History Podcasts

Paul Hoven

Paul Hoven

Paul Hoven, the son of was born in Rochester in 1944. His father worked for an insurance company before enlisting in the US Army just before Pearl Harbor. He served as an officer in England in the 303rd Bomb Group.

After graduating from college in 1964 Hoven joined the US Army. He studied at Quantico and the University of Minnesota before enlisting in the army flight program in January 1967.

Hoven graduated from flight school in 1968 and 10 days later took part in a combat assault on the Y Bridge in Saigon. During the Vietnam War he flew 1392 hours. These were mainly combat assault and combat support missions. He also served in Laos and according to Leslie Cockburn (Out of Control) Hoven "had an enormous range of contacts in the murky world of special - i.e., clandestine - operations." It is believed that some of the people he worked with included Ted Shackley, Tom Clines and Richard Secord. One source claims that he was a CIA handler.

Hoven was discharged from the US Army in 1970 and returned to college and after a couple of years graduated in Political Analysis. Hoven then worked for simulation company that did some work for Army War College. In late 1970s he formed a Simulation company to train militaries for armored warfare. Hoven also wrote articles about latest developments in weapons for Armor Magazine.

According to Hoven "I was incensed when I found out the US Army had waited until after the war to install self sealing fuel cells even though the technology was around before the start of the war. Many a helicopter crew had ended up as 'Crispy Critters' and died needlessly when their bird went down. I spoke at a forum in DC about the problem and how the military never reported the real numbers when it came to helicopter loses."

In January 1981 Hoven moved to Washington where he worked for the group called the Project on Military Procurement. The main objective was to expose the Pentagon's slipshod approach to developing and buying weapons.

In January 1981 Hoven met Daniel Sheehan, a left-wing lawyer, who was head of the Christic Institute. The Project on Military Procurement was funded by the Charles Stewart Motts Foundation and Sheehan was on the board of that organization.

Hoven later admitted that he provided information to "over 300 newspapers, magazines and TV programs (20/20, 60 Minutes etc.). We supplied documents and assisted reporters with information about things military... Our offices on Capital Hill where broken into a number of times. My apartment was broken into a number of times and nothing was ever taken but the items on my desk would be rearranged and the front door dead bolt would be unlocked and the door would be opened a quarter of an inch. Much of our information was supplied by the infamous Pentagon Underground. The underground was made up of a loose confederation of Military Officers and Pentagon civilians, who believed two basic points that weapon systems where not tested fully before purchase and that the Pentagon was not responsible with it’s money."

Hoven was involved in the campaign against the M247 Sergeant York DIVAD [Division Air Defense (gun) 40mm Bofors Cannon on an old M-48 tank body]. He recently admitted: "The Congressional office of Congressman Denny Smith R Oregon who I worked with had all six of the tests on the DIVAD (supplied by the Underground) showing how it could not hit it’s targets (one test the guns where aimed at a car but instead with a gallery of Generals in attendance the DIVAD attacked an outhouse’s ventilation fan on its roof). Remember this is during the 1980’s big military build up and was the first time that a weapon system in production was canceled because it did not work."

According to David Corn (Blonde Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIA Crusade) in 1985 Carl Jenkins introduced Hoven to Gene Wheaton. Jenkins and Wheaton were at this time involved in trying to "win federal contracts to transport humanitarian supplies to anticommunist rebels, including the Mujahedeen of Afghanistan and the Contras". They failed in this venture and then complained to the State Department about the activities of Richard Secord, Oliver North, Ted Shackley, Edwin Wilson and Tom Clines.

Hoven arranged for Gene Wheaton to meet with Daniel Sheehan. Wheaton told him that Tom Clines and Ted Shackley had been running a top-secret assassination unit since the early 1960s. According to Wheaton, it had begun with an assassination training program for Cuban exiles and the original target had been Fidel Castro.

Paul Hoven also put Wheaton into contact with Newt Royce and Mike Acoca, two journalists based in Washington. The first article on this scandal appeared in the San Francisco Examiner on 27th July, 1986. As a result of this story, Congressman Dante Fascell wrote a letter to the Secretary of Defense, Casper Weinberger, asking him if it "true that foreign money, kickback money on programs, was being used to fund foreign covert operations." Two months later, Weinberger denied that the government knew about this illegal operation.

According to Paul Hoven an attempt was made on his life: "When I started having chest pains after having some orange juice, I assumed it was a muscle cramp. Finally my roommate Joe Burniece called 911... We pulled into the building and 16 Doctors, Nurses and techs were there to great me. They saved my life. After 3 days I was transferred to my HMO hospital in DC. (Heart function is measured in ejection function. 55 to 60 is normal, after the heart attack mine was 32. At 20 you become eligible for a heart transplant and around 10 you die.)"

a few months later Hoven was in a bar with Carl Jenkins when he met "an ex-special forces turned doctor who Carl knew that was on his way to Afghanistan to doctor the rebels fighting the Soviets. My heart attack came up in conversation. He then asked if I had drank something cold before the attack. I mentioned that I had some orange juice. He said that there was a substance that caused heart attack and was delivered in a cold beverage (milk orange etc.). The doctor... indicated that the poison metabolized into two compounds that where normally found in the body." Hoven added that Daniel Sheehan "told me that there 9 or ten of us that had heart attacks and I was the only one that did not die."

Hoven was also visited by Ted Shackley. "The pay off came a week later when Ted Shackley showed up on my doorstep with a shaved headed gorilla about six foot four that looked like someone out of a terminator movies and wanted to talk about Sheehan’s suit." According to David Corn (Blonde Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIA Crusade) Shackley offered Hoven a job with a foreign manufacturer of armed personnel carriers as a bribe.

On 5th October, 1986, a Sandinista patrol in Nicaragua shot down a C-123K cargo plane that was supplying the Contras. Eugene Hasenfus, an Air America veteran, survived the crash and told his captors that he thought the CIA was behind the operation. He also provided information on two Cuban-Americans running the operation in El Salvador. This resulted in journalists being able to identify Rafael 'Chi Chi' Quintero and Felix Rodriguez as the two Cuban-Americans mentioned by Hasenfus. It gradually emerged that Clines, Oliver North, Edwin Wilson and Richard Secord were also involved in this conspiracy to provide arms to the Contras.

On 12th December, 1986, Daniel Sheehan submitted to the court an affidavit detailing the Irangate scandal. He also claimed that Tom Clines and Ted Shackley were running a private assassination program that had evolved from projects they ran while working for the CIA. Others named as being part of this assassination team included Rafael 'Chi Chi' Quintero, Richard Secord, Felix Rodriguez and Albert Hakim. It later emerged that Gene Wheaton and Carl Jenkins were the two main sources for this affidavit.

David Corn (Blonde Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIA Crusade) quotes Hoven as saying that "I was set up to pass information to Sheehan. But they f***ed it up because Sheehan was not playing it close to the script."

It was eventually discovered that President Ronald Reagan had sold arms to Iran. The money gained from these sales was used to provide support for the Contras, a group of guerrillas engaged in an insurgency against the elected socialist Sandinista government of Nicaragua. Both the sale of these weapons and the funding of the Contras violated administration policy as well as legislation passed by Congress.

On 23rd June, 1988, Judge James L. King ruled that Sheehan's allegations were "based on unsubstantiated rumor and speculation from unidentified sources with no firsthand knowledge". In February, 1989, Judge King ruled that Sheenan had brought a frivolous lawsuit and ordered his Christic Institute to pay the defendants $955,000. This was one of the highest sanction orders in history and represented four times the total assets of the Christic Institute.

In 1995 Gene Wheaton approached the Assassination Records Review Board with information on the death of John F. Kennedy. Anne Buttimer, Chief Investigator of the ARRB, recorded that: " Wheaton told me that from 1984 to 1987 he spent a lot of time in the Washington DC area and that starting in 1985 he was "recruited into Ollie North's network" by the CIA officer he has information about. He got to know this man and his wife, a "'super grade high level CIA officer" and kept a bedroom in their Virginia home. His friend was a Marine Corps liaison in New Orleans and was the CIA contact with Carlos Marcello. He had been responsible for "running people into Cuba before the Bay of Pigs." His friend is now 68 or 69 years of age... Over the course of a year or a year and one-half his friend told him about his activities with training Cuban insurgency groups. Wheaton said he also got to know many of the Cubans who had been his friend's soldiers/operatives when the Cubans visited in Virginia from their homes in Miami. His friend and the Cubans confirmed to Wheaton they assassinated JFK. Wheaton's friend said he trained the Cubans who pulled the triggers. Wheaton said the street level Cubans felt JFK was a traitor after the Bay of Pigs and wanted to kill him. People "above the Cubans" wanted JFK killed for other reasons." It was later revealed that Wheaton's friend was Carl Jenkins.

Worked for simulation company that did some work for Army War College. In late 1970s formed a Simulation company to train militaries for armored warfare. When we were updating our system for the US Army’s new weapons (M-1, M-2 DIVAD etc.) We found that we cold not make them work in the game the way the Military said they would. We started writing articles in professional journals about or findings ( Armor Magazine ). I was incensed when I found out the US Army had waited until after the war to install self sealing fuel cells even though the technology was around before the start of the war. Many a helicopter crew had ended up as “Crispy Critters” and died needlessly when their bird went down. I spoke at a forum in DC about the problem and how the military never reported the real numbers when it came to helicopter loses. I was offered a job at the Project on Military Procurement and moved to DC in January of 1981.

In an interview with William Law and Mark Sobel in 2005, Gene Wheaton claimed that Carl Jenkins and Rafael Quintero were both involved in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

I had met Carl Jenkins at a party thrown by a magazine editor. I met both Carl and his wife. I knew him as a retired Military ops. Guy and his wife as a current psychologist at the company. Being from Minnesota I got along with her because of her Wisconsin birth and upbringing. I was surprised at Carl’s acceptance of my working at the Project of Military Procurement and working with the Military Reform Movement. While most conservatives were not crazy about anyone attacking the Pentagon, not only did it not bother Carl he was very encouraging. After meeting Jenkins I found out that he knew a friend of mine retired Lt. Col. Carl Bernard from service in Laos and possibly further back in Indonesia.

As it turned out I lived close to Carl and spent time visiting at night at a safe house he ran close to his town house. Like many of us conservatives he was not crazy about George Bush for President. I remember one night at Otoole’s Bar ( Agency hang out in Langley) Carl showing me a picture on the wall where George Bush and Agency people had held the first meeting for his presidential bid. Sometime later the picture disappeared before the bar closed (Jenkins was not in the picture).

Along with his dislike of Bush for President he was upset that the White House NSC was being used as an active intelligence operation rather than a clearing house from other intelligence agencies for the President. In particular Lt. Oliver North’s activities bothered him. To such a point that in June of 1986 I set up a meeting for him with the then Commandant of the Marine Corp. I had met the S2 of the Headquarters Marine Corp socially and he arranged the meeting in which Carl (being an ex-Marine) had tried to get Lt. North transferred out of the White House. His argument was that if he stayed in his current position he would be an embarrassment to the Corp. Having been a Marine for a short time myself I understood the pride Marines had for the honor of the Corp. I believe that the Marine Corp did try to transfer North but it was thwarted. As I recall the meeting took place on a Thursday and 2 days later I suffered a major heart attack. Two ambulances from the same county showed up and had a fight over me and the second one to arrive won and took me to a hospital that was not mine and there they saved my life. Unfortunately I lost half of my heart function. I am alive today because of a heart transplant in 2005. Of the number of people involved in Iran Contra that had heart attacks I believe that I was the only one that lived.

I will try and add to the story as I have time and would address any questions that Forum members might have. A couple of heart surgeries screw up your memory a little bit. It seems that I am affected most when it comes to remembering names.

At the time of my heart attack two events were taking place that I was involved in. The meeting at Marine Headquarters with Carl and the Commandant (to get Oliver North transferred out of White House) and the DIVAD program was cancelled. I was the point person at the Project on Military Procurement on the DIVAD [Division Air Defense (gun) 40mm Bofors Cannon on an old M-48 tank body]. This was the first time that an active Pentagon weapons system was cancelled.

When I started having chest pains after having some orange juice, I assumed it was a muscle cramp. Finally my roommate Joe Burniece called 911. I lived in Arlington Virginia and Arlington county ran the only ambulance service in the county arrived. I was given some nitroglycerin and removed from the apartment and the stretcher was placed on the ground in front of the ambulance. A second ambulance arrived and the two crews started to argue over who was to take me to the hospital. The second crew mentioned that I was the person involved in the cancelling of the DIVAD. They were both informed that I was to go to George Washington in DC. The second arriving ambulance crew won the argument and proceeded to take me to Northern Virginia Hospital instead. At 20 you become eligible for a heart transplant and around 10 you die.) You tend to idolize the Nurses that tend you during these times and I had 2 during those 3 days. They worked 12 hour shifts and later I was informed by Knut Royce (a friend and reporter that I worked with at the Project. Knut as a young man was an interpreter for the Emperor of Ethiopia ) that one of my Nurses was the daughter of the CIA liaison in the White House.

Months later Carl Jenkins and I were at Otoole’s Bar in Langley and met an ex-special forces turned doctor who Carl knew that was on his way to Afghanistan to doctor the rebels fighting the Soviets. indicated that the poison metabolized into two compounds that where normally found in the body... Danny Sheehan told me that there 9 or ten of us that had heart attacks and I was the only one that did not die.

With my job at the Project on Military Procurement I was dealing with over 300 newspapers, magazines and TV programs (20/20, 60 Minutes etc.) We supplied documents and assisted reporters with information about things military. You might say that we where like Google, if we didn’t have the information we had a phone number of someone who did. The underground was made up of a loose confederation of Military Officers and Pentagon civilians, who believed two basic points that weapon systems where not tested fully before purchase and that the Pentagon was not responsible with it’s money. Most of the people involving like myself were quite to the right of center politically. The overall Military Reform Movement was referred to in the media as the “Cheap Hawks”. The DIVAD was one of my projects and the Project had done over 200 articles on how it did not work. The Congressional office of Congressman Denny Smith R Oregon who I worked with had all six of the tests on the DIVAD (supplied by the Underground) showing how it could not hit it’s targets (one test the guns where aimed at a car but instead with a gallery of Generals in attendance the DIVAD attacked an outhouse’s ventilation fan on its roof). Remember this is during the 1980’s big military build up and was the first time that a weapon system in production was canceled because it did not work. I forgot the exact cost of the program but it was in the billions of dollars. One of Congressman Smith’s main financial backers where the principles in Evergreen Airlines. In Congress today the only real member left who was serious reform player is Senator Charles Grassley R Iowa. I was not well known to most only the real insiders because most of the stories printed or broadcast that we were involved in did not have our names mentioned.

The last I heard was that Carl Jenkins was in Panama. That he had remarried a school teacher there. I guess that he and Elisabeth got a divorce after the Sheehan document. When Sheehan submitted his document, I understand that Elisabeth Jenkins resigned from the company and went to work for the State Dept. checking on the Embassy guards in Africa and Central Asia. I believe after it all blew over she returned to Langley and resumed her old position checking out potential new employees. She was a fascinating woman. Brilliant and beautiful. Almost out of a spy novel. As a teenage girl had read spy novels and decided that’s what she would do as an adult. Had a well earned hatred of Bobby Kennedy. During the Bay of Pigs she was 8 months pregnant and at the National Reconnaissance Office as a translator. One morning at about 2:00am she was walking done the hall when Kennedy came around the corner in a hurry and knocked her on her back. At which point the started to curse her out and called her a fat cow for getting in his way. I doubt that she mourned when he was killed. She was in Laos when Carl was there and that is where they got together. I believe at that time she interviewed our guys when they returned from trips over the fence into North Vietnam. Knowing some people that where there said she was the prettiest round eye in Laos.

From what Carl told me he was in Mexico training the Cubans for the Bay of Pigs. And has he hated the Kennedy’s also. The operation was designed for 5,000 Cubans to go ashore. But the White House cut it of at 1,500. Carl was especially hot when the Kennedys started sending down Mafia types in place of Cubans. Old man Kennedy’s mob friends where interested in their old holdings when Castro feel. The real hatred of the John Kennedy came from what he did during the actual invasion. Besides the rag tag Air Force of the Cuban invasion force the US Navy was to supply air cover. I am told that as the rebels were being slaughtered on the beach Kennedy personally called off the Navy. There is supposed to be a tape of that and I have friends that say they have heard it. I have never been able to get a copy of it our to here it.

The Non-profit project that I worked for was formed under the Stewart Motts foundation. Danny Sheehan was on the board of that organization. I knew Danny from January 1981. Went to Christic Institute book parties there. I knew the Jesuit priest Father Bill Davis at the institute. He was the priest sent down to investigate the death of the American filmmaker during the military coup in Chile. The wife of the dead filmmaker was a girl from my home town that I had dated a couple of times in High School (some coincidences are real). The long and the short of it is that I knew Danny Sheehan for years before Gene Wheaton or Carl Jenkins ever heard of him. Danny was on my board of directors and was very supportive of what we were doing at the project. I thought what he and the Christic Institute did in the Karen Silkwood case was commendable.

Like wise I had met Carl and Elisabeth some time before I was introduced to Gene. One of the reasons that I listened to Gene was because I had a friendship with Carl. The night of the party where Gene was introduced to me, Carl Jenkins along with (IW) John Harper introduced me to Gene there was no talk about illegal arms or federal contracts. Carl was the sole speaker with IW and Gene nodding in agreement. What he said was that we had to stop George Bush from becoming President and that the wrong people in Afghanistan where getting our aid.

I knew the people that where the principles in Congress that allocating the money for our support of the Afghans that where fighting the Soviets. Carl said that Gene knew that area of the world and that he could help these people. I don’t recall that the Contra’s where brought at all that evening. I supported aid to the contras so it would never haven discussed as a problem. The Lt.Col. Carl Bernard that I mentioned earlier had a civilian brother in the Pentagon who was running the program that developed weapons for the Afghan fighters. Afghanistan was the only shooting war at the time and so it was the topic of conversation with just about everyone I knew including Carl Jenkins. There were two Congressmen who where the main funders of the Afghans in Congress. Cong. McCullam R Florida and Cong. Wilson D Texas. Von Forest was the main staffer for the Florida congressman and I knew him well. They were also big Israel supporters and had an Israeli citizen on staff ( Steffe Bodansky) as a military expert.

I set up a meeting with a senate staffer that I knew to start to introduce Gene to the network of staffers in congress who where the players in support of the Afghans. It is at this meeting that Gene dropped the bomb shell and after a very short time talking about Afghanistan started taking about the assignation of Americans by Americans. There where 10 examples of assassinations but the one that he spent the more than 50% of time talking about was the Ibex killing in Iran. This proved to be an interesting emphasis because of the ten so called assassinations the Ibex killings was the only where I had access to someone who was there at the time it took place. Remember that up to this point my background and job was dealing with military hardware testing and procurement and the waste in the Defense Budget. My interest in the wars in Afghanistan was in the weapons that where being supplied to the Afghans that would be effective but not giving away technology to the Soviets. The covert nature and the spying component held little interest to me then.

A very close friend of mine’s father was in State Department Counter Intelligence in Tehran when the Ibex killing took place. And was investigating the case. I talked to him about what I had heard and he confirmed that it was a strange case. The man killed was coming back from the USA after a going home to report massive diversion of funds (stolen) to American Generals that where overseeing the program that had been sold to the Iranian Government. It was a program that the Pentagon had passed on but was then successfully sold to the Iranians. The man was killed immediately after arriving in Tehran. This was not the pattern of either the Moslem or Communist groups trying to topple the Shah’s government. They would stalk for at least two weeks before pulling off an assassination. The actual assassination used a VW bug as a blocking car against the victims Mercedes Benz sedan with a driver and if memory is right the driver was not killed. The big sedan could have easily driven through the VW bug blocking car. The telling information supplied by my friends father was that the Shah’s secret police who where fearless where afraid of this case and kept saying white man in Parse. At this stage I was convinced that Wheaton was telling me the truth. I assumed that the 9 other cases Gene had talked about involved American assassins as well. The senate staffer was scared to death as this was way out of his league and wanted nothing to do with Wheaton after that. This was not my area either but I could not let it go.

Knut Royce was a personal friend of mine. He was one of five of us who used to meet once a week at a bar in downtown DC. He then brought in his friend Mike Accoca to help on the story. [I was working on a story about the invasion of Panama as consultant to 60 Minutes with Mike Wallace when Wallace the producer Charlie Thompson and Myself all got violently sick and almost died and Mike Accoca did die.]

Knut took the story to Senator John Kerry D Massachusetts. The names that Wheaton mentioned had nothing to do with the Contras based on what Wheaton told me . They where the people that where involved in the assassinations. When Iran Contra became public that October I was shocked because the people mentioned where the same people that Wheaton told me where involved in the ten assassinations of Americans. When I introduced Wheaton to Danny Sheehan the reason was assassinations for my part it had nothing to do with illegal arms shipments to anyone. At that time Danny was looking in to assassinations relative to the Contras and that is why I had the meeting and introduced Wheaton to Sheehan. As I said before I was not opposed to aid to the Contras and would not have had the meeting between the two of them if that was the subject. At some point in those first few months after meeting Wheaton I had a meeting set up with the man who I had originally talked to about Wheaton and the Ibex assassination. After the meeting with the State Department Counter Intelligence Officer (he also held a Lt. Rank in the Army) he advised his son ( a Republican Senate staffer) and myself to not deal with Wheaton anymore. He said that he did not believe Wheaton was on the level.

Jenkins never once mentioned contracts with me and he never indicated that he was involved in the JFK assassination. Remember his wife was on active duty at CIA. Both he and his wife were very bright people and Carl was a professional case officer with decades of service. And Carl was smarter than Wheaton in my estimation. In a million years I can not see him admitting to any part in the assassination of JFK to an outsider if he had played a role. Especially to an outsider like Wheaton. Gene like myself was an outsider. He had non agency bon fides for his work in the Army and I believe that he may have played a role in IW Harpers escape from Libya after IW attempted to assassinate Kaddafi. (Blew up a plane Kaddafi was to board but Kaddafi changed his mind at the last minute. A bunch of his East German bodyguards where killed, however.) I was accepted because I had served in Viet Nam as an Army Helicopter Pilot. And I had been recruited to fly for Air America, I turned them down because I thought I had used up all my luck. But in certain areas you where still considered an outsider.

