travels to China and meets Mao, Zhou Enlai and other officials.
September: China re-establishes diplomatic relations with Japan.
April: Deng Xiaoping is rehabilitated and reinstated as vice-premier, at the behest of Zhou Enlai.
August 24-28th: The Tenth Party Congress of the CCP accepts a program of moderate economic modernisation.
January 8th-10th: The Fourth People’s Congress approves the Four Modernisations, a program to strengthen Chinese agriculture, industry, national defence and technology.
January: Zhou Enlai proclaims the Four Modernisations in the People’s Congress, his last significant public act.
January: Deng Xiaoping becomes CCP vice chairman and a member of the Politburo Standing Committee.
April 5th: Guomindang leader and former generalissimo Jiang Jieshi dies in Taiwan.
September: Mao Zedong becomes gravely ill and is admitted to hospital.
January 8th: The death of Zhou Enlai from bladder cancer.
February: Deng Xiaoping is purged from the CCP for the second time.
April 4th: The ‘Tiananmen incident’. The Gang of Four orders the suppression of mourners for Zhou Enlai.
July 6th: The death of Red Army and PLA commander Zhu De.
September 9th: The death of Mao Zedong from motor neurone disease.
July 28th: The city of Tangshan in Hebei province is struck by an earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale. Approximately one quarter million people are killed.
October 6th: Members of the Gang of Four are arrested.
Civil Rights Movement Timeline From 1960 to 1964
U.S. Embassy New Delhi / CC / Flickr
While the fight for racial equality began in the 1950s, the non-violent techniques the movement embraced began to pay off during the following decade. Civil rights activists and students across the South challenged segregation, and the relatively new technology of television allowed Americans to witness the often brutal response to these protests. This civil rights movement timeline chronicles important dates during the struggle's second chapter, the early 1960s.
President Lyndon B. Johnson successfully pushed through the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964, and a number of other groundbreaking events unfolded between 1960 and 1964, the span covered by this timeline, leading up the tumultuous period of 1965 to 1969.
February 1: Four young Black men, students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, go to a Woolworth in Greensboro, North Carolina, and sit down at a whites-only lunch counter. They order coffee. Despite being denied service, they sit silently and politely at the lunch counter until closing time. Their action marks the start of the Greensboro sit-ins, which sparks similar protests all over the South.
April 15: The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee holds its first meeting.
July 25: The downtown Greensboro Woolworth desegregates its lunch counter after six months of sit-ins.
October 19: Martin Luther King Jr. joins a student sit-in at a whites-only restaurant inside of an Atlanta department store, Rich's. He is arrested along with 51 other protesters on the charge of trespassing. On probation for driving without a valid Georgia license (he had an Alabama license), a Dekalb County judge sentences King to four months in prison doing hard labor. Presidential contender John F. Kennedy phones King's wife, Coretta, to offer encouragement, while the candidate's brother, Robert Kennedy, convinces the judge to release King on bail. This phone call convinces many Black people to support the Democratic ticket.
December 5: The Supreme Court hands down a 7-2 decision in the Boynton v. Virginia case, ruling that segregation on vehicles traveling between states is unlawful because it violates the Interstate Commerce Act.
May 4: The Freedom Riders, composed of seven Black and six White activists, leave Washington, D.C., for the rigidly segregated Deep South. Organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), their goal is to test Boynton v. Virginia.
On May 14: Freedom Riders, now traveling in two separate groups, are attacked outside Anniston, Alabama, and in Birmingham, Alabama. A mob throws a firebomb onto the bus in which the group near Anniston is riding. Members of the Ku Klux Klan attack the second group in Birmingham after making an arrangement with the local police to allow them 15 minutes alone with the bus.
On May 15: The Birmingham group of Freedom Riders is prepared to continue their trip down south, but no bus will agree to take them. They fly to New Orleans instead.
On May 17: A new group of young activists join two of the original Freedom Riders to complete the trip. They are placed under arrest in Montgomery, Alabama.
