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Links: Medieval

Military History Encyclopedia on the Web

Links: Medieval History

Original DocumentsGeneral SitesBattles

Original Documents

Internet Medieval Sourcebook: A fantastic collection of original source material, stretching from the late Roman period up to the end of the middle ages. Contains a wide variety of sources including many chronicles as well as much literature from the period.

General Sites

The Society of Ancients: an international amateur society for the promotion of the study of ancient and medieval military history

Battles

Fulford

Battle of Fulford - 20 September 1066- an interesting site that looks at the possible location of the battlefield.

Links: Medieval - History

A brief summary of the history of England in the Middle Ages (also known as mediaeval or medieval history)


THE MIDDLE AGES (1066-1485)

Perhaps the most famous date in British history is 1066, when William the First (William the Conqueror) invaded England with an army of soldiers from Normandy (in north-west France). The Normans were originally Vikings, who had moved to north France in about AD 900. William defeated the Saxon king (Harold) at the Battle of Hastings: Hastings is a town on the south coast of England. The story of the invasion is told in pictures in the Bayeux Tapestry. This was the last time that England was successfully invaded by a foreign army.


Start of the Bayeux Tapestry
(a replica is on display in Reading, Berkshire)

Valle Crucis Abbey (1201),
Llangollen, Wales
Caernarfon Castle (1283),
Caernarfon, Wales

The Christian church became rich and powerful in England and Wales under the Normans. Many churches and cathedrals were built, including those at Chichester and Durham. The headquarters of the Church in England was at Canterbury in Kent. Geoffrey Chaucer wrote a famous long poem about the stories of people travelling to the town: this is known as The Canterbury Tales. The Pope (based in Rome) was the leader of the Christian church in Europe. The lands around Jerusalem were regarded as holy by Christians. This area was controlled by Arabs during the time of the Dark Ages, but Christians were still allowed to go there to visit their holy places. However, in the early Middle Ages this area was invaded by Turks, and Christians in Jerusalem were attacked. The Pope ordered Christians to go there to attack the Turks, and there were a number of wars known as the Crusades. The legend of Robin Hood is based on this period of history, during the time when Richard the First was away from England fighting the Third Crusade (shortly before 1200).


Archer
(Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire)

Sword fighting,
Harlech Castle, Wales


Knights
jousting

England and France spent many years fighting each other, especially in the period known as the Hundred Years War. At one time England ruled almost all of France, helped by victories at the battles of Crécy in the time of Edward the Third and Agincourt in the time of Henry the Fifth. One of William Shakespeare's most famous plays is Henry the Fifth, based around the story of the battle of Agincourt. However, a rebellion against the English was led by Joan of Arc, and by the end of the Middle Ages the English had lost nearly all of the land in France.

The Black Death was a disease carried by rats which spread through much of Europe. About a third of the population of Britain were killed by this, with England being affected particularly badly. This meant there were fewer serfs (peasants) to farm the land, and those who survived had to work harder for no extra benefit. When the king tried to increase taxes to pay for the war against France, peasants attacked their lords and marched to London, asking for higher wages and their freedom. This was known as the Peasant's Revolt. Although the king promised to help them, the leaders of the revolt were killed after they returned home.

William Caxton set up the first printing presses in England at the end of this period. Books started to be produced in English, not just in Latin or French. The printing process helped to establish a standard form of English. It also helped to spread of education and the ideas of the Renaissance, which started in Italy in the 1400s.

There were a series of battles between the House of York (whose family symbol was a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (whose family symbol was a red rose), the leaders of which both wanted to rule England. These fights were known as the Wars of the Roses. The final result was a victory for Lancaster's Henry Tudor (Henry the Seventh) at Bosworth Field. He ended the fighting between the families by marrying a member of the House of York. This was the start of the Tudor period.