If Jenkins wanted it known to the world that he planned, trained, etc. the people that killed JFK why not tell me rather than Wheaton. I was dealing on a day to day basis with over 300 plus journalists and in the beginning Wheaton with none. More important I had credibility with them all where Wheaton was a total unknown to them.

I was not happy with Sheehan’s final document. I had no first hand information about the actions that where in the document. And I was never told that I would be listed as a source. Plus his description of me did nothing to protect me. I was listed as a Army Helicopter Pilot in Viet Nam and a Military Reformer, that described a universe of exactly one person in DC at that time. Two days after it was out I was having lunch with a reporter that I had never dealt with before and after introductions she said, “oh you must be the number 48 (I believe that was the number source in Sheehan’s suit). The pay off came a week later when Ted Shackley showed up on my doorstep with a shaved headed gorilla about six foot four that looked like someone out of a terminator movies and wanted to talk about Sheehan’s suit.

Throughout 1985, Paul Hoven, a friend of Sheehan's and a Vietnam veteran, regularly attended parties of ex-Agency men and weekend warriors, some associated with Soldier of Fortune magazine. (Hoven worked at the Project on Military Procurement, an outfit funded by liberals and devoted to exposing Pentagon waste.) At a bash near Christmas, Carl Jenkins, a former CIA officer who had been assigned to Miami and Laos, introduced Hoven to Gene Wheaton, a balding middle-aged fellow.

Wheaton was an odd bird. As Wheaton has related his life story, he was a Marine in the 1950s and then joined the Tulsa police force. He was an army detective in Vietnam and in the mid-1970s a security officer at a top-secret CIA-Rockwell surveillance program in Iran called Project IBEX. In 1979 he returned to the United States, went through a string of security-related jobs, and became obsessed with the covert world and drug-trafficking. When he met Hoven, Wheaton, now representing a California aviation company, was scheming with Jenkins and Ed Dearborn, a former CIA pilot in Laos and the Congo, to win federal contracts to transport humanitarian supplies to anticommunist rebels, including the Mujahedeen of Afghanistan and the Contras. So far, the trio had failed to collect any. They had even complained to a State Department official that Richard Secord and Oliver North improperly controlled who got the Contra-related contracts. They badmouthed Secord, noting that he had been mixed up with Shackley, Wilson, and Clines. One set of spooks was pissed at another.

At the Soldier of Fortune party, Hoven pegged Wheaton as someone who thought he was a player but who truly was not. Nevertheless, he agreed to assist Wheaton. Hoven set up a meeting with a congressional aide who followed the Afghan program. Hoven did not realize that Wheaton had more on his mind than contracts. Wheaton had spent much of the previous year hobnobbing with arms dealers, ex-CIA officers, and mercenaries, and he had collected information on past and present covert operations, including the secret Contra-arms project.

Wheaton was obsessed with the 1976 assassination in Iran of three Americans who worked on Project IBEX. He believed the killings were linked to U.S. intelligence, that a ring of ex-spooks was running wild in Central America and elsewhere.

So when Wheaton met with the congressional staffer and Hoven, he skipped the presentation on supplying the Mujahedeen. Instead he launched into a speech about political assassinations related to U.S. intelligence. He rattled on about the mysterious IBEX murders. Hoven had a hard time following Wheaton. His claims were based on a mishmash of speculative hearsay, fanciful information, and some actual facts. But Wheaton made his bottom-line point obvious: a rogue element in the U.S. government had engaged in a host of nefarious activities, including assassinations.

The congressional staffer wanted nothing to do with the rambling intrigue Wheaton was peddling. But Hoven was interested. He called Danny Sheehan, thinking he ought to hear Wheaton's tale.

Sheehan already had developed an interest in the murky community of mercenaries, Cuban exiles, and others secretly aiding the Contras. By early 1986, press accounts had revealed that a clandestine Contra support network ran all the way into the White House and that Oliver North, a low-level aide, was involved-even though Congress had seemingly barred the administration from militarily aiding the rebels. (The White House claimed these stories were wrong.) Here was the perfect target for Sheehan: a furtive program supporting a covert war against a leftist government. He wondered if he could strike at it in the courts. He always was looking for cases that made good stories-ones in which he could be a hero. Then he met Gene Wheaton, who had a helluva tale for Sheehan.

Sheehan and Wheaton sat down in the kitchen of Hoven's house in early February of 1986. It was magic. To a wide-eyed Sheehan, Wheaton, posing as an experienced operator, tossed out wild stories of clandestine operations and dozens of names: Wilson, Secord, Clines, Hakim, Singlaub, Bush. A whole crew was running amok, supporting Contras, conducting covert activity elsewhere. Drugs were involved. Some of this gang had engaged in corrupt government business in Iran and Southeast Asia. Now the same old boys were running weapons to Latin America. Central to the whole shebang was a former CIA officer named Ted Shackley. Sheehan was captivated. He had struck the mother lode.

Sheehan spoke a few times with Carl Jenkins. At one session, Sheehan listened as Jenkins and Wheaton discussed what Wheaton was calling the "off-the-reservation gang" - Secord, Clines, Hakim, and Shackley - and the operations they ran in and out of government. According to Hoven, Wheaton and Jenkins wanted to see information about this crowd made public and saw Sheehan as the mechanism of disclosure.

Wheaton and Jenkins did not tell Sheehan that they hoped to settle a score with a band they believed had an unfair lock on the air-supply contracts they desired. But to Hoven it was clear that one faction of spooks was whacking another. Hoven was not sure who was on what side. He guessed that somebody somewhere-maybe even in the Agency itself-was upset with the freelancers and wanted to see them reined in. But if Jenkins or anyone else thought they could use Sheehan as a quiet transmitter of damaging information, they were as wrong as they could be.

Kent Hovind

Kent E. Hovind (born January 15, 1953) is an American Christian fundamentalist evangelist and tax protester. He is a controversial figure in the Young Earth creationist movement whose ministry focuses on denial of scientific theories in the fields of biology (evolution), geophysics, and cosmology in favor of a literalist interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative found in the Bible. Hovind's views, which combine elements of creation science and conspiracy theory, are dismissed by the scientific community as fringe theory and pseudo-scholarship. He is controversial within the Young Earth Creationist movement, and Answers in Genesis openly criticized him for continued use of discredited arguments abandoned by others in the movement.

Hovind established Creation Science Evangelism (CSE) in 1989 and Dinosaur Adventure Land in 2001 in Pensacola, Florida. He frequently spoke on Young Earth creationism in schools, churches, debates, and on radio and television broadcasts. His son Eric Hovind took over operation of CSE after Hovind began serving a ten-year prison sentence in January 2007 for federal convictions for failing to pay taxes, obstructing federal agents, and structuring cash transactions.

Paul Anthony Hoven, son of the late Chester and Margaret (Koester) Hoven, was born on January 21, 1944 and died nearly 70 years later on January 9, 2014.

He was raised in Owatonna and graduated from Marian High School in 1962. A graduate of Mankato State University, Paul was a Chief Warrant Officer in the Army. He served as a combat assault helicopter pilot and flight commander in Cambodia and Vietnam with the 9 th Infantry Division. He graduated from flight school in 1968 and 10 days later took part in a combat assault on the Y Bridge in Saigon. Using call sign Jayhawk 21, his 1392 flight hours during the Vietnam war were mainly combat assault and support missions. In 1969, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross in recognition of his heroic efforts. After completing a career as a weapons consultant in Washington DC, Paul returned to Minnesota to be closer to his family during his retirement years.

Preceded in death by his parents and niece, Catherine Quintal, he is survived by his sisters Ann Hoven (Don Lipsey) of Maple Grove Mary Kristo (Steve Maier) and Julie Quintal both of Rochester nieces Alaina Quintal and Rachel Lipsey and nephews Aaron Kristo, Matt Kristo, Nathan Kristo and Adam Lipsey.

A memorial service will take place on Tuesday, January 14, at 11:00 am, in the River Park Chapel of the Macken Funeral Home located at 1105 - 12th St SE in Rochester. Visitation will take place one hour prior to the service on Tuesday at the Chapel. In lieu of flowers, donations may be sent to the Gift of Life House, 705 - 2 nd St SW, Rochester, MN 55902.

Online condolances are welcome at www.mackenfuneralhome.com


The family of Paul A. Hoven has received the following condolences.

Paul and I played "war" together as kids, he the worrier that blew thing up I the medic that "fixed" the wounded. We grew up and we played WAR again, same duties, different results. I'll miss my childhood friend.

My love and thoughts to the family I grew up with.

-- Bob Bina
Added on January 22, 2014

I still remember all of the discussions on guns, models and political conspiracies. I also remember al of your help with the media in our push for a Special Operations command. Vui, my wife, remembers your love for Aunties Vietnamese soups with Shrimp. I regret the distancing but will always remember you as a friend and a person that loved his country. May you rest in Peace.

-- Andrew Gembara
Added on January 21, 2014

I remember Paul as smart, busy, well-connected person who nevertheless took the time to help show me and other Washington D.C. novices the ropes. Since then, I have done my best to make time to teach and encourage people starting new careers, and it has been the most rewarding part of my professional life.

Thank you, Paul, for this priceless life lesson.

Thank you, Paul's family, for helping make him the person he was. I hope these remembrances comfort you during this time of loss.

-- Greg Williams
Added on January 14, 2014

To Julie and to the rest of Paul's family,

I hope you are able to celebrate Paul's life with fond memories. I took care of Paul when he first received his heart transplant and many times there after, and always enjoyed the conversations we shared. He was a very interesting, intriguing person, and a patient that I always admired. I am fortunate to have had the opportunity to get to know Paul over the past several years. I pray that he is at peace and that your family finds comfort during this difficult time. My sincere condolences go to all of you, especially you, Julie, as I know Paul greatly appreciated all of your support.

-- Ann Nelson
Added on January 14, 2014

I am so sorry for your loss and so grateful for your devotion.

I will remember Paul as a complex yet simple, tough guy softie, who loved his family, served his country, laughed with his friends and stuck to his opinions. He will be both missed and remembered.

Your Friend, Tom and the Partridge Family

-- Tom Partridge
Added on January 13, 2014

Sorry to hear of your loss. My thoughts and prayers are with you.

-- Michelle Magle
Added on January 13, 2014

My thoughts and prayers are with and your family at this time. Paul always had good things to say about you when he was with us nurses on the transplant unit. I had many conversations with him and really enjoyed taking care of him. He was a good man and he is now in a more peaceful place. Thinking of you during this difficult time.

-- Melissa Theobald
Added on January 13, 2014

You have suffered some big losses this fall with your mother's passing and now your brother,(and Uncle). I am so sorry that this has happened, but you can rest well knowing that you were a good supporter for him and you took very good care of your brother when he was ill. You sacrificed a lot of your personal time to be with him and offer him solace. I hope that makes it easier for you in saying goodbye.

Love to you Julie and Alaina too.

-- Lori Lynn Christiansen
Added on January 12, 2014

Was saddened to hear of Paul's death even tho I know he is in a better place. I will miss him always as a great friend and classmate. My thoughts and prayers are with each of you and your families.

-- Marlene (Doocy) Dimmel
Added on January 12, 2014

Although a sad time for all of Paul's family and friends, I know he is in a better place with no more suffering to endure. I have many, many wonderful memories of Paul all throughout school, especially at Marian HS. If you are looking down at me Paul I do remember the candle that burned at 3 ends that you made and what you were alluding to! I was grateful that he included me in his e-mails charting his journey during his illnesses. He was a great defender of America and I am glad that I was able to call him my friend. R.I.P Paul. And to Julie and the rest of his family, celebrate his life!

Lois Bailey Zolnosky, Class of "62".

-- Lois Bailey Zolnosky
Added on January 12, 2014

I'll be thinking of you and praying for you as you celebrate Paul's life and grieve his passing. I hope this will be a good family time for you as you "circle the wagons" around each other and relive great family memories. God bless you all.

-- Jackie Hamilton
Added on January 12, 2014

My deepest condolences to the family. Paul was not only a great soldier but a great classmate and friend.

-- Terry Chesney
Added on January 12, 2014

Thank you Paul for your service to our country. It was and is appreciated as we humans struggle to find peace within the confines of Planet Earth. May your energy continue to carry you through the heavens and beyond. I cherished our conversation at the MHS 50th class reunion. Peace!

-- Kathy Dunn
Added on January 12, 2014

Paul displayed valor, intellect, and leadership in all that he did. He was a true hero to our country and will be deeply missed. Chuck Brooks

-- Chuck Brooks
Added on January 12, 2014

You were one of my father's best friends, and you know he didn't spend time with just anyone. He understood that you were smart, inquisitive, engaging, driven and a no-nonsense kind of guy. He always looked forward to your long, overnight chats and he recounted them to me fondly.

You were always interested in keeping up with the activities of your friend's children, and were quick to praise their successes. I'm sure all of your friends appreciated that as much as I did.

To Julie and the rest of your family that worked tirelessly over the last ten years to keep you going through a long list of illnesses, we owe them great thanks for giving us more time to engage with your unique and wonderful character.

So long Paul. You will be missed.

Dave and the Gaboury family

-- Dave Gaboury
Added on January 11, 2014

You were an outstanding servant to our country and a wonderful patient and human being. We will miss you very much.

My sincere condolences to your sister Julie who took exceptional care of you over the years and to all of your family.


Composition Edit

The Philharmonic Society of London originally commissioned the symphony in 1817. [7] The main composition work was done between autumn 1822 and the completion of the autograph in February 1824. [8] The symphony emerged from other pieces by Beethoven that, while completed works in their own right, are also in some sense "sketches" (rough outlines) for the future symphony. The 1808 Choral Fantasy, Op. 80, basically a piano concerto movement, brings in a choir and vocal soloists near the end for the climax. The vocal forces sing a theme first played instrumentally, and this theme is reminiscent of the corresponding theme in the Ninth Symphony.

Going further back, an earlier version of the Choral Fantasy theme is found in the song "Gegenliebe [fr] " (Returned Love) for piano and high voice, which dates from before 1795. [9] According to Robert W. Gutman, Mozart's Offertory in D minor, "Misericordias Domini", K. 222, written in 1775, contains a melody that foreshadows "Ode to Joy". [10]

Premiere Edit

Although most of his major works had been premiered in Vienna, Beethoven was keen to have his latest composition performed in Berlin as soon as possible after finishing it, as he thought that musical taste in Vienna had become dominated by Italian composers such as Rossini. [11] When his friends and financiers heard this, they urged him to premiere the symphony in Vienna in the form of a petition signed by a number of prominent Viennese music patrons and performers. [11]

Beethoven was flattered by the adoration of Vienna, so the Ninth Symphony was premiered on 7 May 1824 in the Theater am Kärntnertor in Vienna along with the overture The Consecration of the House (Die Weihe des Hauses) and three parts of the Missa solemnis (the Kyrie, Credo, and Agnus Dei). This was the composer's first onstage appearance in 12 years the hall was packed with an eager audience and a number of musicians. [12]

The premiere of Symphony No. 9 involved the largest orchestra ever assembled by Beethoven [12] and required the combined efforts of the Kärntnertor house orchestra, the Vienna Music Society (Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde), and a select group of capable amateurs. While no complete list of premiere performers exists, many of Vienna's most elite performers are known to have participated. [13]

The soprano and alto parts were sung by two famous young singers: Henriette Sontag and Caroline Unger. German soprano Henriette Sontag was 18 years old when Beethoven personally recruited her to perform in the premiere of the Ninth. [14] [15] Also personally recruited by Beethoven, 20-year-old contralto Caroline Unger, a native of Vienna, had gained critical praise in 1821 appearing in Rossini's Tancredi. After performing in Beethoven's 1824 premiere, Unger then found fame in Italy and Paris. Italian composers Donizetti and Bellini were known to have written roles specifically for her voice. [16] Anton Haizinger and Joseph Seipelt sang the tenor and bass/baritone parts, respectively.

Although the performance was officially directed by Michael Umlauf, the theatre's Kapellmeister, Beethoven shared the stage with him. However, two years earlier, Umlauf had watched as the composer's attempt to conduct a dress rehearsal of his opera Fidelio ended in disaster. So this time, he instructed the singers and musicians to ignore the almost completely deaf Beethoven. At the beginning of every part, Beethoven, who sat by the stage, gave the tempos. He was turning the pages of his score and beating time for an orchestra he could not hear. [17]

There are a number of anecdotes about the premiere of the Ninth. Based on the testimony of the participants, there are suggestions that it was under-rehearsed (there were only two full rehearsals) and rather scrappy in execution. [18] On the other hand, the premiere was a great success. In any case, Beethoven was not to blame, as violinist Joseph Böhm recalled:

Beethoven himself conducted, that is, he stood in front of a conductor's stand and threw himself back and forth like a madman. At one moment he stretched to his full height, at the next he crouched down to the floor, he flailed about with his hands and feet as though he wanted to play all the instruments and sing all the chorus parts. —The actual direction was in [Louis] Duport's [n 1] hands we musicians followed his baton only. [19]

When the audience applauded—testimonies differ over whether at the end of the scherzo or symphony—Beethoven was several bars off and still conducting. Because of that, the contralto Caroline Unger walked over and turned Beethoven around to accept the audience's cheers and applause. According to the critic for the Theater-Zeitung, "the public received the musical hero with the utmost respect and sympathy, listened to his wonderful, gigantic creations with the most absorbed attention and broke out in jubilant applause, often during sections, and repeatedly at the end of them." [20] The audience acclaimed him through standing ovations five times there were handkerchiefs in the air, hats, and raised hands, so that Beethoven, who they knew could not hear the applause, could at least see the ovations. [21]

Editions Edit

The first German edition was printed by B. Schott's Söhne (Mainz) in 1826. The Breitkopf & Härtel edition dating from 1864 has been used widely by orchestras. [22] In 1997, Bärenreiter published an edition by Jonathan Del Mar. [23] According to Del Mar, this edition corrects nearly 3,000 mistakes in the Breitkopf edition, some of which were "remarkable". [24] David Levy, however, criticized this edition, saying that it could create "quite possibly false" traditions. [25] Breitkopf also published a new edition by Peter Hauschild in 2005. [26]

The symphony is scored for the following orchestra. These are by far the largest forces needed for any Beethoven symphony at the premiere, Beethoven augmented them further by assigning two players to each wind part. [27]

Piccolo (fourth movement only) 2 Flutes 2 Oboes 2 Clarinets in A, B ♭ and C 2 Bassoons Contrabassoon (fourth movement only)

4 Horns in D, B ♭ and E ♭ 2 Trumpets in D and B ♭ 3 Trombones (alto, tenor, and bass second and fourth movements only)

Timpani Bass drum (fourth movement only) Triangle (fourth movement only) Cymbals (fourth movement only)

Voices (fourth movement only)

Soprano solo Alto solo Tenor solo Baritone (or bass) solo [n 2] SATB choir (tenor briefly divides)

The symphony is in four movements. The structure of each movement is as follows: [29]

Tempo marking Meter Key
Movement I
Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso = 88 2
Movement II
Molto vivace . = 116 3
Presto = 116 2
Molto vivace 3
Presto 2
Movement III
Adagio molto e cantabile = 60 4
B ♭
Andante moderato = 63 3
Tempo I 4
B ♭
Andante moderato 3
Adagio 4
E ♭
Lo stesso tempo 12
B ♭
Movement IV
Presto . = 96 [30] 3
Allegro assai = 80 4
Presto ("O Freunde") 3
Allegro assai ("Freude, schöner Götterfunken") 4
Alla marcia Allegro assai vivace . = 84 ("Froh, wie seine Sonnen") 6
B ♭
Andante maestoso = 72 ("Seid umschlungen, Millionen!") 3
Allegro energico, sempre ben marcato . = 84
("Freude, schöner Götterfunken" – "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!")
Allegro ma non tanto = 120 ("Freude, Tochter aus Elysium!") 2
Prestissimo = 132 ("Seid umschlungen, Millionen!") 2

Beethoven changes the usual pattern of Classical symphonies in placing the scherzo movement before the slow movement (in symphonies, slow movements are usually placed before scherzi). [31] This was the first time he did this in a symphony, although he had done so in some previous works, including the String Quartet Op. 18 no. 5, the "Archduke" piano trio Op. 97, the Hammerklavier piano sonata Op. 106. And Haydn, too, had used this arrangement in a number of his own works such as the String Quartet No. 30 in E ♭ major, as did Mozart in three of the Haydn Quartets and the G minor String Quintet.

I. Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso Edit

The first movement is in sonata form without an exposition repeat. It begins with open fifths (A and E) played pianissimo by tremolo strings, steadily building up until the first main theme in D minor at bar 17. [32]

The opening, with its perfect fifth quietly emerging, resembles the sound of an orchestra tuning up. [33]

At the outset of the recapitulation (which repeats the main melodic themes) in bar 301, the theme returns, this time played fortissimo and in D major, rather than D minor. The movement ends with a massive coda that takes up nearly a quarter of the movement, as in Beethoven's Third and Fifth Symphonies. [34]

A typical performance lasts about 15 minutes.

II. Molto vivace Edit

The second movement is a scherzo and trio. Like the first movement, the scherzo is in D minor, with the introduction bearing a passing resemblance to the opening theme of the first movement, a pattern also found in the Hammerklavier piano sonata, written a few years earlier. At times during the piece, Beethoven specifies one downbeat every three bars—perhaps because of the fast tempo—with the direction ritmo di tre battute (rhythm of three beats) and one beat every four bars with the direction ritmo di quattro battute (rhythm of four beats). Normally, a scherzo is in triple time. Beethoven wrote this piece in triple time but punctuated it in a way that, when coupled with the tempo, makes it sound as if it is in quadruple time. [ citation needed ]

While adhering to the standard compound ternary design (three-part structure) of a dance movement (scherzo-trio-scherzo or minuet-trio-minuet), the scherzo section has an elaborate internal structure it is a complete sonata form. Within this sonata form, the first group of the exposition (the statement of the main melodic themes) starts out with a fugue in D minor on the subject below.