On May 29: President Kennedy announces that he has ordered the Interstate Commerce Commission to enact stricter regulations and fines for buses and facilities that refuse to integrate. Young White and Black activists continue to make Freedom Rides.
In November: Civil rights activists participate in a series of protests, marches, and meetings in Albany, Georgia, that come to be known as the Albany Movement.
In December: King comes to Albany and joins the protesters, staying in Albany for another nine months.
August 10: King announces that he is leaving Albany. The Albany Movement is considered a failure in terms of effecting change, but what King learns in Albany allows him to be successful in Birmingham.
September 10: The Supreme Court rules that the University of Mississippi, or "Ole Miss," must admit Black student and veteran James Meredith.
September 26: The governor of Mississippi, Ross Barnett, orders state troopers to prevent Meredith from entering Ole Miss' campus.
Between September 30 and October 1: Riots erupt over Meredith's enrollment at the University of Mississippi.
October 1: Meredith becomes the first Black student at Ole Miss after President Kennedy orders U.S. marshals to Mississippi to ensure his safety.
King, SNCC and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) organize a series of 1963 civil rights demonstrations and protests to challenge segregation in Birmingham.
April 12: Birmingham police arrest King for demonstrating without a city permit.
April 16: King writes his famous "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in which he responds to eight White Alabama ministers who urged him to end the protests and be patient with the judicial process of overturning segregation.
June 11: President Kennedy delivers a speech on civil rights from the Oval Office, specifically explaining why he sent the National Guard to allow the admittance of two Black students into the University of Alabama.
June 12: Byron De La Beckwith assassinates Medgar Evers, the first field secretary for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Mississippi.
August 18: James Meredith graduates from Ole Miss.
August 28: The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is held in D.C. Around 250,000 people participate, and King delivers his legendary "I Have a Dream" speech.
September 15: The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham is bombed. Four young girls are killed.
November 22: Kennedy is assassinated, but his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, uses the nation's anger to push through civil rights legislation in Kennedy's memory.
March 12:, Malcolm X leaves the Nation of Islam. Among his reasons for the break is Elijah Muhammad's ban on protesting for Nation of Islam adherents.
Between June and August: SNCC organizes a voter registration drive in Mississippi known as Freedom Summer.
June 21: Three Freedom Summer workers—Michael Schwerner, James Chaney, and Andrew Goodman—disappear.
August 4: The bodies of Schwerner, Chaney, and Goodman are found in a dam. All three had been shot, and the Black activist, Chaney, had also been badly beaten.
June 24: Malcolm X founds the Organization of Afro-American Unity along with John Henrik Clarke. Its aim is to unite all Americans of African descent against discrimination.
July 2: Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which bans discrimination in employment and public places.
July and August: Riots break out in Harlem and Rochester, New York.
August 27: The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDM), which formed to challenge the segregated state Democratic Party, sends a delegation to the National Democratic Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. They ask to represent Mississippi at the convention. Activist Fannie Lou Hamer, spoke publicly and her speech was broadcast nationally by media outlets. Offered two nonvoting seats at the convention, in turn, the MFDM delegates reject the proposal. Yet all was not lost. By the 1968 election, a clause was adopted requiring equal representation from all state delegations.
December 10: The Nobel Foundation awards King the Nobel Peace Prize.
Rwanda Genocide Timeline
The Rwandan kingdom (later Nyiginya Kingdom and Tutsi Monarchy) was founded between the 15th and 17th centuries CE.
European Impact: 1863–1959
1863: Explorer John Hanning Speke publishes "Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile." In a chapter on Wahuma (Rwanda), Speke presents what he calls his "theory of conquest of inferior by superior races," the first of many races to describe the cattle-pastoralist Tutsi as a "superior race" to their partners the hunter-gatherer Twa and agriculturalist Hutu.
1894: Germany colonizes Rwanda, and with Burundi and Tanzania, it becomes part of German East Africa. The Germans ruled Rwanda indirectly through Tutsi monarchs and their chiefs.
1918: The Belgians assume control of Rwanda, and continue to rule through the Tutsi monarchy.
1933: The Belgians organize a census and mandate that everyone is issued an identity card classifying them as either Tutsi (approximately 14% of the population), Hutu (85%), or Twa (1%), based on the "ethnicity" of their fathers.
December 9, 1948: The United Nations passes a resolution which both defines genocide and declares it a crime under international law.
Rise of Internal Conflict: 1959–1993
November 1959: A Hutu rebellion begins against the Tutsis and Belgians, topple King Kigri V.
January 1961: The Tutsi monarchy is abolished.
July 1, 1962: Rwanda gains its independence from Belgium, and Hutu Gregoire Kayibanda becomes president-designate.
November 1963–January 1964: Thousands of Tutsi are killed and 130,000 Tutsi flee to Burundi, Zaire, and Uganda. All surviving Tutsi politicians in Rwanda are executed.
1973: Juvénal Habyarimana (an ethnic Hutu) takes control of Rwanda in a bloodless coup.
1983: Rwanda has 5.5 million people and is the most densely populated country in all of Africa.
1988: The RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) is created in Uganda, made up of the children of the Tutsi exiles.
1989: World coffee prices plummet. This significantly affects Rwanda's economy because coffee is one of its major cash crops.
1990: The RPF invade Rwanda, starting a civil war.
1991: A new constitution allows for multiple political parties.
July 8, 1993: RTLM (Radio Télévison des Milles Collines) begins broadcasting and spreading hate.
August 3, 1993: The Arusha Accords are agreed upon, opening government positions to both Hutu and Tutsi.
April 6, 1994: Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana is killed when his plane is shot out of the sky. This is the official beginning of the Rwandan Genocide.
April 7, 1994: Hutu extremists begin killing their political opponents, including the prime minister.
April 9, 1994: Massacre at Gikondo - hundreds of Tutsis are killed in the Pallottine Missionary Catholic Church. Since the killers were clearly targeting only Tutsi, the Gikondo massacre was the first clear sign that a genocide was occurring.
April 15-16, 1994: Massacre at the Nyarubuye Roman Catholic Church - thousands of Tutsi are killed, first by grenades and guns and then by machetes and clubs.
April 18, 1994: The Kibuye Massacres. An estimated 12,000 Tutsis are killed after sheltering at the Gatwaro stadium in Gitesi. Another 50,000 are killed in the hills of Bisesero. More are killed in the town's hospital and church.
April 28-29: Approximately 250,000 people, mostly Tutsi, flee to neighboring Tanzania.
May 23, 1994: The RPF takes control of the presidential palace.
July 5, 1994: The French establish a safe zone in the southwest corner of Rwanda.
July 13, 1994: Approximately one million people, mostly Hutu, begin fleeing to Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo).
mid-July 1994: The Rwanda Genocide ends when the RPF gains control of the country. The government pledges to implement the Arusha Accords and to build a multiparty democracy.
Aftermath: 1994 to the present
The Rwandan Genocide ended 100 days after it began with an estimated 800,000 people killed, but the aftermath of such hatred and bloodshed may take decades, if not centuries, from which to recover.
1999: The first local elections are held.
April 22, 2000: Paul Kagame is elected president.
2003: First post-genocide presidential and legislative elections.
2008: Rwanda becomes the first nation in the world to elect a majority of women MPs.
A timeline of key events that shaped the unique identity of Kashmir within India
The restive Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K), whose political status was dramatically overhauled yesterday (Aug. 5) by the Narendra Modi government, has rarely been free of controversy.
The modification of a constitutional provision that grants J&K special status—a greater degree of autonomy than that enjoyed by other Indian states—has been hotly contested since its creation in 1950.
Those against this provision, Article 370, have argued that all three parts of the state—the Muslim-dominated Kashmir valley, the Hindu-majority Jammu, and Ladakh, which has considerable Buddhist presence—should not have laws independent of the Indian constitution. India’s ruling Bharatiya Janata Party subscribed to this school of thought.