For the second subject, it modulates to the unusual key of C major. The exposition then repeats before a short development section, where Beethoven explores other ideas. The recapitulation (repeating of the melodic themes heard in the opening of the movement) further develops the exposition's themes, also containing timpani solos. A new development section leads to the repeat of the recapitulation, and the scherzo concludes with a brief codetta.

The contrasting trio section is in D major and in duple time. The trio is the first time the trombones play. Following the trio, the second occurrence of the scherzo, unlike the first, plays through without any repetition, after which there is a brief reprise of the trio, and the movement ends with an abrupt coda.

The duration of the movement is about 12 minutes, but this may vary depending on whether two (frequently omitted) repeats are played.

III. Adagio molto e cantabile Edit

The third movement is a lyrical, slow movement in B ♭ major—a minor sixth away from the symphony's main key of D minor. It is in a double variation form, with each pair of variations progressively elaborating the rhythm and melodic ideas. The first variation, like the theme, is in 4
4 time, the second in 12
8 . The variations are separated by passages in 3
4 , the first in D major, the second in G major, the third in E ♭ major, and the fourth in B major. The final variation is twice interrupted by episodes in which loud fanfares from the full orchestra are answered by octaves by the first violins. A prominent French horn solo is assigned to the fourth player.

A performance lasts about 16 minutes.

IV. Finale Edit

The choral finale is Beethoven's musical representation of universal brotherhood based on the "Ode to Joy" theme and is in theme and variations form.

The movement starts with an introduction in which musical material from each of the preceding three movements—though none are literal quotations of previous music [35] —are successively presented and then dismissed by instrumental recitatives played by the low strings. Following this, the "Ode to Joy" theme is finally introduced by the cellos and double basses. After three instrumental variations on this theme, the human voice is presented for the first time in the symphony by the baritone soloist, who sings words written by Beethoven himself: ''O Freunde, nicht diese Töne!' Sondern laßt uns angenehmere anstimmen, und freudenvollere.'' ("Oh friends, not these sounds! Let us instead strike up more pleasing and more joyful ones!").

At about 24 minutes in length, the last movement is the longest of the four movements. Indeed, it is longer than some entire symphonies of the Classical era. Its form has been disputed by musicologists, as Nicholas Cook explains:

Beethoven had difficulty describing the finale himself in letters to publishers, he said that it was like his Choral Fantasy, Op. 80, only on a much grander scale. We might call it a cantata constructed round a series of variations on the "Joy" theme. But this is rather a loose formulation, at least by comparison with the way in which many twentieth-century critics have tried to codify the movement's form. Thus there have been interminable arguments as to whether it should be seen as a kind of sonata form (with the "Turkish" music of bar 331, which is in B ♭ major, functioning as a kind of second group), or a kind of concerto form (with bars 1–207 and 208–330 together making up a double exposition), or even a conflation of four symphonic movements into one (with bars 331–594 representing a Scherzo, and bars 595–654 a slow movement). The reason these arguments are interminable is that each interpretation contributes something to the understanding of the movement, but does not represent the whole story. [36]

Cook gives the following table describing the form of the movement: [37]

Bar Key Stanza Description
1 1 [n 3] d Introduction with instrumental recitative and review of movements 1–3
92 92 D "Joy" theme
116 116 "Joy" variation 1
140 140 "Joy" variation 2
164 164 "Joy" variation 3, with extension
208 1 d Introduction with vocal recitative
241 4 D V.1 "Joy" variation 4
269 33 V.2 "Joy" variation 5
297 61 V.3 "Joy" variation 6, with extension providing transition to
331 1 B ♭ Introduction to
343 13 "Joy" variation 7 ("Turkish march")
375 45 C.4 "Joy" variation 8, with extension
431 101 Fugato episode based on "Joy" theme
543 213 D V.1 "Joy" variation 9
595 1 G C.1 Episode: "Seid umschlungen"
627 76 g C.3 Episode: "Ihr stürzt nieder"
655 1 D V.1, C.3 Double fugue (based on "Joy" and "Seid umschlungen" themes)
730 76 C.3 Episode: "Ihr stürzt nieder"
745 91 C.1
763 1 D V.1 Coda figure 1 (based on "Joy" theme)
832 70 Cadenza
851 1 D C.1 Coda figure 2
904 54 V.1
920 70 Coda figure 3 (based on "Joy" theme)

In line with Cook's remarks, Charles Rosen characterizes the final movement as a symphony within a symphony, played without interruption. [38] This "inner symphony" follows the same overall pattern as the Ninth Symphony as a whole, with four "movements":

    with slow introduction. The main theme, first in the cellos and basses, is later recapitulated by voices. in a 6
    8 military style. It begins at Alla marcia (bar 331) and concludes with a 6
    8 variation of the main theme with chorus.
  1. Slow section with a new theme on the text "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!" It begins at Andante maestoso (bar 595). finale on the themes of the first and third "movements". It begins at Allegro energico (bar 763).

Rosen notes that the movement can also be analysed as a set of variations and simultaneously as a concerto sonata form with double exposition (with the fugato acting both as a development section and the second tutti of the concerto). [38]

Text of the fourth movement Edit

The text is largely taken from Friedrich Schiller's "Ode to Joy", with a few additional introductory words written specifically by Beethoven (shown in italics). [39] The text, without repeats, is shown below, with a translation into English. [40] The score includes many repeats. For the full libretto, including all repetitions, see German Wikisource. [41]

O Freunde, nicht diese Töne!
Sondern laßt uns angenehmere anstimmen,
und freudenvollere.

Oh friends, not these sounds!
Let us instead strike up more pleasing
and more joyful ones!

Freude, schöner Götterfunken
Tochter aus Elysium,
Wir betreten feuertrunken,
Himmlische, dein Heiligtum!
Deine Zauber binden wieder
Was die Mode streng geteilt
Alle Menschen werden Brüder,
Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.

Joy, beautiful spark of divinity,
Daughter from Elysium,
We enter, burning with fervour,
heavenly being, your sanctuary!
Your magic brings together
what custom has sternly divided.
All men shall become brothers,
wherever your gentle wings hover.

Wem der große Wurf gelungen,
Eines Freundes Freund zu sein
Wer ein holdes Weib errungen,
Mische seinen Jubel ein!
Ja, wer auch nur eine Seele
Sein nennt auf dem Erdenrund!
Und wer's nie gekonnt, der stehle
Weinend sich aus diesem Bund!

Whoever has been lucky enough
to become a friend to a friend,
Whoever has found a beloved wife,
let him join our songs of praise!
Yes, and anyone who can call one soul
his own on this earth!
Any who cannot, let them slink away
from this gathering in tears!

Freude trinken alle Wesen
An den Brüsten der Natur
Alle Guten, alle Bösen
Folgen ihrer Rosenspur.
Küsse gab sie uns und Reben,
Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod
Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben,
Und der Cherub steht vor Gott.

Every creature drinks in joy
at nature's breast
Good and Evil alike
follow her trail of roses.
She gives us kisses and wine,
a true friend, even in death
Even the worm was given desire,
and the cherub stands before God.

Froh, wie seine Sonnen fliegen
Durch des Himmels prächt'gen Plan,
Laufet, Brüder, eure Bahn,
Freudig, wie ein Held zum Siegen.

Gladly, just as His suns hurtle
through the glorious universe,
So you, brothers, should run your course,
joyfully, like a conquering hero.

Seid umschlungen, Millionen!
Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!
Brüder, über'm Sternenzelt
Muß ein lieber Vater wohnen.

Ihr stürzt nieder, Millionen?
Ahnest du den Schöpfer, Welt?
Such' ihn über'm Sternenzelt!
Über Sternen muß er wohnen.

Be embraced, you millions!
This kiss is for the whole world!
Brothers, above the canopy of stars
must dwell a loving father.

Do you bow down before Him, you millions?
Do you sense your Creator, O world?
Seek Him above the canopy of stars!
He must dwell beyond the stars.

Towards the end of the movement, the choir sings the last four lines of the main theme, concluding with "Alle Menschen" before the soloists sing for one last time the song of joy at a slower tempo. The chorus repeats parts of "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!", then quietly sings, "Tochter aus Elysium", and finally, "Freude, schöner Götterfunken, Götterfunken!". [41]

Music critics almost universally consider the Ninth Symphony one of Beethoven's greatest works, and among the greatest musical works ever written. [1] [2] The finale, however, has had its detractors: "[e]arly critics rejected [the finale] as cryptic and eccentric, the product of a deaf and ageing composer." [1] Verdi admired the first three movements but lamented the confused structure and the bad writing for the voices in the last movement:

The alpha and omega is Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, marvellous in the first three movements, very badly set in the last. No one will ever approach the sublimity of the first movement, but it will be an easy task to write as badly for voices as in the last movement. And supported by the authority of Beethoven, they will all shout: "That's the way to do it. " [42]

Metronome markings Edit

Conductors in the historically informed performance movement, notably Roger Norrington, [43] have used Beethoven's suggested tempos, to mixed reviews. Benjamin Zander has made a case for following Beethoven's metronome markings, both in writing [24] and in performances with the Boston Philharmonic Orchestra and Philharmonia Orchestra of London. [44] [45] Beethoven's metronome still exists and was tested and found accurate, [46] but the original heavy weight (whose position is vital to its accuracy) is missing and many musicians have considered his metronome marks to be unacceptably high. [47]

Re-orchestrations and alterations Edit

A number of conductors have made alterations in the instrumentation of the symphony. Notably, Richard Wagner doubled many woodwind passages, a modification greatly extended by Gustav Mahler, [48] who revised the orchestration of the Ninth to make it sound like what he believed Beethoven would have wanted if given a modern orchestra. [49] Wagner's Dresden performance of 1864 was the first to place the chorus and the solo singers behind the orchestra as has since become standard previous conductors placed them between the orchestra and the audience. [48]

2nd bassoon doubling basses in the finale Edit

Beethoven's indication that the 2nd bassoon should double the basses in bars 115–164 of the finale was not included in the Breitkopf & Härtel parts, though it was included in the full score. [50]

The British premiere of the symphony was presented on 21 March 1825 by its commissioners, the Philharmonic Society of London, at its Argyll Rooms conducted by Sir George Smart and with the choral part sung in Italian. The American premiere was presented on 20 May 1846 by the newly formed New York Philharmonic at Castle Garden (in an attempt to raise funds for a new concert hall), conducted by the English-born George Loder, with the choral part translated into English for the first time. [51]

Richard Wagner conducted the symphony many times in his career. His last performance took place in 1872 at a concert to mark the foundation stone for the Bayreuth Festspielhaus. Wagner later published an essay entitled "The rendering of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony" in which he described the changes he made to the orchestration (see above) for the 1872 performance. [52]

The London Philharmonic Choir debuted on 15 May 1947 performing the Ninth Symphony with the London Philharmonic Orchestra under the baton of Victor de Sabata at the Royal Albert Hall. [53] In 1951, Wilhelm Furtwängler and the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra reopened the Bayreuth Festival with a performance of the symphony, after the Allies had temporarily suspended the Festival following the Second World War. [54] [55]

American conductor Leonard Bernstein made his first of three recordings of the Beethoven Ninth in 1964 with the New York Philharmonic, for Columbia Masterworks, with soloists Martina Arroyo (soprano), Regina Sarfaty (mezzo), Nicholas Di Virgilio (tenor), Norman Scott (bass), and the Juilliard Chorus it was later reissued on CD. [56]

Bernstein made his second recording of the piece with the Vienna Philharmonic for Deutsche Grammophon, in 1979. This featured Gwyneth Jones (soprano), Hanna Schwarz (mezzo), René Kollo (tenor), and Kurt Moll (bass), with the chorus of the Vienna State Opera. [57]

Bernstein conducted a version of the Ninth at the Schauspielhaus in East Berlin, with Freiheit (Freedom) replacing Freude (Joy), to celebrate the fall of the Berlin Wall during Christmas 1989. [58] This concert was performed by an orchestra and chorus made up of many nationalities: from both Germanies, the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra and Chorus, the Chorus of the Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra, and members of the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden, the Philharmonischer Kinderchor Dresden (Philharmonic Children's Choir Dresden) from the Soviet Union, members of the orchestra of the Kirov Theatre from the United Kingdom, members of the London Symphony Orchestra from the US, members of the New York Philharmonic and from France, members of the Orchestre de Paris. Soloists were June Anderson, soprano, Sarah Walker, mezzo-soprano, Klaus König, tenor, and Jan-Hendrik Rootering, bass. [59] It was the last time that Bernstein conducted the symphony he died ten months later.

In 1998, Japanese conductor Seiji Ozawa conducted the fourth movement for the 1998 Winter Olympics opening ceremony, with six different choirs simultaneously singing from Japan, Germany, South Africa, China, the United States, and Australia. [60]

Sir Georg Solti recorded the symphony with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Chicago Symphony Chorus on two occasions: first in 1972 with soloists Pilar Lorengar, Yvonne Minton, Stuart Burrows, and Martti Talvela and again in 1986 with soloists Jessye Norman, Reinhild Runkel, Robert Schunk, and Hans Sotin. On both occasions, the chorus was prepared by Margaret Hillis. The second recording won the 1987 Grammy Award for Best Orchestral Performance. [61]

The BBC Proms Youth Choir performed the piece alongside Sir Georg Solti's UNESCO World Orchestra for Peace at the Royal Albert Hall during the 2018 Proms at Prom 9, titled "War & Peace" as a commemoration to the centenary of the end of World War One. [62]

There have been various attempts to record the Ninth to come closer to what Beethoven's contemporaries would have heard, i.e., with period instruments:

    conducting the London Classical Players recorded it with period instruments for a 1987 release by EMI Records (rereleased in 1997 under the Virgin Classics label). [citation needed]
  • An additional period-instrument recording by Christopher Hogwood and the Academy of Ancient Music was released in 1989 under the label Éditions de l'Oiseau-Lyre. [citation needed] made a 1992 recording of the Ninth with the Boston Philharmonic Orchestra and noted soprano Dominique Labelle (who first performed the work with Robert Shaw), following Beethoven's own metronome markings. Following further research, Zander released a second recording with the Philharmonia Orchestra in 2018 and paired it with a 3-hour audio lecture defending his new interpretation. [63]
  • Sir John Eliot Gardiner recorded his period-instrument version of the Ninth Symphony, [64] conducting his Monteverdi Choir and Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique in 1992. It was first released by Deutsche Grammophon in 1994 on their early music Archiv Produktion label as part of his complete cycle of the Beethoven symphonies. His soloists included Ľuba Orgonášová, Anne Sofie von Otter, Anthony Rolfe Johnson and Gilles Cachemaille. [citation needed] recorded the Ninth with his period-instrument Orchestre des Champs-Élysées and his Collegium Vocale chorus for Harmonia Mundi in 1999. [citation needed] made a modern-instrument recording with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, using historically informed tempos and playing techniques. Recorded in 2009, and released by Decca Records in 2012.

At 79 minutes, one of the longest Ninths recorded is Karl Böhm's, conducting the Vienna Philharmonic in 1981 with Jessye Norman and Plácido Domingo among the soloists. [65]

Many later composers of the Romantic period and beyond were influenced by the Ninth Symphony.

An important theme in the finale of Johannes Brahms' Symphony No. 1 in C minor is related to the "Ode to Joy" theme from the last movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. When this was pointed out to Brahms, he is reputed to have retorted "Any fool can see that!" Brahms's first symphony was, at times, both praised and derided as "Beethoven's Tenth".

The Ninth Symphony influenced the forms that Anton Bruckner used for the movements of his symphonies. His Symphony No. 3 is in the same D-minor key as Beethoven's 9th and makes substantial use of thematic ideas from it. The colossal slow movement of Bruckner's Symphony No. 7, "as usual", takes the same A–B–A–B–A form as the 3rd movement of Beethoven's symphony and also uses some figuration from it. [66]

In the opening notes of the third movement of his Symphony No. 9 (From the New World), Antonín Dvořák pays homage to the scherzo of this symphony with his falling fourths and timpani strokes. [67]

Likewise, Béla Bartók borrows the opening motif of the scherzo from Beethoven's Ninth symphony to introduce the second movement scherzo in his own Four Orchestral Pieces, Op. 12 (Sz 51). [68] [69]

Michael Tippett in his Third Symphony (1972) quotes the opening of the finale of Beethoven's Ninth and then criticises the utopian understanding of the brotherhood of man as expressed in the Ode to Joy and instead stresses man's capacity for both good and evil. [70]

One legend is that the compact disc was deliberately designed to have a 74-minute playing time so that it could accommodate Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. [71] Kees Immink, Philips' chief engineer, who developed the CD, recalls that a commercial tug-of-war between the development partners, Sony and Philips, led to a settlement in a neutral 12-cm diameter format. The 1951 performance of the Ninth Symphony conducted by Furtwängler was brought forward as the perfect excuse for the change, [72] [73] and was put forth in a Philips news release celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Compact Disc as the reason for the 74-minute length. [74]

Theme music for NBC's The Huntley–Brinkley Report Edit

The Huntley–Brinkley Report used the 2nd movement as its closing theme music during the show's run on NBC from 1956 until 1970. [76] A remixed version of the opening bars of the movement were used as the theme for Countdown with Keith Olbermann. [77]

Use as (national) anthem Edit

During the division of Germany in the Cold War, the "Ode to Joy" segment of the symphony was played in lieu of an anthem at the Olympic Games for the United Team of Germany between 1956 and 1968. In 1972, the musical backing (without the words) was adopted as the Anthem of Europe by the Council of Europe and subsequently by the European Communities (now the European Union) in 1985. [78] [79] Also, the "Ode to Joy" was used as the national anthem of Rhodesia between 1974 and 1979, as "Rise, O Voices of Rhodesia". [80]

Use as a hymn melody Edit

In 1907, the Presbyterian pastor Henry van Dyke Jr. wrote the hymn "Joyful, Joyful, we adore thee" while staying at Williams College. [81] The hymn is commonly sung in English-language churches to the "Ode to Joy" melody from this symphony. [82]

Year-end tradition Edit

The German workers' movement began the tradition of performing the Ninth Symphony on New Year's Eve in 1918. Performances started at 11 p.m. so that the symphony's finale would be played at the beginning of the new year. This tradition continued during the Nazi period and was also observed by East Germany after the war. [83]

The Ninth Symphony is traditionally performed throughout Japan at the end of the year. In December 2009, for example, there were 55 performances of the symphony by various major orchestras and choirs in Japan. [84] It was introduced to Japan during World War I by German prisoners held at the Bandō prisoner-of-war camp. [85] Japanese orchestras, notably the NHK Symphony Orchestra, began performing the symphony in 1925 and during World War II the Imperial government promoted performances of the symphony, including on New Year's Eve. In an effort to capitalize on its popularity, orchestras and choruses undergoing economic hard times during Japan's reconstruction performed the piece at year's end. In the 1960s, these year-end performances of the symphony became more widespread, and included the participation of local choirs and orchestras, firmly establishing a tradition that continues today. Some of these performances feature massed choirs of up to 10,000 singers. [86] [85]

Other choral symphonies Edit

Prior to Beethoven's ninth, symphonies had not used choral forces and the piece thus established the genre of choral symphony. Numbered choral symphonies as part of a cycle of otherwise instrumental works have subsequently been written by numerous composers, including Gustav Mahler, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Charles Ives among many others.

Other ninth symphonies Edit

The scale and influence of Beethoven's ninth led later composers to ascribe a special significance to their own ninth symphonies, which may have contributed to the cultural phenomena known as the curse of the ninth. A number of other composers' ninth symphonies also employ a chorus, such as those by Kurt Atterberg, Mieczysław Weinberg, Edmund Rubbra, Hans Werner Henze and Robert Kyr. Anton Bruckner had not originally intended his unfinished ninth symphony to feature choral forces, however the use of his choral Te Deum in lieu of the uncompleted Finale was supposedly sanctioned by the composer. Dmitri Shostakovich had originally intended his Ninth Symphony to be a large work with chorus and soloists, although the symphony as it eventually appeared was a relatively short work without vocal forces.

Of his own Ninth symphony, George Lloyd wrote that "When a composer has written eight symphonies he may find that the horizon has been blacked out by the overwhelming image of Beethoven and his one and only Ninth. There are other very good No. 5s and No. 3s, for instance, but how can one possibly have the temerity of trying to write another Ninth Symphony?". [87] Niels Gade composed only eight symphonies, despite living for another twenty years after completing the eighth. He is believed to have replied, when asked why he did not compose another symphony, "There is only one ninth", in reference to Beethoven. [88]

Paul Hoven - History

Family Histories/Genealogies

The following is a list of family names that have genealogical data contained in the family histories titles that follow. Heritage Hall does not have staff to conduct research, but patrons are welcome to use these resources in the reading room.

Aakster – Hendrik Aakster (Dutch), undated

Abrahamse – An Abrahamse Family History, August 1978

Achte – Parenteel van Klaas Hilberts Achter compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010 [Drenthe Family Genealogies>

Alberda – The New World Descendants and Old World Ancestors of Machiel Alberda, 1994

Alderink – Alderink and Masselink Godeke: A Goodly Heritage, 1985

Alderink – Fragments United, by Denise Alderink, 1988

Alfers – Bernard and Henry B. Alfers

Andre – Hiram Rosing Andre. Andre's crossing, 1977

Anema – Being a Compilation of Anema Families and Individuals Everywhere, Volume I and II (1986), Volume I, II, and III (1987)

Antvelink – Family Trees by Elaine Antvelink–Watterson, 1982

Arens – Jan Harm Arens, Prussian Colonist, and Immigrant Descendants, 1750-1967

Baaij – Frans Fransz Baaij. Register Report compiled by Paul V. Pettinga, [2008] and The Baaij Genealogy by Virginia Voskuil Bouma, [2010]

Baarschers – Genealogie Baarschers, by D. Stegeman, 1986 (Dutch)

Baerdt – Baerdt/Baarda, 1440-1930 Risselada/Sluiter, 1580-1997 Risselada/Prins, 1580-1977 by Edward Prins

Baert – Georg Baert. De Familie Baert uit Zeeland by George Ramsay, 1991

Bakelaar – Jan Bakelaar, Family of Goedereede/ Overflakkee, compiled by John Koole, 2009

Bakker – Jan and Jacomijntije Tanis Bakker, undated

Bandstra – (Dutch and English), undated

Bandstra – The Life and Family History of Paulus and Geertje Bandstra, 1733-1992

Bareman – Family History, by Judy Bareman, 1980

Bartelsman – Bartelsman Family Genealogy, by Joop Bartelsman, 1894-1982

Baum – My Very Own Roots, by Jim Baum, 1980

Beerends – Jan Beerends Family Record, [1998]

Beintema – Tjebbe Meinderts Beintema. Groeten Uit Amerika (4), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Bekkering – Hendrik Jacob, undated

Belanus – Genealogy of the Family of Belanus and Margaret Belanus on her 90th Birthday, 1982

Beld – The Beld Story, by Grace Albertha Beld Vander Veen, 1984

Benjaminse – A. J. Benjaminse, undated

Benthem – Benthem Family History by Edith Bain, undated

Berg – Jacob R. Berg, undated

Berghorst – Parenteel van Geert Jans Berghorst compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Bergsma – Sijmen and Siemkje Bergsma Family from Achlum, Netherlands, by Robert L. DeBruin, 2000

Berkhof – Dena Joldersma Heyns Berkhof. The Story of My Life, [1973]

Beukema – Four Centuries, Boijkema, Beukema, Buikema, By J. O. Beukema and R. J. Beukema, 1998

Beukema – Jan Beukema, From Windmills to the Windy City, The Beukema Family History, 1990

Beuker – Bernard Johan Beuker (Dutch and English), undated

Beuker – Beuker-Robbert, undated

Beute – J. Hospers, Een groot geslacht afkomstig uit de Kop van Overijssel (Dutch), undated

Binnema – A tale of four families: Binnema, Mulder, Kapteyn, Zijlstra, by Jacob Hendrik Binnema, 2000

Bijker – Wybe Jans Bijker, Descendants of Wybe Jans Bijker, 1998

Bisschop – The Bisschop Family Immigration to Canada August 1949, by Brian Schoon, 1988

Bisschop – Parenteel van Hendrik Jacobs Bisschop compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Blacquiere – The Blacquieres, by Mary Blacquiere, 1980

Bloemert – Parenteel van Jan Geerlings Bloemert compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Blohm – Blohm/Kleinow Family Roots of Yesterday 1850-1980, by Penni Blohm

Blom – My Story by Nancy DeVries Blom, 1982

Bode – Bode Family History: Ancestors and descendants of Gerrit Bode and Clara Van Schuur, by Robert W. Bode, 2001

Bode – My Family History, by Karen Bode, 1980

Boeing – In Dutch

Boelema – Jan Boelema, Compiled by Helen Boelema, undated

Boelkins – Jan Klaasens Boelkins: Early Boelkins in America, by Winston Boelkins, 2002

Boer – The Boer Family, undated

Boerkoel – My Grandfather's Immigration, by Robert Boerkoel, 1986

Boerman – The Descendants of Klaas Boerman of Allegan County, Michigan, undated

Boersma – Autobiography of Albert J. Boersma, 1971

Boersma – Marcus and Martina Schans Boersma, 1993

Boerwinkle – Hendrick Boerwinkle (Boerwinkel)(German), undated

Boessenkool – Parenteel van Berend Jans Boessenkool compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Boeve Information on Sir Beues of Hamtoun (German and English), undated

Boijckema – Descendants of Jan Boijckema and Courtjen Rijpkes, The Families of Otto Deckinga and Marie Jager, undated

Bol – All the Bols who Immigrated to the US and their Descendents, Compiled by Petronella, 1992

Boldewijn – Parenteel van Albert Boldewijn compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Bolier – We Came To America 1892: The Bolier Family

Bolks – Rev. Seine Bolks – Patriarch of Northwest Iowa, by Nelson Nieuwenhuis, undated

Bolt – Arent Bolt Family, Staying Connected, 2008

Bolt – Ewe Bolt, by Jan Bolt, 1980

Bolt – Genealogie van Jan Everts Bolt (Dutch and English), 1990

Bonenberg – Jan Bonenberg

Bonnema – Martin Bonnema. The Story of Martin Bonnema, 1881-1964, compiled and written by James Andrew Bonnema, 2007

Boogaard – Boogaard-Tilma Family

Boonstra – Atze Klazes Boonstra. De Familie Boonstra uit Friesland by George Ramsay, 1991

Borgers – Family of Albert Borgers (1804-1876)

Borgman – Researched and Compiled by Arlene Brummel Bloem, undated

Bos – Harry Bos and Sena (Klanderman) family by Carol Faber

Bosch – The John Albert Bosch Story, 1868-1949

Bosgraaf – Bosgraaf Family Tree

Bos-Hoving – 50-jarig Huwelijk van Lubbert en Ida Bos–Hoving (Dutch), 1954

Bosker – The Family of John and Effie Ten Beyk Bosker, 2001

Bosker – Peter Bosker and Antje VanderVeen (Family Bible Information), undated

Botting – Abraham Botting (Dutch), 1990

Bouma – Derk Bouma, Bouma Family Tree, undated

Bouma – Gaele Doekes and Susan Brouwer Bouma, 1740-1977

Bouma – Henry Bouma: A Man with a Dual Heritage, by Shelayne Bouma, 1986

Bouma – Minke Thomas Bouma. Groeten Uit Amerika (12), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Bouma – Pieter Libbe Bouma, T he History of the Bouma Family, by Robert Bolt, 1980

Bouma – Peter Libbe Bouma, The History and Memoirs of Peter L. Bouma and Boukje DeVries by Gerben Bouma

Bouma – Sipke Klases Bouma and The Bouma Family Genealogy: Descendents of Sipke Klases (Bouma) by Virginia Voskuil Bouma, [2006]

Bouwkamp – Jacob and Flora (Vander Molen) Bouwkamp Family Tree, 1994

Bouwman – Hendrik Bouwman, T he Bouwman Families, Compiled by Judith Ann (nee Wassenaar) Bouwman, undated

Bouwmeester – Parenteel van Jan Bouwmeester compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Bouws – John R, The Bouws: Genealogy and Recollections, 1988

Bouwsma – Three Dutch Families in Old Muskegon, Evert Bouwsma, Jan M. Boersema, Sander Klooster, 1998

Boven – Boven Dutch Apple Pie: The Story of Boven Emigration to the United States, By John Henry Boven and Carol Gohsman Boven, 1995

Bovendam – Parenteel van Jan Klaas Bovendam I compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Branderhorst – William Branderhorst, Branderhorst Meets Vander Beek, 1981

Branderhorst – Descendants of Gerrit Branderhorst, undated

Brandsema – Hendrik Brandsema, From Here to There, by Maria Brandsema, 1988

Braschler – Family History: Braschler History, undated

Bratt – Celebrating 125 years: Bratts in America, 1876-2001

Bratt – Who's Who in the Brat[t] Relation, by Hero D. Bratt

Breen – The Genealogy of Kryn and Nellie Visser Breen and Their Descendants, 1979

Bremer – Genealogy of Arend Andries Bremer, 2004

Brink – Genealogy of Bernardus (Ben) Brink and Jennie (Adriana) Vanden Bos Brink, 1984

Brinkhuis – Jan Brinkhuis, The New World Descendants and The Old Wolrd Ancestors of Jan Brinkhuis, 1994

Brinks – Familie Brinks (Dutch), undated

Brinks – Harm Geerts Zwijn (Brinks). Brinks Genealogy compiled by Gladys Mys Van Tuinen, 2009

Brinks – Rutgert Brinks, Brinks Family History and Records, 1794-1934

Brinks – The Roelof H. Brinks Family in America, 1995

Broek – The Broek and Jonker Families of Holland, Michigan and Provinces Overijssel and Groningen, 1993

Broekhuis –Roelof Broekhuis

Brondyke – Brondyke Genealogy, by Ron Buursma, 1983

Brondyke – Why am I Here? by Mart Brondyke, 1980

Bronsema – Jakob Bron[t]sema, undated

Brouwer – Children of Aaltje Broekhuis and Aart Brouwer, undated

Brouwer – Parenteel van Arend Brouwer (ook Tiemens) compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Brouwer – Parenteel van Geert Brouwer compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Brower – Family Register of Gerrit J. Brower, Sr, 1934

Brouwer – Klass H Brouwer, Brouwer Genealogy, undated

Brouwer – Willem Brouwer History of our Family Record as Much as I Could Obtain or Recall, by Jas. A. Brouwer, 1936

Brouwer – List of Records Linked to Ancestors and Descendants of Susan Brouwer Bouma, undated

Brouwer – Koob Brouwer They Left a Mark: A History of the Koob Brouwer Family, 1970

Brouwer – Wortels, by Steve Brouwer, 1980

Bruin – Pieter and Cornelia Bruin, 1990

Bruins – Descendants of Berent Bruins and Anje Pieters, undated

Bruins – The Bruins Family of Alto, Wisconsin, Historical and Genealogical Data Relating to the Family of Hendrik VanWechel Bruins and their Descendants, 1750-1980

Bruins – The Hendrick and Hendrika Bruins Family in America, 1847-1997

Bruins – Unto the Sixth Generation: Descendants of Derk and Cynthia Bruins, 1865-1990

Bruins – Unto the Third Millenium: The Derk and Cynthia Bruins Family, 1865-2002

Brummel – The Brummel Tree, undated

Brunsting – Brunsting Family Chart, 1994

Brunsting – The Brunsting Family Book, 1700-1991

Buddingh – Dr. G. J. Buddingh Family, undated

Buikema – An Immigration Story: As Seen Through the Eyes of an Immigrant's Daughter, by Marsha Buikema, (John G. Buist) 1986

Buis – Parenteel van femmigje Buis (Jacob) compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Buist – John G Buist Family History, by Pam Buist, 1980

Buist – Buist Ancestors (related families: Mulder, Tiesma, Westveer, Speyer, Sietsema, Berends, and Eising) by Richard Harms, 2014

Bult – John Bult, A Family History, by David Bult, 1980

Bulthuis – Abel Bulthuis, undated

Bulthuis – Genealogie Bulthuis, 1650-1842, by W. Tsj. Vleer, [1957]

Bulthuis – Peter Bulthuis (1924-2004). Ka mo ter wou: It's me your dad, by Peter Bulthuis, 1994

Bultman – Bultman Family History, by Melanie Scott, 2005

Bus – The Story of My Life, by Siewert Bus, 1854-1938

Büter – Hindrik Buter, Chronik der Familie Büter (Veldgaar) (Dutch), 1985

Buter – Gezinus Buter, Op Zoek Naar het Voorgeslacht and De Familienaam Buter (Dutch), undated

Buteyn – Buteyn 1993 The Family of John Buteyn and Dena Kamphuis Buteyn and Buteyn 1700-1996

Buth – Claes Jorisz Buth, Het Geslacht Buth (Dutch), 1951

Buunk – My Dutch Heritage, by Pam Keizer, 1986

Buursma – Hemme Tjallings Buursma, Compiled by Ron Buursma, 1982. Additions, 2007

Buwalda – Abraham Paulus Buwalda. Groeten Uit Amerika (8), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Catts – The History and Family Tree of Cornelius Cat(t)s and Jeltje Bouwma, 1975

Compagner – Parenteel van Arent Arents (Compagner) compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Compagner – William/Wllem Compagner Family Chart

Cook – Family Tree of Edward Cook and His Wife Marion Grace Harkema, undated

Cooper – An Account of Herman Cooper (Kuiper) Who Settled in Coopersville, Michigan in 1879

Coster – Parenteel van Jan Arends Coster compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Coster – Parenteel van Jan Bartelds Coster compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Couzynse – Pedigree chart of Robert Jay Couzynse, 1985

Crap – Sieds Theunis Crap, From Provincial Frisian Newspaper, March 28, 1847

Crediet – Parenteel van Harmen Jans Crediet compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Dahm – Hendrick Jan Dam, The Whole Da(h)m Family, 1981

Dalhuijsen – Descendants of Jan Dalhuijsen, undated

Dalhuisen – Descendants of Jan Taback Dalhuisen, undated

Dam(e) – Klaas Pieters Dam. Descendants of Klaas Pieters Dam compiled by Carl Veenstra, 2007

Daverman – Descendants of Harmannus Daverman, by Robert J Daverman, 2000 – plus Cornelis Van Nuis Addendum, 2007

DeBlaay – Sarah DeBlaay DeBlaay, Family Record by Joe Noorthoek, 1944

De Blieck – Marinus De Blieck, undated

De Boer – Anne and Tine DeBoer, A Man Named Anne, 1992

De Boer – Syste Wobbes, De Boer Genealogy, prepared by Hendrik DeBoer, 1985

De Boer – Abraham Everts DeBoer, Deboer–Bosma and Allied Families, 1991

De Braal – John (Jan) H. Bosma, Compiled by E. Daniel de Braal, undated

Deckinga – The Families of Otto Deckinga and Marie Jager, Family of Otto Decking and Maire Jager CD, undated

De Graaf – Family history, by Julie de Graaf, undated

De Groot – Fred DeGroot Sr, Golden Anniverary Memoirs: De Groot Family 1904-1953, 1954, De Groot Family Memoirs 1963, and The De Groot Family 1973

De Groot – Parenteel van Hendrik Jans de Groot compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

De Haan – Parenteel van Hendrik de Haan compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

De Haan – Jan DeHaan, De Haan Family: 125 Years in Michigan, by Edward Prins, 1974 and Index, 2002

De Haan – Henrietta [De Haan], by Ellen Alderink, 2003

DeHaan – Wopke Hoekes DeHaan. Groeten Uit Amerika (5), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

De Hog – The Immigration of Connie De Hog, by Mary Blaine, 1986

De Jong – A Few Leaves: The Peter Y. and Joanne H. Heyns De Jong Family, 1999

De Jong – De Memoires fan Klaas de Jong (Frisian), undated

De Jong – The Berend De Jong Family, 100 Years in America, 1882-1982

de Jong – Fooke de Jong. The de Jong Family Genealogy: Descendants of Fooke (de Jong) by Virginia Voskuil Bouma, [2010]

De Jong – Wika De Jong, Grandma's Memoirs, undated

De Jong – William and Elizabeth Busman De Jong. The DeJong/Busman Family, 2003

De Jonge – Getuigschrift van Verandering van Werkelijke Woonplaats (Dutch), undated

De Jonge – Jan De Jonge Family Register, 1956

De Jonge – Marinus De Jonge. De Jonge family tree, undated

De Jongh – Hendrik De Jongh, De Jongh and Allied Families: Genealogy and History in Europe and America, 1934

De Jongh – Klass Johannes DeJongh, DeJongh Van Schylge (Dutch), undated

De Kleine – Derk De Kleine and His Descendants: 100 Years in America, by William De Kleine, 1956

De Kok – Jacob DeKok, Speurtocht in het Verleden: Kwartierstaat van Jacob de Kok en Maria Vereeke, 1983

De Kruyter – Descendants of Johannes (Joe) De Kruijter complied by Kees (Cornelis Jacobus) de Kruijter, 2010

De Leeuw – Pieter DeLeeuw, The De Leeuw Family History, by Hermine Terpstra, 1993

De Long – William DeLange The De Long Family (DeLange), 1976

Den Besten – Cornelius and Huibertje Den Besten, undated

Den Besten – Corneilius DenBesten, Margaret (DenBesten VanWyk) De Lange, a South Dakota Pioneer, by Betty Vander Zee, 1977

Den Blyker – Den Blyker Family, on microfilm

Den Hartigh – Jan, Pieter, Ary, and Simon den Hartigh. Genealogy of den Hartigh compiled by M. den Hartigh, 1997

Den Hartigh – Eliza and Pieter den Hartigh (twins) Genealogy compiled by Giel den Hartigh

Den Hartogh – see den Hartigh

De Pree – Het geslacht de Pree (Dutch), 1855

De Pree – Bartholomeus DePree, The Lineage of De Pree, Part III, by H.G. Keppel, 1903

De Raad – The Re-Budding of a Family Tree, by Anita De Raad, 1980

Derks – The Place of Beginning…The Gerrit Derks Family, 1847

Derks – Harmiena Brinkman Derks, undated

De Roos – Parenteel van Adriaan de Roos compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

De Rooy – Arie and Clazina DeRooy, Consider the Years: A Family Festival of Memories, 1996

De Smit – Cornelius and Adriana de Witte de Smit, undated

Deters – Deters (Walkotte), Jacob. Generations, undated

Deur – George Deur. The Deur Genealogy, 1773-2003, compiled by Paul Pettinga, 2008

Deur – The History of George Deur and His Descendants in America, by Joanne Bultman, 1980

De Vos – Abraham De Vos. De Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse en Amerikaanse Families De Vos by George Ramsay, 1991

De Vos – Jan De Vos, 1996

De Vreeze – Tryntsje (Catharina) de Vreeze, 1992

De Vries – George DeVries, Compiled by Arlene Burmmel Rhoda, undated

De Vries – Jan De Vries (Dutch and English), 1986

De Vries – Jan Haites De Vries Genealogy Papers and DeVries/Faber/Berens/Meekhof Family Story (DVD)

De Vries – Oeds Gerben De Vries. The Veldwachter of Drachten, by Frank DeJong, 1975

De Vries – Roger De Vries. The generations of Roger De Vries, 1996

De Vries – Stoffel Hendriks de Vries, 1995

De Waal Malefyt – Karel Everhard, The Descendants of Karl Everhard DeWaal Malefyt and Jemima VanDerSnel, undated

De Waal Malefyt – De Waal Malefyt, James. Christian Reformed Dutch Immigrants of Northern New Jersey [Volume A], 2002

De Waal Malefyt – De Waal Malefyt, James. Some Late 19th and Early 20th Century, Dutch Immigrant,Reformed and Christian Reformed Families of Bergen and Passaic Counties, New Jersey. (Biographies, Ancestors, and Genealogical Descendants) Volume 1. Busch, de Waal Malefyt, Grootveld, Huizenga, Meyer, Tanis, and Van Der Horn, 1999 Volume 2. Belanus, Blom, Borduin, Boonstra, de Haan, Kuiken, Stienstra, Tolsma, and Yskamp, 2000 Volume 3. Offringa, Schwier, Sikkema, Spyksma, Steensma, Teitsma, VanderWeit, and Zuidema, 2001

De Waal Malefyt – The Descendents of Karel Everhard de Waal Malefyt and Jemima Van Der Snel, compiled by D. van Reken, and De Waal Malefyt Family History, 1991 and 1995, by James John de Waal Malefyt.

De Weerd – Pieter De Weerd genealogy, undated

De Weerd – Hendrikus DeWeerd, Jan DeWeerd, Geert Dieters, The De Weerd Family Genealogy and Welcome De Weerd Family, 1999

De Wit – The Happy Outlook and the Blessed Dying of Hendrikje de Wit, by Adriaan de Wit, 1882

De Witt – Tjerck DeWitt, An American Family, by Lynne West, 1980

De Witte – Parenteel van Klaas Hilberts de Witte compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Diepenhorst – Pieter Soys, Diepenhorst Family Tree, Compiled by Arlene Brummel Rhoda, undated

Diepenhorst – The Arie Diepenhorst Family History, undated

Diepeveen – D.H. Diepeveen, Reflections, 1990

Diephuis – Roelof Diephuis Information Sheets, undated

Dijkema – Kryn Dijkema, From Family Bible, undated

Dijkman – Tjisse Koenraads Dijkman, A Brief History on Our Ancestors, 2000

Dijkman – Jan Dijkman, Een Stukje Geschiedenis van het Geslacht Dijkman, (Dutch), undated

Dijksterhuis – Peter Dirkse Dijksterhuis, Dyksterhuis, An American Dream: A House, A Family, A Nation by Tim DeVries, 1986

Dijkstra – Klaas and Antje Hofman Dijkstra, undated

Dik – Derk Pieters Dik, Familieboek, 1982 detailed research materials compiled by Cornelis Van Nuis, 2007

Dirkse – Peter Dirkse, The Immigration of the Dirkse Family, by Jim Van Ess, 1986

Disselkoen – Disselkoen Family I, II, and III, I Simon 1739 – [1800s], II Antony, undated, III Della VandenBosch 1982

Doezema – The Frank Doezema Family History by Robert P. Swierenga, 2004

Doezema – Tjerk Doezema. Compiled by Ron Redder, 2000

Doezema – Tjerk Doezema and Ansktje Hofstee

Domine – Parenteel van Hendrik Jans Domine (Domina) compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Dominee – Parenteel van Jan Dominee (Domina) compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Donkersgoed – Willem van Donkersgoed and his Descendants, undated

Doornink – Jan Willem Doornink. The Doornink Genealogy by Virginia Voskuil Bouma, [2010]

Doornbos – Record of all the Descendants of Teunis Doornbos and Aafien Ebbens, undated

Dornbush – Teunis Doornbos, Roots of the Doornbush Family: Menzo Dornbush–Cynthia E. Hartger, 1989

Dozeman – Parenteel van Jan Roelofs Dozeman (ook Deuzeman) compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Dozeman – Parenteel van Roelof Klaas Dozeman compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Drenth – Geslachts register Drenth–Ten Brink–Tijmes–Timmerman by T. Drenth (Dutch), 1993

Drost – The New World Descendants and The Old World Ancestors of Dirk Drost, 1994

Drukker – Derk Douwe Drukker, 1977

Dunnewind – Egbert Dunnewind family, undated

Dunnink – Parenteel van Arend Dunnink compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Dunnink – Parenteel van Harm Harms Dunnink compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Dunnink – Parenteel van Harmen Egberts Dunnink compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Dunnink – Parenteel van Herm Herms Dunnink compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Duyst – Duyst Family Tree, 1978, and Emigratie in 1910 (English and Dutch)

Duyst – Jan Duyst, To Lie in Green Pastures, by Everett Vande Beek, undated

Dykenga – Immigration and Americanization of Four Dutch Family Lines, by Paul J. Meeter, Meeter, Nawyn, Dykenga, Hartogs, 1986

Dykman – Descendants of Jan Dykman and Harmtje Polender, undated

Dykstra – The New World Descendants and Old World Ancestors of Jelle Dykstra, 1994

Dylhof – Pieter Dijlhof Descendants, 2005

Eelman – Aris Jan Eelman. The Eelmans of Olive ownship by Thea B. Van Halsema and Loren Lemmen, 2006