This section also fears neighbouring Pakistan’s influence on Kashmir and its attempt to capture more territory in the Kashmir valley.
The modern political history of the state itself is a tale of its often changing status beginning in the 19th century, turmoil following India’s partition in 1947, and simmering uncertainty since then.
Here is a timeline of J&K and Article 370 through key events in modern times:
1846: Maharaja Gulab Singh, a Dogra ruler, buys the region of Jammu & Kashmir from the East India Company after signing the Treaty of Amritsar (pdf).
1930s: Kashmiri Muslims are unhappy with the then maharaja Hari Singh’s rule and feel his policies are prejudiced against them. This is also the time J&K’s first major political party, the National Conference (NC), is born along with its founder, Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah’s, political debut. The Quit Kashmir movement against the maharaja is launched.
August 1947: India gains independence from the British empire, Pakistan is created as a Muslim-majority country. India’s princely states, those not officially with India or Pakistan, are given three choices—stay independent or join either India or Pakistan. Three such states are undecided—Junagadh, Hyderabad, and J&K. Indian home minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel works to convince the undecided princely states to join India Maharaja Hari Singh signs a standstill agreement with Pakistan, effectively opting for status quo.
October 1947: Armed tribesmen from Pakistan infiltrate J&K, Hari Singh realises he needs Indian help. He reaches out to prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Patel who agree to send troops on the condition that the maharaja signs an instrument of accession (IoA) in favour of India (pdf), handing over control of defence, foreign affairs, and communication. Hari Singh signs the IoA, Indian troops move in. The armed conflict continues.
January 1948: India takes the Kashmir issue to the United Nations (UN), raising concerns over Pakistan’s forced occupation of parts of Kashmir. The UN suggests a plebiscite, but India and Pakistan can’t agree on how to demilitarise the region. The conflict continues through 1948.
March 1948: Hari Singh appoints an interim government in J&K. Sheikh Abdullah named the prime minister.
January 1949: The UN mediates a ceasefire between Indian and Pakistan—also known as the Karachi Agreement—allowing the two countries to retain control over territories held at the time. No agreement on referendum yet.
July 1949: Hari Singh abdicates in favour of his son Karan Singh. Sheikh Abdullah and three colleagues join the Indian constituent assembly to discuss provisions of Article 370 under the Indian constitution that is still being drafted.
1950: The Indian constitution comes into force. Under this, Article 1 defines J&K as a state of India, Article 370 accords special status to J&K.
1951: The constituent assembly of J&K, the body responsible for creating the state’s constitution, convenes. All members belong to Sheikh Abdullah’s NC.
1952: Kashmiri leaders discuss their relationship with the union of India in the J&K constituent assembly. This leads to a comprehensive Delhi Agreement (pdf) that defines the relationship of the state with the union.
1953: Sheikh Abdullah is dismissed as prime minister allegedly because he had lost the support of his cabinet. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad takes his place.
1954: A presidential order extends several provisions of the Indian constitution to J&K’s constitution.
1956: J&K adopts its constitution (pdf) and defines itself as an integral part of India.
1957: The J&K holds its first legislative elections. J&K constituent assembly dissolved, replaced by a legislative assembly. Indian home minister Govind Ballabh Pant visits Srinagar, the capital city of J&K, and says the state is now fully a part of India. This leaves no possibility of a plebiscite.
1960: Both supreme court and election commission of India extend jurisdiction over J&K through an amendment in its constitution.
1962: China gains control of Aksai Chin region in J&K after a war with India.
May 1965: Titles of prime minister and sadr-i-riyasat officially changed to chief minister and governor, respectively.
June 1965: Abdullah’s NC merges with the Indian National Congress.
August 1965 to January 1966: War between India and Pakistan. Indian prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani president Ayub Khan sign the Tashkent Declaration marking the end of war.