Ebeling – Ebeling (Ebling) Genealogy, translation and comments by Cornelis Van Nuis, undated

Eenigenburg – A Glimpse into the History of Eenigenburg, 1997

Eggebeen – Antone Eggebeen, Eggebeen Family, undated

Eising – Albert Eising, Genealogy Eising, undated

Ekdom – Schippers in de Bilt, by Don Ekdom (Dutch), undated

Ekster – Pieter Frixerds, A History of the Ekster Family by Sandra Ekster Bixel

Elenbaas – Cornelis Claes, Mijn Naam is Elenbaas (Dutch), 1983

Elferink – Jan Hendrik Elferink: The Dutchman from Driene, by Jenny Elferink Bos, 1976

Ellens – Genealogy of the descendants of Heertse and Sjoukje Ellens, Compiled by Stuart Ellens, 1957

Engel – My Family's Past, by Randy Engel, 1980

Ensing – Lucas and Hillegien Arens Ensing (Dutch), undated

Ensink – Drie Kwartierstaten van een Familie Ensink (Dutch), 1988

Eppinga – Dr. Quirijn Eppinga, Genealogie Eppinga de tak Groningen, by H. Eppinga (Dutch), undated

Eshuis – Ter Nagedachtenis, 1932

Everts – Some family lines of Gerrit Everts of Epe, Gelderland, Nederland (whose descendants bear the surname Van Dragt) by Jane Moudy Van Dragt, [1998]

Faasse – Stamboom ‘Faasse' (Dutch), undated

Faber – Descendants of Auke Cornelis Faber by Ralph Haan, 2001

Ferwerda – Ancestors and Descendants of Floris Thomas Ferwerda (Dutch and English), undated

Ferwerda – Hiram Benjamin and Irene Shock Ferwerda (English, Dutch, and Frisian), undated

Fiet – Het Geslacht Fiet by J. Verdonk Hoogland, 1983 (Dutch)

Fletcher – Ralph Henry Fletcher, Four Generation Ancestor Chart, undated

Folkema – Family History of Dorke and Klaaske Folkema, undated

Fox – Roelof Fox: Dalmollen, Jonkman, Havenga, Dyke, Dykema, Johnson, undated

Fredricks – Hendrik (Fredericks) Fredriks, Family Group Sheet, undated

Freehouse – Harms-Viersen-Freehouse-Wilkey Families, compiled by Richard H. Harms, 2006

Fridsma – Family information of Bernard (Bearend Joukes) Fridsma, undated

Fridsma – Fryts Gerbens, Genealogie Fridsma (Dutch) and Genealogy Fridsma, (translation), undated

Fridsma – Genealogy of Jouke (Jacob) Fridsma and Hiltje Bakker by Bill Fridsma, undated

Furrow – John Furrow, Furrows in the Land, by Nellie Furrow Daland, 1976

Fynewever – Family Tree: Gerrit Jan and Jenneken (Mensink) Fynewever, 1994

Galema – Ysbrand Gaeles Galama, Compiled by Sjoerd Galema, 1976

Gantvoort – Gantvoort Genealogy: American Branch Revisited, by J. Th. Gantvoort, 1986

Gazan – Stories of our Fathers by Harold S. Gazan

Geels – In God's Hands from One Generation to Another, by Patricia Ann Geels Oostenink, 1991, (Geels – deWalle – Vermeer - Ter Horst)

Geerdes – Autobiography of H. H. Geerdes 1863-1952, Autobiography of Raymond Geerdes 1897-1955

Geerlings – Gerrit Geerlings, The Geerlings-story (Dutch), undated

Gelderloos – Johannes Hendrik Gelderloos, My Family Roots, by Randal Gelderloos, 1986

Germeraad – Extended family tree of Dan Frederick Germeraad, undated

Germeraad – Genealogy of Dan Frederick Germeraad, undated

Gerritsen – Gerrit Jan Gerritsen Genealogy, undated

Ghijsels – Jacobus Ghijsels. Fragmentgenealogie Jacobus Ghijsels (USA),1991

Gnade – Gnade, Lambertus: Great-Grandfather, by Tom Windeler, undated

Goetschy – The Goetschy Family and the Limping Messenger, by Ruth and William Heidgerd, 1968

Goudzwaards – Pieter Jacobse Goudswaart, The Goudzwaards from Netherlands to America, by Larry Goudzwaard, 2004

Gouwens – Dirk Gouwen, History and Genealogy of the Gouwens Family, 1956

Greidanus – Tyaerd Jans Greydanus, Greydanus Genealogy – translation, 1991

Greydanus – Het Geslacht Greydanus (Dutch), undated (Large Book)

Greydanus – Tyaerd Jans Greydanus, The Greydanus Genealogy

Griffioen – Two Centuries Before, Willem Griffioen (1782) and Marritje de Haan (1783), Two Centuries After

Grinwis – Grinwis, Hubert: Great-Grandfather, by Keith Tanis, undated

Grit – The Grets: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow, by Lori Wilson, 1986

Gritter – …And George Gritter Prayed: ‘Our Faithful Covenant God…' by Richard Gritter

Groenheide – Tys Groenheide Family Chart

Groenheide – Parenteel van Willem Klaas? Groenheide compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Groenewold – My Family Roots, by Gary D. Groenewold, 1980

Groenewoud – A Personal History of the Groenewoud Family, Part I: Origins, 1994

Groenink – A Tracing of History: from Netherlands to New Era by Kristi Van Dyke, 1986

Groot – Het Westfriese Geslacht Groot, 1982 (Dutch)

Groot – Mary Maartje's Story, 1999

Groot – Pieter Jansz, Groot (Dutch and English), 1990

Groot – The Klaas Groot Family Record, undated

Grootemaat – Johannes Grootemaat. Een Hollandse Windmolen to Milwaukee (Wisconsin) en de Familie Grootemaat by F. Inniger, 1991

Grooters – Memories of My Journey by Minnie De Witt Grooters, 1982

Grutter – Ancestors of Robert James Grutter compiled by Ethel V. Strom

Guigelaar – James Guigelaar Family Chart, 1978

Haagsma – Broer Ysbrands, Compiled by Petronella Venhuis, undated

Haagsma – Sjoerd Jacobs Haagsma families swhose descenbdants settled in New Jersey, [2005]

Haan – Jacob Jans, The Haan Family Genealogy 1650 - 1980

Haan – Gijsbert Haan, The Haan Family Story, by Doris Haan Wyngarden, 1976-1977

Haasdijk – Alle Jans, The Haasdijk Family from 1683

Hager – Josephine Johanna Hager, undated

Hager – Ancestry of Elizabeth Ann Hager (Kiel), 2006

Haagsma – Sjoerd Jacobs Haagsma Families Whose Descendants Settled New Jersey, [2005]

Haasjes – Parenteel van Jan Jans Haasjes, Jacob Haasjes, Roelof Haasjes, Hendrik Haasjes, Klaas Haasjes compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hainje – Abe Hainje Family History (English) and De Hania en Hanja's (Dutch), undated

Hamstra – Roger Dale Hamstra, Hamstra Family Record, 1984

Hanenburg – Arjen Hanenburg, The House of Hanenburg, Prepared by Josephine Van Heest Zuyddyk, 1981

Hanenburg – Hanenburg and Rozendal: A Goodly Heritage, 1986

Harmelink – Harmelink Genealogy, Rock Valley, Iowa and Cedar Grove, Wisconsin 1978

Harms – Harms-Viersen-Freehouse-Wilkey Families, compiled by Richard H. Harms, 2006

Harmsen – Gerrit Harmsen, Harmsen Family Tree, Freeman, Reeman MI, undated

Hartegerink – Alexander and Engelbert Hartgerink Family Genealogy, 1978

Harth – Peter Harth. Fragmentgenealogie Harth by George Ramsay, 1991 Adriaan Houmes. De

He(c)kman – He(c)kman in Noordoost Nederland sinds de 16e eeuw, by M. Van Der Woude and G. Hekman, 2006

Heersink – The Family and Descendants of Adolf and Grada Heersink, 1993

Heetderks – Gerrit John Heetderks, The Heetderks Story, 1956

Heida – Ted and Margaret Heida, First 25 Years in Canada: The Heida Family, 1976

Hekhuis Hekman – Gerrit Jan Hekhuis, Hekhuis Family Tree, undated

Hekman – Edsko Hekman and Calvin College and Seminary, 1979: see Ms
Coll 499 William Spoelhof

Hempanius – Immigrational History of Janke Hempanius and Rena Veenstra by Loray De Vries, 1986

Hendricks – Ben Henricks and Ann Buizer family history, 1983

Hendriks – Parenteel van Wijcher Hendriks compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hengeveld – Birth and Death Certificates (Dutch), undated

Heslinga – Jacob Clases Heslinga. The Heslinga Family Genealogy: Descendents of Epo Douwes Aylwa by Virginia Voskuil Bouma, [2010]

Hertel – The Ancestral History of the Wieberen Hertel Family, 1983

Hettema – Remembrance and Life Experiences, Written by the Late H. P. Hettema, Translation of Nagedachtenis en Levenservaringen, 1883

Heukels – Edward C. Heukels, Correspondence Regarding Heukels Genealogy, Late 1980s

Heusinkveld – Dirk Heusinkveld, Willem Heusinkveld, Evert Heusinkveld, and Gerrit Heusinkveld, Heusinkvelds in America, 1966

Heusinkveld – Dick Heusinkveld, The Cornerpost: The Heusinkveld Memoirs, 1980

Heyboer – Familie Heyboer (Dutch), undated

Heyboer – William James Heyboer. Longstreet, Vandenberg and Heyboer by Fred Ritsema, 1998-2001

Heyns – Peter Freiershaus, Tracing our Roots to the Old Farmhouse of Heine, 2004

Heyns – As I remember it by Joanne Heyns De Jong

Hiskes – Harold Hiskes, In Memoriam, 1996 (limited genealogy)

Hoekema – Hette Hommes, Hoekema Family Tree, 1991

Hoekema – NIJS fan'e Hoekema-Stifting, 1951 – 2001

Hoekert – Berent Hoeker, Hoekert Family (Hoeker & Hooker), 1977

Hoekinga – Peter Hoekinga. Growing Up Christian Reformed by Ruth Donker, 2001

Hoekstra – Louis Hoekstra. Janet Huyser Hoekstra My Life Story and Other Memories, undated

Hoekstra – A Letter to Sarah: Two Centuries of the Hoekstra Family in Holland and America, by H. D. Hoekstra, 1983

Hoekstra – Klaas Hoekstra Ancestry, 1990

Hoekstra – Pieter and Jacoba Alida Clausing Hoekstra, undated

Hoekstra – Teunis Lolles Hoekstra Tree, 1953

Hoeve – Parenteel van Jacob geerts t Hoeve compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hoeve – Parenteel van Peter Geerts Hoeve compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hofman – Hofman, Jurgen Cornelis Pot Moltmaker, and John and Grietje Hoorns-Spijkerman, undated

Hofman – Recollections, by Mrs. John Hofman, Sr., and Other Records, 1970

Hofman – The Family of Cornelia Hofman-Koning and The Family of Albert Harm Koning, undated

Hofs – Gathered Data Concerning Emigrants Hofs, undated

Hofstede – Maarten Cornelisse, The History of the Hofste(d)e Family, 1978

Hofstee – Hofstee/Hofstede Family, 1985

Hoftijzer – Hoftijser, Family Group Record, 1993

Hoitink – Gerhardus Johannes Hoitink (Dutch), undated

Hokse – Parenteel van Roelof Roelofs Hokse compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hol – Parenteel van Berend Everts Hol compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Holkeboer – Friesland Farmer 160 Years Ago, by Edward Prins, 1976

Hollander – Hollanders of Roden, Drenthe, Neth, undated

Holleman – Willian Holleman, A Dutch Immigrant of 1855 and His Wife Clara Ulberg Holleman, The Family in Holland and America, By James P. Dahm, 2001

Holwerda – Jan Holwerda and Jantje Schripsema, Holwerda, researched and compiled by Arlene Brummel Rhoda, undated

Hoogeboom – Hoogeboom – Meines Genealogy, undated

Hoogendam – Bert and Frances Verdun-Hoogendam, Passing on the Dutch Culture to the Second Generation, by Karen Hoogendam, undated

Hoogeveen – De familienaam Hoogeveen (Dutch and English), undated

Hoogland – Geëmigreerde Hooglands Volgens de Opgave and Genealogie (Dutch), undated

Hoogstra – Where Did I Come From? by Robert A. Hoogstra, 1980

Houmes – Familie Houmes in de USA by P. Houmes, 1991

Houwerzijl – Descendants of Enne Sibrants Houwerzijl, undated

Hoving – Family tree of Pieter Hoving and of Geert (George) Becksvoort and their wives Helen Laarman and Zwaantje Brinks, undated

Huisenga – The Family History of Peter Huisenga, Sr., by George Kuipers, undated

Huisjen – Arent Jan Huisjen, Marinus Rottier, Hendrik Lummen, Aalt VanPutten, A Different Time and Place, A Memoir by David R. Huisjen, 2006

Huiskamp – Family group record, undated

Huiskamp – Het Geslacht Huiskamp (R. K.), Van Silvolde tot Huiskamp A II and Van Silvolde tot Huiskamp Epe (Dutch), undated

Huizenga – The Huizenga Family In America, 1893-1990

Huizenga – John Huizenga Family Chart, 1997

Huizenga – The Huizenga Story or the Descendants of Jacob Willems and Anje Leves, 1993

Huizenga – The Life Story of Harm (Harry) Huizenga 1869-1936 and The Immigration of One Which Led to Many, 1988

Huizenga – Surrounded by Witnesses, History of Nicholas and Joan Huizinga, undated

Huizingh – Pieter Huizingh and Janna Westerhof Huizingh Genealogy, undated

Hulst – Jan Hendriks Hulst: Dutch Seceder and Michigan Pioneer, by Kevin L. Ash, 2004

Hulst – Jan Hulst, 1984

Hulst – Parenteel van Egbert Hulst compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hulst – Parenteel van Harm Meilofs Hulst compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hulst – Parenteel van Hendrik Jans Hulst compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hulst – Parenteel van Klaas Harms Hulst compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hulst – Parenteel van Lubbert Hulst compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Hulst – Martinus Hulst: Founder of an American Family by Steve Hulst, 1986

Hulstein – Reijer Hulstein, 2006

Hungerink – Gerrit Hendrik Hungerink, undated

Huyser – Huyser: Pieter Huyser, The Huyser Family and Their Descendants from the year 1663, by Edward Prins 1971

Hyink – Documents Related to the History of the Family and Descendants of Lydia Hyink, undated

Hyma – The Family History of Rintje Hyma and Grietje Wietsema, Including the family of Rintje's First Wife Hendrika Deur, 1992

IJff – see Yff

Immink – G. J. Immink, Compiled by Esther Koops Timmer, 1970

Insinger – Frederik Robbert Insinger, undated

Ippel – Andrew and Mary, Compiled by Henry P. Ippel, 2000

Ippel – Gerrit Ippel, Ippel Family Trees, undated

Ippel – Ippel Genealogy, Descendants of Hendricus Ippel and Elizabeth DeGraaff, undated

Ippel – The Ippel Ancestral Home, A History of the Farmhouse Built in 1737, 1990

Iwema – Bonne Harms and Hiltje Pieters Hazenberg Iwema, undated

Iwema – Jan Iwema’s family

Jager – Gerrit Jon Jager. Derk and Helen Wolters

Jager – Jan and Greitje Stoepker Jager, undated

Jager – Johannes Jager and Martje Hoogstra, Jager Family tree, undated

Jalving – Lukas Jalving. The Story of My Life by Jennie Kolean, 1983

Jansen – Genealogy and Family History of Jan Dirk Jansen, 1984

Jansma – Descendants of Jan Douwes Jansma of Dokkum, Friesland, Netherlands, 2010

Jellema – The Jellema’s from Dokkum Woods by Henk Tak, 2009

Jellema – The Story of Johannes W. Jellema, 1865-1920 by David Postma, 2009

Jeltes – Story of the Life of Jans Simons Jeltes and His wife Eelje Jakobs Helder, undated

Johnson – Elizabeth Lubbers Johnson: Ancestors, Descendants and Remembrances, by Robert and Beth Bode, 2000

Johnson – The Genealogy and Memories of Effie Beukema Johnson, 1985

Johnson – Barend Jansen, Johnson Family Register, 1925-1975

Joldersma – Jacob Joldersma (Dutch), undated

Jongsma – Our Family: Jongsma/Solle and Boss/Roelfsema, 2002

Jongste – Adrianna Jongste Van Der Lugt Gabrielse Ten Harmsel by Marian L. Kramer Ten Pas, undated

Jonker – Cornelius Jonker and Teetje Blom, undated

Jonker – Peter Jonker genealogy compiled by Robert J. Yonker, 2001

Kahle – Descendants of Herman Kahle, undated

Kallemeyn – The Descendants of Maarten Kallemeyn 1849-1934, 1970

Kalsbeek – Frank Kalsbeek, A Family Takes Shape, by Anne Hiemstra, 1980

Kamper – Gerrit Kamper. Memories for the children by Grace Kamper Hanenburg, 1996

Kampstra – Hendrik Kampstra, undated

Kapenga – Kapenga/Kapinga's uit de Marne (Dutch), 1994

Kapteyn – The History and Genealogy of the Kapteyn Family, by Bryan William Kapteyn, 2009 [Coll. 78 – C.P. Kapteijn letters]

Karsten – A Short History of the W. J. Karsten Family, By Esther (Karsten) Waid, 1980

Karsten –Peter Karsten. Karsten genealogy, compiled by Julius R. Karsten, 1992

Kats – J. W. Kats Family Tree and Family History, 1982, including 1985 update

Keessen – Philippus Keessen, Facts Known about the American Keessen Family as per March 31, 1994

Keijzer – Familieboek Keijzer and The Life's Story of Arie and Grietje [Keizer] Van Hoff (Dutch), undated

Keizer – John Keiser, The Keizer Family, 1986

Kempenaar – Anecdotes of New Amsterdam, Wis. of Ella Kempenaar Huizenga, undated

Kempers – Gerrit Kempers, The Kempers Family, 1841-1948

Kerklingh – Jacob Daniel Kerklingh, undated

Kiel – Ancestry of Donald Kiel, 2006

Kikkert – The Early Years and Memories of Jacob and Lena Kikkert, 1994

Kilwinger – Genealogie Van Het Geslacht Kilwinger (Dutch), 1990

Kleiboer – Gerrit Kleiboer

Kleinhesselink – Kleinhesselink Ancestry, undated

KleinWassink b Stamboom vande Familie KlienWassink, 1998

Kleis – Parenteel van Peter Willems Kleis compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Klomp – Family Tree of the Gerrit Klomp and Hendrikje Durrink Family, 1799-1976

Klomparens – Albert, Harm, Jan Hendrik, Arend Jan. Four Brothers Klomparens, by Edward Prins, 1972

Klooster – Hinke Foppes Klooster, undated

Knoll – Parenteel van Jan Knoll and Wolter Harms Knoll compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kloppenburg – Cornelis Jacobszoon Kloppenburg, undated

Knooihuizen – Biographical Notes and Genealogy of the Remt and Grietje Knooihuizen Family, Groningen, Netherlands, Late 1700 to early 1900.

Koetje – The Koetje Family, compiled by Willard J. Koetje, 1999

Kok – Jan Kok, biographical notes, Genealogy, 1992

Koning – Hofman, The Family of Cornelia Hofman-Koning and The Family of Albert Harm Koning, undated

Kooiker – Parenteel van Claas Harms Kooiker compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kooiker – Parenteel van Egbert Kooiker and AaltjeTippe compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kooiker – Parenteel van Egbert Kooiker and Hendrikje Redder compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kooiker – Gerrit H Kooiker: A Dutch-American Family History, by Marilyn A. Kooiker, 1993

Kooiker – Parenteel van Harmen Klaas Kooiker compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kooiker – Parenteel van Jan Klaas Berends Kooiker compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kooiker – Parenteel van Roelof Kooiker compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kooiman – Het Westfriese Geslacht Kooiman (Dutch), 1977

Kooistra – Tjitze Kooistra (Dutch), undated

Kooistra – Garrit Kooistra Family Charts, 1983

Koole – Gerhardus and Jan Koole, 2009

Koops – Berend Koops and Antje Kuiken Koops. Koops Family in America by John Koops, 2005

Korfker – Autobiography of William H. Korfker 1843-1929 and The Korfker Family Tree 1720-1960

Korterink – Parenteel van Jan (Kortman) Korterink compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kortenhoevens – Genealogy of Kortenhoevens in the United States of America and their Ancestors in Netherlands, undated

Korthuis – Korthuis Family History, by Jay Anema, 2008

Koster – Jan Pieters Tammes Koster

Kraker – History – Kraker (Scholten) Family Genealogy, 1949

Kraayenbrink – Albert Kraayenbrink. When I was a Giirl by Nellie Krayayenbrink Rens, 2002

Kremer – Hendrik Kremer, The History of the Kremers as Written by Tamme Kremer…, undated

Kreykes – The Kreykes Family, Kreijkes, 1691-1977

Krijgsman – Evert Kriijgsma Tree in Oene, Gelderland, Nethelands, 1998

Kroes – My Journey Through Life, Henry P. Kroes, 1949

Kruidhof – Parenteel van Roelof Kruidhof compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kruithof – Gommert Kruithof genealogy (1871-1932)

Kuieck – The Kuieck Family, From Bible #1845

Kuiken – Beert Willems Kuiken Family, undated (see also Koops)

Kuiper – Willhem Jans Kuiper

Kuiper – Parenteel Van Roelof Hans(en) Kuiper, Prepared by Bert Willering, 2006

Kuipers – Albert Kuipers (1830-1904), The Original Promoter of the Immigration to America, 1990

Kuipers – Genealogy of the Descendants of Berend T. and Geppiena Kuipers, 1971

Kuiper – Parenteel van Klaas Arends Kuiper compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kuiper – Parenteel van Koob Pouwel Kuiper compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kuipers – Pieter Kuipers Family, undated

Kuipers – Tjalling Kuipers. Some Information Pertaining to the Kuipers Family, compiled by Gordon Kuipers, 2006

Kuipers – The William Kuipers Family: Origins and Historical Background, 1980

Kuyers – Parenteel van Klaas Peters Kuyers compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Kuyper – Kuyper Blies Verzamelen, by J. W. Geelhoed, 1975.

Kuyper – Het Voorgeslacht Van Dr. Abraham Kuyper (Dutch), undated

Kuyper – Arie C. Kuyper, Kuyper Genealogy 1694-1971 with 1973 supplement

Kuypers – Michiel Kuypers (Dutch), undated

La Fleur – The La Fleur Families, compiled by Judith Ann (nee Wassenaar) Bouwman, undated

Lacke – Henrik Arents Lacke, Genealogie Lacke-Lakke (Dutch), undated

LaLau – From Family Bible #1729, undated

Lam – Norman Lam Letters and Family Information, 1918-1939

Landa – Bastiaan Pieter and Susje Smit, The Landa Family in America: A History, 1993

Landaal – Melchert Landaal, compiled by Paul V. Pettinga, 2008, with the addition: The Rock from which we are Hewn, undated

Landaal/Wensink – The Landaal-Wensink Family Tree, 1500's – Present, compiled by Virginia Voskuil Bouma, [2008]

Landeweer – Egbert Hendriks Landeweer. The Landweer Genealogy: Descendents of Egbert Hendriks Klein Landeweer by Virginia Voskuil Bouma, [2010]

Landeweerd – Hendrik J Landeweerd, A History of the Landeweerds in America, undated

Langejans – Langejans Roots, 1978

Langeland – Lang(e)land Family Reunion, Compiled by R. B. Risk, 1997

Langhout – Descendants chart and pedigree chart, 1992

Langstraat – The History of the family of Hendrik Langstraat in America, 1984

Lasscher – The Lasscher Family, compiled by Judith Ann Wassenaar Bouwman, undated

Lautenbach – Familievereniging voor Lautenbachs (Dutch, with translation), 1988

Leenhouts – Pieter Leenhouts, William Leenhouts, undated

Leensvaart – Dirk Claeszn Leensvaart. Leensvaart Index, compiled by Paul Pettinga, 2008

Leep – Andrew Leep Family, Family History 1848-1958 (on microfilm)

Leep – Anthiny and Jeanette Zandstra Family Chart, 1976

Leep – History and Family Tree of the Leep Family in North America, 1955

Leep – Klaas Leep and Clara Prins: Yesterday is Gone Forever, by Lars Larson, undated

Leep – Nicholas and Hilda Zandstra Family Chart, 1981

Leijser – News clippings (Dutch, with translations), undated

Lemmen – Genealogy of the Lemmen Family of Allegan County, Michigan, USA, 1976

Lemmen – The Lemmen Family, by Lloyd J. Lemmen and Loren J. Lemmen, 2000

Libolt-VanderPol – Treasured Memories of Lydia Libolt VanderPol, 1983

Lindemulder – Lindemulder Family, by Petra Zijlstra-Kuipers, 1995

Longstreet – Philip Longstreet. Longstreet, Vandenberg, and Heyboer by Fred Ritsema, 1998-2001

Loomans – Hendrik Loomans. Register Report, compiled by Paul V. Pettinga

Lucas – Genealogy of the Descendants of Steven Lucas for Seven Generations, 1794-1964, Third Addition

Lucas – Genealogy Supplement of the Descendants of Steven Lucas, 1794-1975, Fourth edition,

Lucas – Genealogy of the Descendants of Steven Lucas, 1794-1975, Fifth edition, 1995.

Luinenga – Aldert and Eilke Rijtsma Luinenga (Dutch and English), undated

Luten – Parenteel van Harm Luten compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Machiela – Descendants of Jan Annes Machiela, compiled by Jeff Machiela, 2008

Marskamp – The Immigration of Gerrit Marskamp and His Family, by Julie Elizabeth Vos, 1980

Martense – Martense, Adrian, From Bible # 1718, undated

Masselink – The Masselink Family Tree, undated

Mast – Parenteel van Jan Harms Mast compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Mast – Klaas Mast. The Klaas Mast Genealogy, compiled by Alverne Mast Sidor, undated

Meekhof – Pieces into Memories – Tjabel Meekhof descendants, 1995 [two envelopes]

Meeuwsen – 135th Anniversary of Jan Jozias Meeuwsen's Arrival in America, 1982

Meinders – Geertje Meinders, The Memory of the Just, undated

Meines – Genealogie Family Meines (Dutch and English), undated

Mellens – Jacob and Annetrien Albartus Mellens (Dutch, with translation), undated

Melpolder – John Melpolder, undated

Mennes – Roelf and Foske Lubberts Mennes, undated

Mensonides – Paper by David Mensonides, undated

Merison/Merizon – Cornelis Merison (Merizon)

Meulste – Huybrecht Meulste (Dutch), undated

Meyer – Willemke Meyer, birth certificate, undated

Michmerschuizen – The Hendrik Grijpmoed Michmerschuizen and Hendrieka Johanna Rozendam Family, compiled by Evelyn Jannenga Schmidt and Paul D. Schmidt, 1997

Middel – Egbert Janszn, Middel (Dutch), undated

Miedema – Miedema Family History: the Genealogy of Jelger Jacobs, 2003

Miedema – Pieter Jans Miedema and Jan Pieters Miedema, birth certificates (Dutch and translation), undated

Milkamp – History of the Milkamp, Millekamp, Middlecamp Families, by Tressa M. La Fayette

Minnema – Jasper Douwes Minnema Genealogy by Rena Westra, Our Heritage and Family Tree, 1983

Minnema – History of John and Frances Minnema, 1981

Modders – Wynand and Dirkje Modders, undated

Mokma – The Descendants and Ancestors of John. H. Mokma, 2001

Mol – The Cornelis Mol family in AMerica, by Joan de Vries Verhey, 2009 (Cornelis and Marianus Mol family record group)

Molesteegs – Aren Frans Molesteegs: From Southwest Islands of the Netherlands to New Jersey, Wisconsin, and Michigan, compiled by J. Koole, [2009]

Morsink – The Morsink Family Tree, Lambert Morsink (1826-1901), [1979] updates 1981, 1984

Mosselaar – Ida Rienkes Mosselaar, 1775-1855, by Paula Vander HOven, 2005

Mouw – The Descendents of the Brothers Cornelius and Jan Mouw and of John van Roekel and John Korver, 1972

Mugge – Hermanus Mugge en Christina Freislich, Willem Kuijt en Susanne Haije (Dutch), undated

Mulder – Parenteel van Albert Hendriks Mulder compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Mulder – Parenteel van Harm Hilberts Mulder compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Mulder – Parenteel van Hendrik Jans Mulder (molenaar) compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Mulder – Parenteel van Hendrik Jans Mulder compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Mulder – Parenteel van Hendrik Mulder compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Mulder – Parenteel van Jacob Mulder compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Mulder – Parenteel van Jan Hendriks Mulder compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Muller – Genealogy of the Muller family, Huguenote from France, undated

Muyskens – The family of Dirk Muyskens and Berendena Geurink compiled by J. David Muyskens, 2006

Mys – Frederik Abelsz Mijts. Mys, Meis, Mijts Genealogy compiled by Gladys Mys Van Tuinen, 2008

Nagelkerke – Ancestors of Kathleen Nagelkerke, 2010

Nieberg – Family Tree Nieberg, Nieuberg, Nuberg, undated

Nieboer – Harm Nieboer, A Family History, by Pam Nieboer, 1980

Nieboer – Nieboer, H.H.: Gods Zorg en Liefde, 1876, Translation, 1985

Nieboer – Harm Harms Nieboer. The Nieboer Family Ancestry From The Netherlands to America, 1681-2009: God's Grace & Love in Every Generation, compiled by Harold E. Nieboer, 2009

Nieboer – Willem Nieboer, The Niebor Family Ancestory,1681-2009

Niemeijer – Jochem Niemeijer, Nemire/Niemeijer, undated

Nienhuis – Descendants of Eildert Markus Nienhuis 1776-1949

Nijboer – Parenteel van Harmen Wolters Nijboer compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Nijboer – Parenteel van Roelof Lamberts Nijboer compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Nijkamp – Parenteel van Hendrik Jan Nijkamp compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Noordeloos – Geschiedenis Van de Hoge en Vrije Heerlijkheden van Noordeloos en Overslingeland, 1955

Noordeloos – Noordelooses born in Netherlands and the USA, undated

Noordeloos – Nornam Noordeloos Family Information

Noordhof – Klaas Freeks and Hindrikje Lammerts Tuuk Noordhof, undated

Noordwier – Jacob Noordwier, Marriage, Births and Deaths from Bible# 1870, undated

Noteboom – History and Genealogy of the Arie Noteboom Family 1750-1986 and Peter Noteboom – Groeneweg Family, 1858 - 1986

Nyland – Nyland Family Tree (As of 1995)

Nyland – Nyland/Nijland Calendar (Living) 1996

Nyland – Nyland/Nijland Calendar (Living and Dead), 1996

Nymeyer – Nymeyer-Haeck Genealogy: More than Two Hundred Direct Ancestors, by Frederick Nymeyer, April 1974

Nymeyer – Barend Reolof Nymeyer, The Americanization of the Nymeyers, by Lisa Nymeyer, 1988

Oggel – Het Geslacht Oggel, The Family Oggel, by D. J. Oggel Jzn, (Dutch and English), 1979

Olthoff – Jacob Kornellis Olthoff, An Olthoff Genealogy, 1986

Ondersma – Some of Pa's Memories: Recollections of Ralph Ondersma 1886-1968

Ondersma – Genealogy of the Descendants of Rienk Ondersma for Seven Generations, 1971

Ooms – Adam Ooms, undated

Oppewal – Taeke Oppewal, A Family's History, by Cynthia L. Oppewal, 1980

Op't Holt – Descendants of Johannes Op't Holt and His Wife Geertje Eskes, Plus some of His Ancestors, Compiled by J. U. Tuttle, 1996

Oranje – Oranje: Als Burgerlijke Familienaam Onder het Nederlandse Volk (Dutch), 2005

Orgers – Arij Orgers (Dutch), 1994

Ossewaarde – Genealogie van Ossewaarde familie (Dutch), 1973

Paarlberg – Westfriese Geslachten Overzicht van de Familie Paarlberg, 1977 (Dutch)

Palma – Derk Palma, A Family History, by Susan Banister, 1986

Palma – Sybe Jans Palma (Pallema)

Pasma – History of the Pasma Family, by Andrew Pasma, undated

Pasma – Jan Pasma Family Tree, compiled by John Koole, 2009

Pastoor – Corniel C. Pastoor: The Pastoor Brothers by Cornelius C. Pastoor, 1996

Peerbolte – The Genealogy and Family of Peter Peerbolte (1881-1960) and Annie Bottema (1885-1961)

Pell – The Pell Family Tree. Dutch – Pel: Perusing the Graphs, late 1600s-1992 (researched by Jan Pel) and American – Pell: Exploring the Branches, 1832-1992, researched and compiled by Ruth Pell Snoek

Pelleboer – Pelleboer Familieboek (Dutch), 1727-1977

Peterson – Peterson Family History. The Geneology of Pieter Berends, 2003

Penninga – Eit Hendriks Penninga. Register Report, compiled Paul V. Pettinga, 2008

Petter – Parenteel van Jan Hendriks Petter compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Pettinga – Gerbrandus Pettinga. Register Report, compiled by Paul Pettinga, 2008

Piétens – Klaas Piétens, Family History Paper, by Lorene Postma, 1980

Pieterse – Johannes Pieters Stamboom by J.J. van Rijsbergen, 1995

Pietersen – Berned Pieterson, Roots III, by Mark Peterson, undated

Pikaart – James Pikaart, Cultural Adaptation: A Case Study, by Jacquelyn Pikaart, 1986

Plasman – Frederick Plasman and Henrietta Brinkman Plasman Dutch Background and History, Sailing, Settling in Michigan, and Family Geneology of the Plasman Family, Compiled by Jacquelyn Pikaart, undated

Plekenpol – Pedigree charts, undated

Pleune – The genealogies of Adriaan Pleune, Martin Pleune, Jacobus Pleune, and Leonard Pleune, undated

Ploeg – Harry and Katie (Modderman) Ploeg Family Tree, 1996

Ploeg – Ploeg/Vanderploeg Genealogy, 2007

Poest – Dirk Poest, Descendents of Dirk Poest, undated

Pontier – Willem Swerius Pontier, undated

Poppen – Poppen Trails, A Family History, By Henrietta Carol Poppen Trenery, 1996

Post – A Century in America 1867-1967: Egbert P. Post Family

Post – Records of the Able Post Family, 1986

Post – The Children of Margje Pelleboer and Hendrik Post, 1992

Postema – Genealogical Record and Descendants of Ano and Marie Postema, undated

Postma – Dirk Gerkes Postma. Groeten Uit Amerika (2), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008

Pousma – The Family of Peter and Taetske Pousma, Compiled by W. and E. Van Dyk, 1996

Pranger – Genealogical Record, Descendants: Gerrit and Catherine Pranger, undated

Primus – Descendant of Claasen Hillerts Primus (Germany)

Prince – Prince (Prins) 1839-1965

Prins – Parenteel van Geert Alberts Prins compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Prins – Klaas J. Prins 1580-1965, by Edward Prins

Prins – Prins-Prince 1580-1966, by Edward Prins with name index, 1580-1986

Pruiksma – The Watze and Aukje Pruiksma Family (Dutch and English), undated

Raak – Biographical Notes and Genealogy of the Geert Harms and Grietje Raak Family, undated, with name index

Raak – The Raak Family, 1690-1984

Raak – Parenteel van Geert Harms Raak compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Ramerman – Jan Boerink Ramerman, It All Began in Lynden, undated

Ratering – Ratering-Raterink Genealogie, 1999

Redder – Parenteel van Klaas Redder compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Reedyk – Leendert and Marijntje Hordyk Reedyk, Reedyk Roots, by Jake Reedyk, 1983

Reedyk – The Reedyk Family Roots, by Lorraine Janice Reedyk, 1986

Reinders – John Reinders, Fiftieth Anniversary 1891-1941

Reitenga – Jakob Jans Reitenga. Reitenga Family, updated 2009

Reitsma – Sjoerd Reitsma, Sjoerd Becomes Charlie by Randy Reitsma, 1986

Reitsma – Ynse Andries Reitsma

Remmelts – Parenteel van Remmelt Remmelts compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Ribbens – American Descendants of Huibrecht Ribbens (English), undated

Ribbens – Ribbens Kroniek (Dutch), 1992 – 2000

Riddering – Albert Lanning Riddering: A Pioneer of Drenthe, Michigan 1841-1895

Riddering – Elze Jans and Grietje Pieters Riddering, undated

Riddering – Jan Riddering and Gelukwensen voor Nieuwjaarsdag, by Donald Riddering (Dutch and English), 1988

Riedstra – Albert and Tjietske [Tijetske] Riedstra, undated

Riemersma – Gerrit Hendricks Riemersma, The Riemersma Genealogy, by Linda Wilson, 2001

Riepena – Fohke Riepena, Citizenship Paper, 1884

Riepma – My Ancestry, Life, and Ministry, by Rev. Sears F. Riepma, 1979

Rietema – De Marne: Rietema (Dutch), 1970

Rietveld – Arie Rietveld. The Rietveld Family, undated

Rijsdorp – Stamboom van het geslacht ‘Rijsdorp' (Dutch and English), undated

Ringo – Chart of the Ringo Family, undated

Risselada – Johan Risselada 1580-1964, by Edward Prins

Ritsema – The Descendants of Eepe Ritsem and Elisabeth Godefridi, by P. J. Ritsema, 1967, A translation of De Nakomelingen van Eepea Ritsema and Elisabeth Godefridi door P.J. Ritsema by Rev. Haverkamp and John J. Ritsema in 1984

Ritsema – Eepe Ritsema, The Ritsema Family, by Cam Ritsema, 1986

Ritsema – History of the Ritsemas and Ritzemas by Fred Ritsema, 1997-2001

Ritsema – Fred Ritsema. Longstreet, Vandenberg, and Heyboer by Fred Ritsema, 1998-2001

Roelofs – Parenteel van Derk Roelofs compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Roelofs – George Roelofs of Zwolle, Netherlands and Grand Rapids, Michigan: His ancestry, life and descendants, 1994

Rolffs – Genealogy and Family History of Hendrik Ludolf Rolffs, 1983

Romkema – Jan and Gepke Baukes Dijkstra Romkema (Dutch, with translation), undated

Roo – Parenteel van Egbert Jans Roo compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Rooda – Rooda (Rhoda), Compiled by Arlene Brummel Rhoda, undated

Rooks – The Gerrit Hendrik Rooks Family History, undated

Roon – Peter Roon Family History, and Maggie Dertien, undated

Roorda – Epke Alberts Roorda. Groeten Uit Amerika (9), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Roosevelt – The Roosevelt Family in America: A Genealogy, three issues of the Theodore Roosevelt Association, 1990

Roosma – My Family History, by Harvey Roosma, 1980

Roossien – Elmer J. Roossien Genealogical Chart, undated

Rop – Rop Family History, 1980

Rot – Menne Meinderts Rot. Descendants of Meindert Mennes (Rot) compiled by Carl Veenstra, 2007

Rottschafer – European Roots of the Today Rottschafer-Families in USA, 1994

Rouveen – Parenteel van Harm Arends Rouveen compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Rouwhorst – Parenteel van Roelof Rouwhorst compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Rozeboom – Genealogy of Jan Rozeboom 1775-1977

Rozeboom – Genealogy of John Rozeboom, 1840-1950

Rozendal – Rozendal Family History, by John Keith Rozendal, 1970

Rozendal – The Rozendal Family History, Compiled by Hendrine (Rozendal) Kleinjan, 1984

Rubing(h) – John Rubingh. Annals of the John Rubingh family, 1845-1982

Rudenga – The Rudenga Family: Dutch-American History, by Russ Rudenga, 1980

Ruis – Ruis Family Historical Documents plus Genealogy, Ruis family tree, including three CDs, by Bob Ruis, 2006

Ruiter – Arthur E Ruiter, Mike Ruiter's Father's Family Early History, 1994

Ruiter – Saga of the Old Homestead, undated

Rus – Genealogy of the family Rus, by H. and A.B. de Vries-Doyle, (Dutch) 2005

Rus – The Pieter Rus Family, by John W. Kuipers, 1981, 1998

Rus – The Rus Family Reunion, 1998

Ryskamp – Kornelius Ryskamp. The Origin of the Ryskamp Families, compiled by Paul Pettinga, 2008

Sandifort – Eduard Sandifort Family Tree, 2009

Schaap – Descendants of Jan Schaap, undated

Schaapman – Schaapman and De Jong, A History of the John Schaapman Family Traced Back to the Netherlands, undated

Schaapman – Schaapman Family Photos and Records, undated

Schans – Brief History of the Marten Jans Schans and Grietje (Klok) Schans Family and Genealogy of their Descendants, undated

Schemper – Harm Shemper (1827-1899). Patriarch of one Dutch-American family, A Genealogical History 1640 – 2000

Schemper – Parenteel van Harm Alberts Schemper compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Schemper – Parenteel van Lambert Alberts Schemper compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Schepers – Stamreeks Schepers (Dutch), undated

Schoenmaker – Parenteel van Harm Hendrik Schoenmaker compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Scholte – Hendrik Pieters Scholte. Groeten Uit Amerika (6), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Scholten – History of the Scholten Family, by Lambertus B. Scholten, undated

Scholtens – A Product of the Past, by Tenda Palsrok, undated

Schoolland – Our Mother, Mrs. Klaas Schoolland, 1859-1931

Schoolland – The Schoolland Family Tree, Family of JB and Trintjie Schoolland, 1995

Schoon – Cornells Schoon, Schoon family tree, undated

Schra – Parenteel van Jacob Schra and Jan Schra Schra compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Schrotenboer – The Johannes Schrotenboer Descendents, undated

Schruers – A Bit of Family History, A Brief Account of John Henry Schruers and Jana Oonk Schruers and Their Descendants, 1898

Schuiling – Het Schuilingboek, supplement, (Dutch), 1974

Schuitema – Schuitema, Researched and Compiled by Arlene Brummel Rhoda, undated

Schut – Descendants of Lambert and Gertrude VanKlompenberg Schut, 1996

Schut – Descendants of Peter Schut I, 1800-2000

Seinen – Parenteel van Jan Jansen Seinen compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Semeijn – Family record (Dutch), undated

Shoemaker – History of the Shoemakers, by Klaas Shoemaker, undated

Siebenga – A Place of Our Own, undated

Siemens – William Siemens, Dear Ones by Dorothy R. Primus, 1977

Sieplinga – The Family History of Hermannus Sieplinga and Jaapke Vander Leest, Including the family of Hermannus' first wife Tietje Wiersum, 1991

Sijmens – Claas Sijmens (Volbeda). Descendants of Claas Sijmens compiled by Carl Veenstra, 2007

Sikkema – Sikkema Family Tree, undated

Sikkenga – Sikkenga Family Genealogy by Tressa M. La Fayette, 1996

Sikma – Sjoerd Jacob Sikma. Descendants of Sjoerd Jacob Sikma, compiled by Marlene Post, 2007

Sipma – Ritske Aukes Sipma & Sipke Aukes Sipma. Groeten Uit Amerika (11), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Sipma – Sjoerd Aukes Sipma. Groeten Uit Amerika (7), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Sjaarda – Sjaarda: Previously known as Ziarda, Zyarda, Siarda, Syaerda, Sjaerda and Sjerda, undated

Sjaardema – Douwe Sjaardema, Residents or Strangers? The Sjaardema Story, by Randy Engle, undated

Sjaerdema – Edwert Sjaerdemas's Erfenis: van prebende tot stichting by Herman Hazelhoff, 1993

Slager – My Dutch Roots, by Kathleen Struck, 1986

Slager – Parenteel van Evert Reinders Slager compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Slager – Parenteel van Willem Geerts Slager compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Slenk – Jan Slenk, Slenk Family Record, 1969