1966: There is a revival of demand for a referendum in J&K and several armed outfits spring up in the region. These include the Plebiscite Front and the Jammu & Kashmir National Liberation Front (JKLF).
1971: A third war erupts between India and Pakistan.
1972: India and Pakistan sign the Simla Agreement which ratifies the ceasefire line as the Line of Control.
1975: Prime minister Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Abdullah sign Kashmir Accord, reemphasising Article 370, and J&K as an integral part of India. Gandhi says the “clock cannot be put back in this manner” to pre-1953 relations between the Indian Union and J&K, suggesting that a referendum is not possible. Sheikh Abdullah drops the demands for a plebiscite and resumes power as chief minister of J&K with Congress support.
1977: Congress-JKNC split Congress withdraws support for Sheikh Abdullah’s government, paves way for central rule.
July 1977: Elections held in J&K, Sheikh Abdullah re-elected.
1977 to 1989: J&K sees a steady rise of militant outfits, several unstable governments, and arrests and killings of militant youth.
1990: Kashmiri youth take to streets to protest against Indian administration and hundreds of them die in clashes with Indian troops. Central rule declared just as outfits like JKLF gain strength. Kashmiri Pandits (Hindu Brahmins) flee their hometowns in Kashmir valley in the face of rising militancy. The central government imposes the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, giving armed forces unprecedented powers to counter armed militancy.
1990s: Militant insurgency on the rise. Several separatists, including Yasin Malik, arrested. The government of India tries to hold talks with various leaders in J&K. All Parties Hurriyat Conference, an alliance of 26 social and political movements, is established in 1993. A large number of civilians, armed personnel, and militants die in incessant violent clashes.
1995: Prime minister PV Narasimha Rao makes a statement in parliament assuring that Article 370 will not be abrogated. He reiterates that J&K is an integral part of India and that he wants president’s rule to end.
February 1996: India bans JKLF.
September 1996: Assembly elections held in J&K. JKNC’s Farooq Abdullah forms government.
November 1996: The centre appoints a committee to study the issue of autonomy to J&K.
1997: The national human rights commission sets up a J&K chapter to investigate human rights violations there.
1998: India and Pakistan test nuclear weapons.
February 1999: Indian prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee visits Pakistan.
June 1999: India and Pakistan go to war over Pakistan’s infiltration in Kargil.
December 1999: Indian Airlines flight, IC-814, from Delhi to Kathmandu hijacked by militants. India releases three militants in exchange for the flight and the passengers on board to be brought back safely to Delhi.
October 2001: The legislative assembly in Srinagar is attacked.
December 2001: Armed militants attack Indian parliament in New Delhi.
2004: Indo-Pakistani relationship stabilises after decades of instability. Indian prime minister Manmohan Singh meets Pakistani president General Pervez Musharraf.
2005 to 2008: Clashes between armed forces, militants, and protesting civilians continue in J&K, but not on the same scale as during the peak of militancy.
November 2008: Terrorists affiliated to the Lashkar-e-Taiba attack various public places, including prominent luxury hotels, in the port city of Mumbai.
2010: Protests erupt in J&K over a young militant’s killing.
2011: J&K chief minister Omar Abdullah pardons 1,200 stone pelters. The Indian human rights commission finds 2,000 unmarked graves near the LoC.
2013: Afzal Guru hanged for his role in the 2001 attack on parliament.
March 2015: The BJP forms a government in J&K with People’s Democratic Party for the first time.
April 2016: Mehbooba Mufti becomes chief minister after the death of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, her father.
July 2016: Burhan Wani, another young militant, killed in shootout with armed forces. J&K state erupts in massive protests. Curfew imposed for several months.
September 2016: Armed militants attack Indian Army base in Uri, J&K. The army retaliates with surgical strikes across the LoC.
July 2017: Thousands of residents of J&K take to the streets to commemorate Burhan Wani’s death. Militants attack pilgrims on their way to the revered Hindu shrine of Amarnath.
June 2018: BJP government pulls out of alliance with PDP.
November 2018: Governor Satya Pal Malik dissolves legislative assembly.
December 2018: Central rule declared in the state.
February 2019: A vehicle loaded with explosives crashes into an Indian paramilitary convoy, killing 40 personnel. India carries out retributive strikes on terror camps across the LoC in Pakistan’s Balakot region. An Indian Air Force pilot captured by Pakistan and later released.
May 2019: The BJP returns to power for a second term in India.
July 2019: US president Donald Trump offers to mediate the Kashmir issue between India and Pakistan.
August 2019: Reports suggest a large number of Indian troops have been moved into J&K. Pilgrims to Amarnath asked to return. This is because a landmine with Pakistani markings has been found along the pilgrimage route.
August 4: Prominent Kashmiri leaders, including former chief ministers Omar Abdullah and Mehbooba Mufti, placed under house arrest. Internet and mobile services curtailed, and section 144, which prevents a gathering of more than four people in public spaces, imposed.
August 5: Home minister Amit Shah proposes a presidential order to repeal Article 370 and 35A. J&K to be bifurcated as two union territories of Ladakh (centrally administered) and J&K (with its legislative assembly). Opposition parties protest in parliament complete shutdown in Kashmir valley.
To condense all of Mr Nelson Mandela's achievements into one chronology would be impossible as a result, we do not claim that our work here is comprehensive. Below you will find a chronology of important events in his life. It is a work in progress and we are happy to receive your comments or additions.
Born Rolihlahla Mandela at Mvezo in the Transkei
Attends primary school near Qunu (receives the name ‘Nelson’ from a teacher)
Father dies. Entrusted to Thembu Regent Jongintaba Dalindyebo at the age of 12
While his autobiography Long Walk to Freedom places Mandela's father’s death in 1927, historical evidence shows it must have been later, most likely 1930. In fact, the original Long Walk to Freedom manuscript (written on Robben Island) states the year as 1930.
Undergoes initiation Attends Clarkebury Boarding Institute in Engcobo
Attends Healdtown, the Wesleyan College at Fort Beaufort
Enrols at the University College of Fort Hare, in Alice
Escapes an arranged marriage becomes a mine security officer starts articles at the law firm Witkin, Sidelsky & Eidelman
Completes BA through the University of South Africa (UNISA)
Begins to attend African National Congress (ANC) meetings informally
Graduates with BA from Fort Hare Enrols for an LLB at Wits University
Co-founds the ANC Youth League (ANCYL) marries Evelyn Ntoko Mase – they have four children: Thembekile (1945) Makaziwe (1947 – who dies after nine months) Makgatho (1950) Makaziwe (1954)
Elected national secretary of the ANCYL
Elected President of the ANCYL
Defiance Campaign begins Arrested and charged for violating the Suppression of Communism Act Elected Transvaal ANC President Convicted with J.S Moroka, Walter Sisulu and 17 others under the Suppression of Communism Act Sentenced to nine months imprisonment with hard labour, suspended for two years Elected first of ANC deputy presidents Opens law firm with Oliver Tambo - the only black law firm in Johannesburg in the 1950s
Devises the M-Plan for the ANC’s future underground operations
Watches as the Congress of the People at Kliptown adopts the Freedom Charter
Arrested and later joins 155 others on trial for teason. All are acquitted by 29 March 1961
Divorces Evelyn Mase Marries Nomzamo Winnie Madikizela – they have two daughters: Zenani (1959) and Zindzi (1960)
A State of Emergency is imposed and he is among thousands detained
Goes underground Umkhonto weSizwe (MK) is formed
Leaves the country for military training and to garner support for the ANC
Arrested near Howick in KwaZulu-Natal
Sentenced to five years in prison for incitement and leaving the country without a passport
Appears in court for the first time in what becomes known as the Rivonia Trial, with Walter Sisulu, Denis Goldberg, Govan Mbeki, Ahmed Kathrada, Lionel 'Rusty' Bernstein, Raymond Mhlaba, James Kantor, Elias Motsoaledi and Andrew Mlangeni