Slenk – To the Third and Fourth Generation, A Slenk Genealogy, The Descendants of Jan Hindrik Slenk and Hindrikin and Altien Hartger, 1991

Sleyster – Roelof Sleyster, History of the Sleyster Family, by Aaron Sleyster, undated

Slofstra – Aukje Slofstra death notice (Dutch), 1956

Slofstra – On the Move: The Slofstra Story, by Lammert Slofstra, 1993 and Still Moving On: A Sequel to On the Move, 2008

Slot – Jacob Jans Slot. Groeten Uit Amerika (5), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Slotemaker – The Slotemaker Story, by Henry Slotemaker, 1976

Slotman – Slotman Supplement, 1700-1977 (Dutch and English)

Sluiter – Simon K. Sluiter, by Edward Prins, 1580-1964

Smedes – Melle Smedes Family Record Sheet by Paul Trap, 2009

Smit – Cornelis and Geeske Oosting Smit, undated

Smit – Descendants of Jan Willems Smit, [2007]

Smit – Klaas Smit (Dutch), undated

Smit – Roelf Smit. The Pioneer Minister at Drenthe (MI) by Dr. Brouwer

Smith – Henry Smith, Born Henderikus Smid: ‘A Goodly Heritage', 1985

Snikkers – Gijem Snikkers Life Story by Annette Poelstra Yff, 2007

Solle – The Solle Story, Ancestors and Descendants of Edward Solle (1890-1976) and Grace Scholtens Solle (1894-1974), 4th ed., 1995, with annual addenda

Spanninga – Cornelius Spanninga, Family Tree Chart, undated

Speet – Speet Genealogy 1730-1984, by Ron Buursma, 1984

Spiering – Willem Adrianus and Adriaantje Kersten Spiering, undated

Spijkerman – Parenteel van Egbert Geerts Spijkerman compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Spitsbergen – Just One Son: a Spitsbergen Family Record, 1706-1986, by Rosalie Joan Spitsbergen-Brown, 1986

Spoelhof – Dominie, Personal Reflections on the Life of Rev. Charles Spoelhof and his Wife Elizabeth Keegstra Spoelhof, undated

Spoelhof – Stamreeks van Hendrikje Spoelhof, 1948

Spoelhof – William Spoelhof and Angeline Nydam. Spoelhof/Nydam Ancestors, 2009

Spoelstra – Sporen in de tijd stamboom van het geslacht Spoelstra uit Augustinusga (Dutch and English), 1994

Spranger – Spranger's Family Tree, compiled by Rt. Rev. Msgr. John J. Sprangers, 1958

Sprietsma – Lucas Jacobs Sprietsma. The Sprietsma Family of Friesland, Netherlands, 1993

Sprik – Evert Sprik, As Time Goes By: The Sprik Family 1760-1984, by Barbara S. Sprik

Sprik – Gerrit Jan and Adrianna Lepeltak Family History, Sprik Family History, edited by Ellen Sprik, Drenthe Michigan, 1830-1962

Sprik – Willem Hendrik Sprik. Descendants of Willem Hendrik Sprik compiled by Carl Veenstra, 2007

Spronk – Spronk Roots and Branches: Our Heritage from Olderbroek, Gelderland, Doornspijk, Edgerton, Michigan, undated

Staal – Arent Staal. Staal, Stahl Genealogy compiled by Gladys Mys Van Tuinen, 2008

Stander – Adrianus Stander (Dutch), undated

Steen – The Household of Lambert and Carrie Steen, by John L. Steen and Barney Steen, 1999

Steensma – Around the World in 80 Years: The Autobiography of Julianna Flietsra Steensma, Muskegon, Korea, undated

Steenwijk – Luije Klasen en zijn nazaten, Het wel en wee van 11 Generaties van de Familie Steenwijk/Steenwyk in Noord-Nederland en Noord-Amerika (Dutch), 1999

Steenwyk – Descendants of Nickolas B. Steenwyk and Hattie Smit, 1995

Steffens – Parenteel van Jan Steffens compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Stegenga – Family Tree of Siebolt Stegenga, 125 Years in America, 1847-1972

Steketee – Cornelis Steketee – Lammigje Bos Genealogy, undated

Steketee – Cornelis A. Steketee. Steketee family information, compiled by H.J. Martz and A.F. Steketee, 1984

Steketee – Record of Ancestors, Descendants of Cornelis C. Steketee, 1928

Steketee – The House of Steketee, by J. S. Freyling, 1962, and index

Steketee – Steketee, Paulus, From Bible #1864, undated

Sterenberg – Genealogy of Jacob and Klaas Sterenberg, Gronengen, Muskegon, Fulton, Illinois, 1936

Sterken – Parenteel van Andries Hendriks Sterken compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Sterken – Sterkens Reunie, Starken' Boerderij (Homestead), Nieuwleusen, West Michigan, 1895-1985

Stevens – One of Ten: Growing up Dutch-American, Grand Rapids, Ann Arbor, Fremont, Michigan, 1990, 1995

Stielstra – Stielstra Family Statistics, 1880-1995

Stob – Henry J. Stob

Stoepker – Pieter P Stoepker, Six Generations Stoepker: A Family from the Marne (Groningen, Netherlands), by J. Roelfsema, 2007

Stoepker – Pieter Pieters and Grietje Freerks, undated

Stoutjesdijk – J.F. Stoutjesdijk. Stoutjesdijk Emigranten en in het Buitenland Wonenden by J.F. Stoutjesdijk, 1991

Strieter – Jerg Streiter. Descendants of Jerg Streiter compiled by Carl Veenstra, 2007

Strikwerda – Jacob Ulbes Strikwerda. Gedenkboek van Jacob Ulbes Strikwerda, 1958

Stuit – Albert and Tietje Berrelkamp Stuit, A Family History by Henk Bousema, 1996

Sturrus – My Family History by Cindy Sturrus, 1980

Swets – Hendrik Swets and Teunis Swets (Dutch and English), undated

Swierenga – A Sketch of Robert and Grace Swierenga's Life in Chicago by Robert Swierenga, 1987

Swierenga – Family Genealogy and History, 2003

Swieringa – The Ancestors, Life, and Descendants of Gerard Swieringa: from Groningen, Netherlands to Midwest USA by Judy Hoffman, 1984

Sybesma – Willem Sybesma: A Family of Mennonite Origins, compiled by John Koole, 2009

Syswerda – Hendrik and Tiettje Meinsma (Sijswerd) Syswerda, The History and Genealogy of the Syswerda Family, Leeuwarden, Friesland/Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1852-1994

Talen – Parenteel van Jan Harms Talen compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Tack – De Zeeuwse familie Tack, Tak, De Maret Tak, 1562-2000 by P. D. Tack and H. J. Plankeel, 2004

Tack – Family of Leon and Mable Tack, Hastings, Michigan, 2000

Talen – Ann and Clare Talen, 60th Wedding Anniversary January 17, 1983

Tammenga – Karsien Tammenga

Tammes – Descendants of Otte Tammes, 2004

Tamminga – Embarkings: The Netherlandic Years (1930-1951), by Lieuwe (Louis) Meiles Tamminga, 2007

Tanis – Aart Tanis: Elizabeth Hameetman Tanis, Ouddorp, South Holland, Netherlands, undated

Tanis – Johannes Tanis family, undated

Tebeest – The Tebeest Family Directory, Iowa, South Dakota, Michigan, 1984, 1987, 1990

Telegenhof – John and Johanna Telegenhof travel account, 1905

Ten Brink – Drenth, Geslachts register Drenth–Ten Brink–Tijmes–Timmerman by T. Drenth (Dutch), undated

Ten Cate – Descendants of Jan Herman Ten Cate and Johanna Knippenberg: Seven Generations, 1768-1982

Teninga – Arjen Harmannus Teninga, South Holland, Illinois, undated

Ten Harmsel – John Ten Harmsel

Te Selle – The Te Selle History, by Norma Te Selle Prophet, 1989

Teune – Johannus and Grace Lanega Teune in Netherlands, Bedum, Groningen, Chicago, 1998

Tien – A Biographical Sketch of Harm Tien and his Wife, Alie Tien, nee Egberts, 1950

Tiesma – Gosse Tiesma. The Tiesma Migration, May 1951, translated by Art Tiesma, 2001

Tijmes – Drenth, Geslachts register Drenth–Ten Brink–Tijmes–Timmerman by T. Drenth (Dutch), undated

Timmerman – Drenth, Geslachts register Drenth–Ten Brink–Tijmes– Timmerman by T – Drenth (Dutch), undated

Timmerman – Parenteel van Koob Sijmons of Simons Timmerman compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Tinholt – Descendents of Lambert and Lucas Tinholt, Graafschap, Michigan, undated

Tippe – Parenteel van Jan Thijs Tippe compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Tjepkema – Reunion 1995 Tjepkema (Zeeland and Holland MI), 1995

Ton – Fiftieth Annual Reunion of the Ton Family, Chicago, 1945

Ton – John Ton Family History, 1896-1955 (microfilm). Family Records, Reunion Programs, Photos, and Biographical data (Originals in the Chicago Public Library - Pullman Branch)

Torringa – Een oud Ommelander geslacht (Dutch)

Trap – The Family of Jan Trap, compiled by Paul Trap, 2009

Treur – Abraham and Marijtje Treur

Troost – Parenteel van Egbert Troost compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Troost – Parenteel van Hendrik Klaas Troost compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Tukker – Tukker Family Genealogy, From Family Bible, undated

Tysse – Klaas Tysse, Tysse/Tyssen Family Tree, Zaandam, Netherlands, undated

Ulberg – Ulberg/Verhage Genealogy, undated

Valkema – Valk, de Valk, Valkema (Dutch) 16 Generaties Nakomelingen Van Valck Wolters, undated

Van Allsburg – Register Report, compiled by Paul V. Pettinga, 2008

Van Andel – James Van Andel: An Anecdotal Life History, undated

Van Arendonk-Haga – Meerten van Arendonck and Hendrik Haga. The Van Arendonk-Haga Story: A Family History, 1600-1972, by Nellie Schryvers Seegrist, 1973, plus additions, 1975

Van Bijssum – John Van Bijssum Family, undated

Van Boven – Parenteel van Hendrik Gerrits van Boven compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Van Bruggen – Jacob and Alberdina Vlasman Van Bruggen, 1979

Van Coevering – Family History:Van Coevering Family, undated

Van Dam – Jan Van Dam (1801-1864) and Geesje Meinders (1801-1875), Drenthe, Overijssel

Van Dam – Lammert and Frederika Van Dam Family, by A. and A. Trimpe, Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1987

Van Dam – The Family of Jacobus and Johanna Van Dam, compiled by Alfred Van Dam, Medicine Hat and Redcliff, Alberta, Canada 1995

Van Dam – Jan Van Dam (1839-1904) and Jantje Visscher (1840-1918). The Van Dam family, homestead and cemetery, compiled by Sandra Van Dam Anderson and Carolyn Van Dam Kiekover, 2008

Vande Kieft. – Jan and Janetje Fluit Vande Kieft, 1980

Van de Kolk – Parenteel van Lefert van de Kolk compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Van de Luyster – Jannes van de Luyster (Dutch), undated

Van Dellen – Alfred Van Dellen, Pekela, Chicago, undated

Van Dellen – Family group sheets, compiled by Marsha Greenwood, Noordhorn, Grand Rapids, Michigan, undated

Van Dellen – Overzicht der Nakomelingen van Tjeerd Lubberts Van Dellen en Sijke Rogehus, (Dutch and English), 1926 and 1992

Van den Berg – Klaas Klaassen Van Den Berg, 1988

Vanden Berg – Vanden Berg, Researched and Compiled by Arlene Brummel Rhoda, undated

Vandenberg – Looking Back, by Marilyn Bulgarella, undated

Vanden Bosch – Tamme Vanden Bosch. Notes and Genealogy from the Van Dijck Vanden Bosch Bible Article from Gens Nostra (2 Februari 2007) by Anje G. Bousema-Valkema with Her Translation of this Article

Vanden Bout – The Family History of Adrian Vanden Bout and Wilhelmina Boslooper, by Lenore Vanden Bout Brashler, 2006

Van den Broek – My Sad Past by Rev. John Van den Broek, 1896

Vandenburg – My Dutch Heritage, by Jane Mary Doorn, 1988

Van den dool – Genealogie van den dool: Een Alblasserwaards Geslacht, 2 volumes, compiled by Franklin van Den Dool, et al.

Van der Aa – Leendert van der AA, undated

Vander Ark – Vander Ark Family Biographies, Two Generations (1835-1961) Hendrik and Grietje, Their Twelve Children and Their Spouses, issued 1987

Vander Baan – Generations, by Brian Vander Baan, 1980

Van Der Beek – The Family of Tenuis and Hattie Van Der Beek, Compiled by W. and E. Van Dyk, 1996

Van der Bij(e) – Jan van der Bije and The van der Bij(e) Genealogy: Descendants of Jan van der Bije by Virginia Voskuil Bouma, [2001]

Van der Boom – Familieboek van der Boom, by E. and J. H. van der Boom, (Dutch and English), 1994

Van der Hoop – Parenteel van Beert Jans van der Hoop compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Vander Hulst – Gerrit Jan Vander Hulst. See also Boerwinkle, Hendrick

VanderKooy – Arie VanderKooy Journal, May, 1951, translation 1999

Vander Leij – Anne Jans and Tryntje Menns Sytsma Vanderleij, Family genealogy, undated

Van Der Leest – Tryntje (Vander Weg) Vander Leest and Rienk Vander Leest, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Oaklnad Michigan, undated

Vander Lugt – Maarten Vander Lugt. Story of Adrianna Jongste Van der Lugt Gabrielse Ten Harmsel, undated

Vandermay (Vander Mey/van der Meij) – Vandermay, Peter Gordon, 1997

Van Der Molen – The Van Der Molen Family 1876 to 1976, New Holland, South Dakota

Van der Ploeg – A Genealogical Record with Pictures of Frisians who became Americans, 1980

Van der Pol – Van der Pol, Henry: On the Reservation Border: Hollanders in Douglas and Charles Mix counties

Vanderpol – Vanderpol Family Lines, 1670-1979

Van Dragt – see Everts

Van Rhee – Descendants of Jan Gerhard Van Rhee, undated

Van Der Schaaf – Family tree of Wiebe Van der Schaaf, Monhatten, Montana, 1971

Van der Til – Van der Til(l), researched and compiled by Arlene Brummel Rhoda, undated

Vander Till – Douwe VanderTill, News clipping, 1990

Vander Veen –Engbertus Vanderveen, Life History and Reminiscences of Engbertus Vanderveen of Holland, Michigan, undated

Vander Veen – Wobbe Vander Veen, researched and compiled by Arlene Brummel Rhoda, undated

Van der Velde – Jogchum and Tijtske Bandstra van der Velde (English and Dutch), undated

Vander Wagen – Prayer Warriors Andrew and Effa VanderWagen in Zuni by Elaine Dodson Thomas, 1997

Vander Wagen – Shiwi Vander Wagens: Family Memories by Elaine Dodson Thomas, 1997

Vander Wagen – The Van der Wagen and Hofma Ancestry by Elaine Dodson Thomas, 2002

Van Der Weele – John (Jan) and Jennie Van Der Weele, 1990

Van der Weele – Pieter van der Weele. Emigraties van Van der Weele's naar Noord-Amerika by J. Elsing-van der Weele, 1991

Vander Weele – Prepared by Ray Vander Weele, 2000

Van der Wekken – De Familie Van der Wekken (Dutch), 1986

Vander Weide – Jan Dirks Vander Weide, Chicago Roseland, undated

Vander Weit – Gerrit Gerbens Vander Weit. Groeten Uit Amerika (8), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Vander Werff – The Vander Werffs: Pioneers at Pella and Westward, 1973

Van der Werp – Hendrik Johannes van der Werp (Dutch), undated

Vander Wilt – The Family of Dirk and Barbara Vander Wilt, Compiled by W. and E. Van Dyk

Van Der Woude – The Van Der Woude / Vander Wood Families of Romke / Dokkum Netherlands, undated

Vander Woude – Tona and Jan Vander Woude, The leaves of the tree, by Linda Siebenga, undated

VanderZee – From Horses to Computers: Part of the VanderZee Story by Chester and Betty VanderZee, 2000

VanderZee – The Tjeerd VanderZee Family's Sojourn: Forbears and Descendants, 1995

Van der Zon – Folkert van der Zon (Dutch and English), undated

Van Deusen – The Genealogy of Rev. W. H. Van Deusen and Related Families, 1969

Van Dijck – Descendants of Jacobus Willemsen van Dijk, 2004

Van Dijk – Klaas Van Dijk, undated

Van Dijk – The Family of Wijbe and Grietje Van Dijk, 1994

Van Dyke – The Story of John and Gertie (Griffioen) Van Dyke and Directory of Descendants, 2008

Van Dongen – Van Dongen / Van de Riet, 1977

Van Drunen – Van Drunen Family Immigration, undated

Van Dyke – The Family Tree of Johannes Van Dyke (John) and Neeltje Johanna Luijk (Nellie), 1984

Van Dyke – The Story of John and Gertie (Griffioen) Van Dyke and Directory of Descendants, 2008

Van Dyke – William Van Dyke, 1919

Van Engen – Geert and Geertje Schoemakers Van Engen (Dutch), undated

Van Gaalen – Nicolaas and Berendina Aleida Van Gaalen. Between Harvest, by Linda Siebenga, undated

Van Goor – A Man Without Influence by Harm Van Goor, undated

Van Haitsma – Peter and Katie Van Haitsma, undated

Van Haitsma – Van Haitsma 1847-1997

Van Heutsz – J. B. Van Heutsz (Dutch), undated

Van Houten – History of the Family of Peter and Rose (Oosterhouse) Van Houten, undated

Van Houten – Rebecca Van Houten Pedigree Chart, 2008

Van Keppel – Family Tree and Genealogy (Dutch), undated

Van Koevering – Van Koevering Family Register, Zeeland, Michigan, undated

Van Kooten – Cobie by Jacoba Van Kooten Kortenhoeven, 1992

Van Laan – John and Emma (Taylor) Van Laan Family Tree, 1996

Van Laar – Albertus Van Laar Family, by Peter Y. DeJong, 1977

Van Leeuwen – Family and Heraldry the Van Leeuwen Family and their Feudal Estates, undated

Van Meersbergen – Descendants of Aert Van Meersbergen, undated

Van Mourik – A True History Out of the Betuwe by Aurelia (Relie) Koning-van Reenen, 2006

Van Nuis – Pieter Willem Van Nuis, undated

Van Ommen – The Descendant of Gerrit van Ommen (1676- ), by Richard H. Harms, 2014

Van Ooyen – Transplants, by Amy J. Van Ooyen, 1998

Van Otterloo – Family Chronicles: Adventures in Genealogy and in Dutch-American Culture, Geography, History, and Faith by Larry M. Van Otterloo, undated

Van Overen – Vandenberg, Looking Back, by Marilyn Bulgarella, undated

Van Popering – The Family of Wolfer Van Popering, 1986

Van Putten – Omge Geerts and Aagtie Ewolts, undated

Van Raalte – Albert A. Van Raalte, undated

Van Reenen – That They May Know: A History and Genealogy of the Van Reenen Family, by Jan Willem van Reenen, [1976]

Van Riper – Van Riper-Van der Hoof

Van Spijker – Parenteel van Harm Evert van Spijker compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Van Sligtenhorst – An Historical Look by Brad Evans, 1986

Van Staalduinen – Van Staalduinen: Een Westlands geslacht (Dutch), 1983

Van Stelle – The Descendants of Pieter and Maria Van Stelle, 1981

Van Stempfoort – Summary on Van Stempvoort

Van Stempfoort – Grandmother remembers by Cora Laarman, 1991

Van't Hof – Marijnus and Johanna Visser Van't Hof (Dutch and English), 1986

Van't Hof – My Family by Joanie Van't Hof, 1980

Van Til – We Van Tils Have Come a Long Way by Kathy VanTil, 1980

Van Tongeren – Geslacht van Tongeren (Dutch and English), undated

Van Tongeren – Pieter C. Van Tongeren Family Record Group, 1993

Van Tuinen – Jakob Gerbens van Tuinen. van Tuinen, Van Tuinen Genealogy compiled by Gladys Mys Van Tuinen, 2009

Van Vliet – Wijtze Van Vliet (Dutch), [19]91

Van Voorhees – Through a Dutch Door: 17th Century Origins of the Van Voorhees Family published by the Van Voorhees Association, 1992

Van Wezel – Cornelius van Wezel (Dutch), 1987

Van Wijk – A Dutch Romance…An American Dream: The True Story of Jan van Wijk and Neeltje van't Sant 1887-1937, Their Ancestors and Their Descendants, 1995

VanWyk – VanWyk Ancestral Line, 1350-1991

Van Zandt – Van Zandt/Schieven Family Tree, undated

Van Zee – Family Record of Gerrit Van Zee and Heiltje Van Zante, 1970

Van Zile – Abraham Van Zile, 1985

Van Zoeren – Gerrit Jakobs Van Zoeren. The Van Zoeren and Albers Families, undated

Van Zomeren – Van Zomeren Family Book, Genealogy of the Family of Wal VanZomeren and Jantje DeJongh, 1994

Van Zwaluwenburg – Reijer van Zwaluwenburg: Pelgrimvader van het Midden-westen (Dutch), undated

Veenstra – Descendants of Jan Jans, by Carl Veenstra, 2007

Veenstra – Genealogy Surnames from Carl W. Veenstra Database, 2007

Veenstra – Jelle Jans Veenstra, undated

Vegter – Willem and Tryntje, by Tracy Van Hofwegen, 1982

Veijer – Veijer-Redder, undated

Veijer – Parenteel van Klaas Jans Veijer compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Veldheer – A Veldheer Genealogy, South Dakota, undated

Veldheer – Jan Veldheer (Dutch), undated

Veldheer – Parenteel van Jan Hendriks Veldheer compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Veldman – Eppe Peters Veldman (Dutch), Hellum, Netherlands, undated

Venema – The Story of a Dutchman's Immigration to Canada by Linda Venema, 1986

Venhuis – Douwe Venhuis, 1992

Venhuizen – NN Venhuizen. Descendants of NN Venhuizen compiled by Carl Veenstra, 2007