Pleads not guilty to sabotage in the Rivonia Trial
James Kantor discharged and released
Thembekile is killed in a car accident
Mandela, Sisulu, Raymond Mhlaba and Andrew Mlangeni and later Ahmed Kathrada are sent to Pollsmoor Prison
Rejects, through his daughter, Zindzi, South African President PW Botha's offer to release him if he renounces violence
Admitted to the Volks Hospital for prostate surgery
Discharged from Volks Hospital and returned to Pollsmoor Prison
Admitted to Tygerberg Hospital where he is diagnosed with tuberculosis
Admitted to Constantiaberg MediClinic
Moved to Victor Verster Prison in Paarl where he is held for 14 months in a cottage
Elected ANC Deputy President
Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize with President FW de Klerk
Votes for the first time in his life
Elected by Parliament as first president of a democratic South Africa
Inaugurated as President of the Republic of South Africa
Establishes the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund
Marries Graça Machel on his 80th birthday
Steps down after one term as President, establishes the Nelson Mandela Foundation
Diagnosed with prostate cancer
Establishes the Mandela Rhodes Foundation
Announces that he will be stepping down from public life
Announces that his eldest son Makgatho had died of AIDS
Attends the installation of his grandson Mandla as chief of the Mvezo Traditional Council
Votes for the fourth time in his life Attends the inauguration of President Jacob Zuma on 9 May and witnesses Zuma's first State of the Nation address Turns 91
Formally presented with the Fifa World Cup trophy before it embarks on a tour of South Africa
His great-granddaughter Zenani is killed in a car accident
Attends the funeral of his great-granddaughter Zenani
Makes a surprise appearance at the final of the Fifa World Cup in Soweto
Celebrates his 92nd birthday at home in Johannesburg with family and friends
His second book Conversations with Myself is published
Meets the South African and American football teams that played in the Nelson Mandela Challenge match
Admitted to hospital in Johannesburg. Discharged after two nights
Votes in the local government elections
His book Nelson Mandela By Himself: The Authorised Book of Quotations is launched
Visited at home by American First Lady Michelle Obama and her daughters Sasha and Malia
A timeline of events in 1962 - History
600-1000 AD: Arawak Indians arrived in Jamaica from South America
1494: Columbus made his first visit to Jamaica
1503-1504: A shipwreck strands Columbus on the islands north coast during the explorers fourth expedition. The explorer stays at Santa Gloria, now St. Anns Bay.
1509: The first Spanish colony is established in Jamaica in what is now St. Anns Bay.
1513: Enslaved Africans arrive in Jamaica.
1520: Jamaica begins to cultivate sugarcane.
1598: The Spanish governor proposes a separate area for the Arawak Indian population, which was quickly diminishing due to disease and hard labor conditions. The proposal fails.
1655: British troops invade and take over Jamaica. No Arawaks remain alive on the island.
1656: British colonists settle at Port Morant most die from disease.
1670: Peace of Madrid officially puts Jamaica under British rule.
1678: First mention of slave uprising.
1690: First significant slave uprising in Clarendon many slaves escape into Cockpit Country.
1690-1739: First Maroon War fought across the island as British fight Maroons.
1692: Port Royal suffers a catastrophic earthquake and thousands die.
1760: Slave uprising in St. Mary led by Tacky, a runaway slave.
1831: Hanging of Sam Sharpe, leader of last great slave rebellion, in Montego Bay.
1834: Slavery brought to an end. For four years after this event, slaves had to work without pay.
1835: Small groups of Germans arrive in Jamaica in Seaford Town.
1838: Slavery officially abolished in Jamaica.
1838-1917: Large migration of Indians into Jamaica.
1860-1893: Large migration of Chinese into Jamaica as indentured workers.
1960: Tourism industry begins.
1962: Jamaica becomes independent country.
1980: Elections result in hundreds of deaths in violent protests across island.