Verbrugge – Whither Thou Goest: The Life Story of Jacobus and Maria Verbrugge in Minnesota, by Frank Verbrugge, 1979

Verburg – The Lambertus Verburg family by Rimmer DeVries, 2013

Verduijn – Family tree, undated

Verduijn – Sojourners, A Family Chronicle, By Arie Verduijn, 1981

Verhage – Bastian Verhage family (Kansas), undated

Verhorst – Arie Albertus Verhorst, undated

Vermeer – Brant Vermeer, Vermeer History from 1856 to 1963, Utrecht, Pella, Iowa

Verolme – David Wolfaertsz, The Verolme Family, undated

Verwolf – The John Verwolf Family, compiled by William Verwolf, 1982

Verwolf – John Verwolf by Mike Schuurmans, undated

Veurink – Gerrit Henry Veurink Family Tree, 1862-1935

Viersen – Dirk Vierzen/Viersen/Vierson, compiled by Richard H. Harms, 2014

Viersen – Heerke Ypes Viersen. Groeten Uit Amerika (3), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Viersen – Pieter Oebeles Viersen. Groeten Uit Amerika (1), Emigranten uit Dantumadeel en Dongeradeel by Kor Postma, [2008]

Viersen – Hoe twee Driesumer gezinnen in het Amerikaanse Pella Kwamen (Dutch), 1989

Vierson – Dirk Vierzen/Viersen/Vierson, compiled by Richard H. Harms, 2014

Vierzen – Dirk Vierzen/Viersen/Vierson, compiled by Richard H. Harms, 2014

Viss – History of the Family of Simon Viss Sr, 1966

Visscher – Parenteel van Jacob Hendriks Visscher compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Visscher – Jan Visscher The Visschers: 127 Years in Michigan, 1974

Visser – Genealogy of Willem Paulus Visser (Makkum, Netherlands)

Visser – Genealogy of Willem Poulus Visser and Trijntje Jacobs, 2005

Vliek – The New World Descendants and Old World Ancestors of Lubbert Vliek, undated

Vogelzang – Two Worlds of Mercy, by John Vogelzang, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1957

Von Weiler – Willem Karel Von Weiler, 1979

Voogsgeerd – Hendrik and Janneken Voogsgeerd (Dutch and English), 1992

Vos – Dan R. Vos, Personal, Family, and Business Autobiography of Dan R. Vos, 2003

Vos – A Genealogy of the Dirk and Jennis Vos Family, 1992

Vos – Fragment-genealogie Reyntje Jacobs Vos nader in beeld (Dutch), 1992

Vos – Genealogy of the Dirk and Jennie Vos Family, compiled by Marion Vos

Vos – Jan Vos (Dutch and English), Muskegon, Mi, 1992

Vos – Kryn and Rika Vos, 2000

Vos – Peter Gerrit Vos (Dutch and English), undated

Vos – Vos (Voss), researched and compiled by Arlene Brummel Rhoda, undated

Voskuil – Klaas Voskuil. The Voskuil Genealogy by Virginia Voskuil Bouma, [2010]

Voss – Voss Family Group – Roelof and Zwantje Vos- Register and Directory, 1940

Vredeveld – Hendrik Alberts Vredeveld, compiled by M. Mullinax, [1993]

Vredevoogd – Vredevoogd, researched and compiled by Arlene Brummel Rhoda, undated

Vriend – Jan Nicolaas Vriend (Roo Jan), History of the Vriends: Het Geslacht Vriend, 1975

Vrieze – Vrieze Family Reunion, undated

Vroegindewey – Klaas and Geertje Vroegindewey, 1987

Wagenaar – Cornelius G. Wagenaar. The Wagenaar Family Record, 1700-1977

Walcott – Walcott Genealogy, Descendants of Jan Hindrik Walkotten, 1990

Walcotte – Parenteel van Hendrik Jan Walcotte compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Walhof – Peter Evert Walhof. As for Me and My House…My Memories of the Peter and Ella Walhof Family by Elmer T. Walhof, 2003.

Walhout – The Walhout Family History, compiled by M. T. Boonstra, 1987

Walhout – My Father's Family, by Peter Walhout, 1973

Walkotten – Gort (Gerrit) Walkotten. Genealogy of the Walkotten family, undated

Walma – The Walma Family Tree, undated

Walvoord – Walvoord-Walvoort : Family News Bulletin, 1987

Wanrooy – Wolter Adriaan Wanrooy and Tanna Wilhelmina Was (Dutch), undated

Warner – Genealogy of the Warner (Warners) and Zeerip (Zeerijp) Families, 1978

Was – The Was Family and Genus Was (Dutch and English), 1972

Wassenaar – Pake Frank Wassenaar, My Life's Story, 1903-1907 –

Wassenaar – The Wassenaar Families, compiled by Judith Ann (nee Wassenaar) Bouwman, undated

Waterway – Marten & Margje (Westhuis) Waterway family, undated

Weersing – Genealogy of the Weersing Family and Janssen Family of East Holland, Michigan, 1977

Weesies – The Weesies Family 1714-1890-1979, The Family of Edward and Elizabeth Weesies

Wensink – Descendants of Derk Wensink, undated

Werkman – History of Werkman Family, 1962, Dirk Jan Werkman and Aantje Blink, 1992

Werkman – Reinder Edward Werkman. Biography by Donald Van Reken, 2000.

Wesselink(g) – Parenteel van Geert Wesselink (Geert Wesseling) compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Westdorp – Abraham Westdorp and Oosse family, undated

Westdorp – Mattheus Cornelisse Westdorp. Westdorp Genealogy compiled by Gladys Mys Van Tuinen, 2009

Westing – Genealogy of the Westing and Steketee and Manting (Mantingh) Families of Holland, 1978

Westmaas – Presenting Adam and Johanna Westmaas and Their Descendants, 1995

Westra – Our Heritage and Family Tree, 1979 and 1983

Wieland – Bud Wieland's Pedigree Chart, 1993

Wierenga – Klaas Wierenga, Branches – The Dutch Connection – The Wierenga and Olthof Families, undated

Wierenga – Narratives of Family History Hendrik Wierenga, Jacob Wierenga, Bert Wierenga, Theron Wierenga, Luitje Buikema, Trientje (Buikema) Wierenga, Pieter Korhorn (Peter Kolean), John Kolean, Johannes Arnesman, Johanna Arnesman Kolean, 2005

Wierenga – Het Voor- en Nageslacht van Hindrik Sierts Wierenga en Grietje Alberts (Dutch), 1650-1989

Wierenga – Op Zoek naar Wierenga's in Neerlandia (Dutch), 1993

Wiersma – Jacob Wiersma Family Tree, 2009

Wigboldus – Genealogie van het Geslacht Wigboldus, 1545-1957 (Dutch)

Wijbenga – The Jan Jans Wijbenga - Willemke Klazes Vlasma Genealogy, undated

Wildschut – Return to Roots, 1996

Wilkey – Harms-Viersen-Freehouse-Wilkey Families, compiled by Richard H. Harms, 2006

Wilmink – Gerrit Wilmink (Dutch), undated

Windhouwer –Jan Jansen Windhouwer and descendants

Winkels – Parenteel van Jan Jans Winkels compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Winters – Parenteel van Jan Winters compiled by Willem Kappe, 2010

Witkop – Fredrik “Jacob” WItkop, The Witkop / Witcop Family, undated

Witt – The Years Roll On, 1929-1983, Memories of My Youth, The Cornelius Witt Family Tree, 1750-1980, and We Were There to Serve, 1989

Witteveen – Marten and Heintje Witteveen Family Tree, undated

Witteveen – Oscar and Maggie (Jager) Witteveen by Maury Witteveen, 1979, plus later additions

Wolfert – Wolfert Families, 1815-1990s in the Netherlands and America by Barbara Van Bronkhorst, 1994

Woltman – Woltman-Winter Family: 150 Years in America, by H. V. Winter and S. F. Simmons, The Families of Jan Harm, Woltman Jurrien, Peter Winter and Reena Aires Van Weerden, 1998

Wondergem – Family History van Wondergem, undated

Wondergem – Netherlands, Sheboygan, Wisconsin, and Marinus Wondergem, 1986

Wondergem – William Wondergem. Family group record, 1987

Workman – Johannes and Gooitsche Werkman, Looking Back: Workman-Werkman: 100 Years in America, 1893-1993

Wunderink – Richard Wunderink, Life Begins at 40. A Wunderink Legacy, 1994

Wynalda – Maaike Robijns deJong, Genealogy Wijnalda-family in Iowa, undated

Wyngaarden – Jan Dauwe Wyngarrden The Wyngaarden Story, by Herman J. Wyngarden, 1984

Yff – IJff, Stam IJff Westzaan-Assendelft (Dutch)

Yntema – The Family of Hessel O. Yntema, 1958

Ypma – The History and Genealogy of Rev. Marten Annes Ypma, 1810 – 1863

Zandstra – Bartele Hans Zandstra, 1984

Zandstra – Margaret Brungert Swagman, (Rev. Jack) Zandstra

Zandstra – Oeds Melles Zandstra (Dutch), undated

Zeldenrust – Zeldenrust (Dutch and English), undated

Zijlman – Klaas and Trijntje Wolfis Zijlman, 1991

Zuidema – A Century Away from Home: The Family of Will and Kate Zuidema, 1991

Zwagerman – Dirk Zwagerman History, undated

Zwemer – Genealogy and History of the Zwemer-Boon Family, 1932

Zylstra – Albert and Luwena Hartigh Zylstra, Unlikely Instruments, 1995

Zylstra – Douwe Jelles Zylstra, 1859-1943, 1994

Zylstra – Jelle Zylstra, Stones that Speak, 1990

Zylstra – Cousins and the Study of a Heritage: Zylstra Buist Kuzee 75th Anniversary Reunion, 1919-1994

Antelope activate the acacia's alarm system

ACACIA trees pass on an ‘alarm signal’ to other trees when antelope
browse on their leaves, according to a zoologist from Pretoria University.
Wouter Van Hoven says that acacias nibbled by antelope produce leaf tannin
in quantities lethal to the browsers, and emit ethylene into the air which
can travel up to 50 yards. The ethylene warns other trees of the impending
danger, which then step up their own production of leaf tannin within just
five to ten minutes.

Van Hoven made his discovery when asked to investigate the sudden death
of some 3000 South African antelope, called kudu, on game ranches in the
Transvaal. He noticed that giraffe, roaming freely, browsed only on one
acacia tree in ten, avoiding those trees which were downwind. Kudu, which
are fenced in on the game ranches, have little other than acacia leaves
to eat during the winter months. So the antelope continue to browse until
the tannin from the leaves sets off a lethal metabolic chain reaction in
their bodies.

Van Hoven’s research is to be published in the Journal of African Zoology.
He described his results at a recent conference in France. Claude Edelin
of the National Scientific Research Centre (CNRS) described the discovery
as ‘terribly exciting’.

Fifteen years ago, a French scientist at the CNRS, Paul Caro, found
that oak trees attacked by caterpillars reacted by stepping up the quantity
of tannin and phenol produced in their leaves. Caro observed that the trees’
defence mechanism inhibited the growth of the larvae.

Beth Severy-Hoven

Professor Beth Severy-Hoven is a Roman historian who specializes in the study of gender, sexuality and slavery in the ancient world. Her first book, Augustus and the Family at the Birth of the Roman Empire (2003), explores how the development of an imperial family shaped the political institutions of the empire. Her Latin textbook The Satyrica of Petronius: An Intermediate Reader with Commentary and Guided Review, won the 2015 Pedagogy Book Prize from the Classical Association of the Middle West and South. She has taught in Rome at the Intercollegiate Center, and at Mac teaches the courses Women, Gender & Sexuality in Ancient Greece and Rome, Roman World, and the Senior Seminar, as well as Greek and Latin courses and January programs in Rome and Egypt. Professor Severy-Hoven was awarded the Jack and Marty Rossman Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2016.

AB: Bryn Mawr College, 1990, summa cum laude
MSt: Oxford University, 1991
PhD: University of California, Berkeley, 1998

Story of ND Haven family passed down in history

Submitted Photo LaVonne Wibbens of Rochester, Minn., provided this photo of David and Ingeborg Hoven’s 10 children. The Hovens’ son, Albert, back row, far right, and his family were murdered in McKenzie County in 1930 and Charles Bannon was lynched for the murders. The story of the incident has been passed down in Hoven family history, relatives say. At some time Albert’s last name was changed from Hoven to Haven.

When Toni Holland of Houston, Texas, came across an online story by The Minot Daily News a few weeks ago about a movie to be made on the last lynching in North Dakota, it caught her interest.

Holland sent an email to The Minot Daily News explaining she is related to the family that Charles Bannon murdered and was hanged for in the 1930s.

Albert and Lulia Haven and their children lived on a farm near Schafer in McKenzie County and Bannon, who was arrested for their murders, worked on their farm.

“This (the story) has been passed down as family history,” she said in her email. Albert Haven was Holland’s great-great uncle – her father David Hoven’s great uncle.

The story of the Bannon lynching, the last lynching in North Dakota, is scheduled to become a movie.

Daniel Bielinski, Bismarck, founder of Canticle Productions, a theater, film and TV production company and also director of Theater Programs at the University of Mary, is in charge of the project.

Dennis Johnson, an attorney in Watford City who has spent 40-some years learning and researching the story of North Dakota’s last lynching, wrote the book, “End of the Rope. The True Story of North Dakota’s Last Lynching.” He is helping with the movie script.

Casting for the movie will be this spring in Watford City and Bismarck and also virtually, Johnson said. He pointed out it is a movie and not a documentary.

Here’s a link to the website for auditions: https://www.endoftheropefilm.com/ or check EndoftheRopeFilmND on Facebook.

Holland questioned why the family name in North Dakota was Haven and not Hoven as her family’s name.

Johnson said he had heard the family in Minnesota went by Hoven and not Haven. “But they were always referred to here and known as Haven. In fact, deeds to, from, and even signed by Albert and Lulia Haven are in the name of Haven as well as the permits for removal of bodies and burial are in the name Haven,” he said.

Before moving to McKenzie County, the Haven family had farmed in Canada.

Holland’s email led to LaVonne Wibbens, a Hoven family member from Rochester, Minn. Wibbens’ sister, Linda White, also lives in Rochester. Albert Haven was their great uncle. He was their grandfather, Martin Hoven’s brother.

Albert Haven was one of 10 children of David and Ingeborg Hoven of southeastern Minnesota. Both David and Ingeborg came to the United States from Norway.

Holland said she knows that at one point in her life her father told her about the murder of the family and the lynching.

“I think I was in elementary school and the story is horrifying,” she said.

Wibbens said she has few memories of the incident being spoken about. “I am sure it must have been talked about by my grandparents and other relatives.” As she got older, she learned more about it.

Wibbens also contacted Hans Olav Lokken of Stjordal, Norway. Lokken, a prolific author of regional historical books in Norway, who has made a number of trips to the United States including attending Norsk Hostfest and visiting relatives, James and Gail Lein, in Minot. He has also spent time researching the story about the murdered Haven family. He said he knows the whole Hoven/Haven family who live in Norway.

Lokken, who contacted The Minot Daily News, said Albert Haven and Lulia Lane, who came from Salem, Indiana, were married in 1911 in Lansford. They went to Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, where they had a small farm until moving to Schafer in McKenzie County in October 1918.

Lokken said on a trip to North Dakota he met with Dennis Johnson in Minot and also visited the farm where the murders took place. He said his other sources were Jan Dodge, museum director in Watford City, and attorney Michael Hagburg. Hagburg wrote an account of the story while he was an attorney for the North Dakota Supreme Court.

Kaare Olav Skolmli, a Hoven family member in Norway, also accompanied Lokken on a 2011 trip McKenzie County to research the story.

Lokken wrote a chapter in one of his books entitled � North Dakota’s last lynching – a link to Stjordal.” He said when letters were absent from their son, Albert, in North Dakota, David Hoven hired a local lawyer, A.J. Rockne, of Zumbrota, Minnesota, to find out what had happened. When bodies of the Haven family members were found in November 1930 Albert’s brother, William Hoven, and Albert’s sister Emma’s husband, Adolph Syverson, went to Watford City and arranged the funeral for the family that took place Dec. 13, 1930.

Lokken wrote in the chapter that Charles Bannon’s case was to begin in January 1931. Albert’s sister, Emma, and her daughter, Elsie, went to Watford City to represent the family at the trial. They arrived there on Jan. 29 and when they woke up at the hotel the morning of Jan. 30, they learned the news that Bannon was lynched that night.

He said in November 1932 a court hearing was held in Watford City to determine the inheritance settlement after Albert and Lulia Haven’s deaths. Lokken said Albert’s father, David Hoven, had to face the court to a new Charles, Lulia Haven’s brother, Charles Lane, who unsuccessfully claimed the legacy.

Lokken also noted that Sheriff C.A. Jacobsen, who solved the case, was a Norwegian from Stavanger. Jacobsen’s grandson, Bruce Hetland of Bismarck, was one of Lokken’s sources for his research in North Dakota.

The filming for the movie is expected to start in August, with release in 2022.

You've only scratched the surface of Hoven family history.

Between 1955 and 2004, in the United States, Hoven life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1958, and highest in 1986. The average life expectancy for Hoven in 1955 was 48, and 75 in 2004.

An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Hoven ancestors lived in harsh conditions. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. The SSDI is a searchable database of more than 70 million names. You can find birthdates, death dates, addresses and more.

Papal Errors

In 1986, Pope John Paul II arranged a World Day of Peace in Assisi to which he invited 160 religious leaders, including Jews, Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, and members of African traditional religions. Some Catholics were scandalized. Subsequently, John Paul would publish the encyclicals Centesimus Annus (1991) Veritatis Splendor (1993) Evangelium Vitae (1995) and Fides et Ratio (1998). Question: If a Catholic was outraged by the prayer meeting in Assisi, is he or she still called upon to offer to the teachings of these encyclicals the “religious submission of intellect and will”?

In 1929, Pope Pius XI signed the Lateran Treaty with the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini, which recognized the Vatican as an independent state and accorded the Church financial support from Mussolini’s government. There were many at the time – and ever since – who have been highly critical of this both because it was a pact made with the Fascists and because Pius had ceded the pope’s traditional authority over “the Papal States.” Are Catholics who believe Pius’s decision was a huge mistake not bound by the teachings of Quadragesimo anno, Quas primas, or Divini Redemptoris?

In 1633, Pope Urban VIII steadfastly refused the judgment of members of his own inquisition tribunal that Galileo should be pardoned for the “error” of publishing his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems. Urban, who had earlier been a defender and patron of Galileo, seems to have been offended because Galileo had put one of the pope’s own arguments into the mouth of his character “Simplicio” (the Simpleton). The pope’s decision to put Galileo under house arrest has become notorious. Does this one decision render everything else he taught on faith and morals worthless?

Some distinctions are in order. The Church holds that popes can, in certain instances, when they explicitly intend to do so, teach infallibly in matters of faith and morals. In the entire history of the Church, there are perhaps eight proclamations that meet the stringent requirements for an infallible pronouncement. Most papal teachings are authoritative, but not infallible, calling not for an “assent of faith,” as do infallible teachings, but “the religious submission of intellect and will.”

Is it ever licit for a faithful Catholic to disagree with an authoritative, non-infallible teaching of a pope? Yes. If a person has inquired diligently into the teaching in question, and if after serious prayer and reflection, feels that fraternal correction is in order, then one may express this disagreement publicly as long as: (A) one’s reasons are serious and well-founded (B) one’s dissent does not question or impugn the teaching authority of the Church and (C) the nature of the dissent is not such as to give rise to scandal.

I’ve often thought that these would serve as good rules-of-thumb for disagreeing with almost anybody. You should have good reasons for your position you should strive not to impugn the integrity or good intentions of your interlocutor and you should argue in such a way as not to give scandal. One rarely wins over others (including bystanders) by brow-beating them you usually succeed only in making your side look bad.

Galileo (and Urban VIII) by Edmond van Hoven, c. 1885 [‪Groeningemuseum, Bruges]

So much for papal teaching.

What about papal actions? Along with the gift of infallibility, do popes have the gift of impeccability (from the Latin peccatum, meaning “sin”), a special charism guaranteeing they never make mistakes?

The Church has never made this claim. Quite the contrary, those who have been the staunchest defenders of infallibility have always distinguished it from impeccability precisely because (A) it’s clear that any number of popes have committed grievous sins, and (B) it’s a matter of faith that every pope is a sinner, just like the rest of us, in need of God’s saving grace won by the death and resurrection of Christ. We don’t worship the man we respect the office we have faith in Christ’s promise to be with His Church until the end of the age and to send His Holy Spirit to guide and protect her.

Years ago someone told me that John Paul II didn’t give communion in the hand, which showed that John Paul II was condemning the practice. I suggested that if the pope wanted to communicate this message, he had plenty of official channels to do so. There is a species of papal idolatry that is, in the long run, not helpful. I wonder what my friend would say now. If he is still mistaking the pope’s personal actions for official papal teaching, he’s probably confused – and angry.

Watching a pope’s every action for its political significance is the sort of foolishness that caused certain people to condemn Christ for eating with (“yucking it up with”) prostitutes and tax collectors. Such actions were said to “cause scandal,” “sow confusion,” and “show support for the Church’s enemies.” Maybe maybe not. “Time will tell where wisdom lies.”

Some popes have made major mistakes. But every pope makes some mistakes they’re only human after all. If you want perfection and sinlessness, you’re looking for a church that doesn’t exist, an empty promise from the Father of Lies, not the one established by Christ.

Being confused or disappointed with a pope is a common enough state of affairs in Church history. But Catholics who imagine that they have the authority to set the canonical standard by which the teaching of this or any papacy can be judged are simply showing (A) that they have really been Protestants all along, and (B) that their view of authority is the one that characterizes too much of modern American politics: authority’s job is to do what I say and to crush my opponents.

The Church hasn’t always been well served by her popes. But then again, she has always been much worse off when she has given-in to the self-righteous voices of the mob – especially when they’re shouting “Crucify him.”

Watch the video: Πολ Ποτ - Εμπόλεμη Ζώνη (January 2022).