Castles & Knights
Author: Philip Steele
Publisher: Miles Kelly Publishing Ltd
Date: May 2002

Medieval sightseeing in England: Britain/History/Sightseeing/Medieval
The royal family and UK countries: Britain/Countries
Improving your English reading skills: English/Reading
Improving your English listening skills (including TV): English/Listening
Visit Warwick Castle: Travel/Tours/England/Warwick


Links: Medieval - History

Internet Medieval Sourcebook

Selected Sources: The Crusades

  • Urban II's Speech, 1095
  • Attacks on the Jews
  • The Journeys and Battles of the Crusade
  • The Historians of the First Crusade
  • Government
  • Economics
  • Cultures
  • Christian Muslim Interaction
  • General
  • Templars
  • Hospitallers
  • Teutonic Knights
  • Calling the Crusade
  • Successes and Failures
  • Criticism of the Crusade
  • Latin Problems
  • The Loss of Jerusalem
  • The Failure of Europe's Monarchs
  • The German Crusade of 1197
  • St Louis' Crusades
  • The Fall of the Latin East
  • WEB Crusader Sources in Translation
  • WEB The Crusades: Bibliography by Paul Halsall [PDF - updated 2019]
  • WEB The Crusades, online course material by Paul Halsall [At Internet Archive, from UNF] .
  • Leo IV (r.847-855): Forgiveness of Sins for Those Who Dies in Battle, c.850.
  • John VIII (r. 872-882): Indulgence for Fighting the Heathen, 878.
  • Letaldus of Micy: Journey of the Relics of St. Junianus, including a description of the Peace Council of Charroux in 989. Trans. by Thomas Head [At ORB]
  • Andrew of Fleury: Miracles of St. Benedict. Trans. by Thomas Head [At ORB]
    A description of the Peace League of Bourges and its campaign in 1038.
  • For pilgrimage to Jerusalem, see Ralph Glaber (d.c.1044): The Year 1000 AD from the Miracles de Saint-Benoit.
  • Gregory VII: Call for a "Crusade", 1074.
  • Annalist of Nieder-Altaich: The Great German Pilgrimage of 1064-65.

There are many translations of texts about the First Crusade. Dana C. Munro ["Urban and the Crusaders", Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History, Vol 1:2, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1895)] and August. C. Krey, [The First Crusade: The Accounts of Eyewitnesses and Participants, (Princeton: 1921)] both translated selections of crusader sources organized around events. There have been more recent translation of many of these texts [see WEB Crusader Sources in Translation], but they are still copyrighted. Here the texts by Krey and Munro are presented in two ways: first as printed - with collected texts from various historians on a specific issue and then with all the available texts from each historian collected together.

  • Urban II's Speech, 1095
      .
      Accounts by Fulcher of Chartres, Robert the Monk, The Gesta, Balderic of Dol, and Guibert of Nogent. Plus Urban's Letter of December 1095.
      See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Bl. Urban II and Catholic Encyclopedia: Crusades.
  • Fulcher of Chartres: Chronicle of the First Crusade - Urban II's Speech at Clermont.
  • Robert the Monk: Urban II's Speech at Clermont.
  • Ekkehard of Aurach: On the Opening of the First Crusade .
    • Albert of Aix and Ekkehard of Aura: Emico and the Slaughter of the Rhineland Jews.
    • Solomon Bar Simson: Account of First Crusade, copyrighted
    • Soloman bar Samson: The Crusaders in Mainz, 1096, written in mid 12th century.
      The horrific attacks on Rhineland Jewry.
    • Peter the Hermit and the Popular Crusade: Collected Accounts.
      Accounts of Guibert de Nogent, William of Tyre, Albert of Aix, Ekkhard of Aura, Anna Comnena, and the Gesta.
    • The Crusaders Journey to Constantinople: Collected Accounts.
      Accounts of the Gesta, Albert of Aix, and Raymond d'Aguiliers. .
      Accounts of Anna Comnena, the Gesta, Albert of Aix, and Raymond d'Aguiliers.
    • [Geary 28.4] Anna Comnena: On A Rude Crusader . (Geary includes more (copyrighted) material than this extract.) .
      Accounts of The Gesta, Raymond d'Aguiliers, Anna Comnena, and Alexius I' Letter to Abbot of Monte Cassino. .
      Accounts of The Gesta and Raymond d'Aguiliers. .
      Accounts of The Gesta, Raymond d'Aguiliers, Letters of Manasses II, Pope Paschal II, and account of Fulcher of Chartres.
    • [Tierney 40, Geary 28.1] Fulcher (Fulk) of Chartres: The Capture of Jerusalem, 1099. [Longer extracts in Geary] .
    • Fulcher (Fulk) of Chartres: Chronicle.
    • Guibert of Nogent (1053-1124): Historia quae dicitur Gesta Dei per Francos.
    • Albert of Aix: Chronicle.
    • Ekkehard of Aura: Hierosolymita and World Chronicle.
    • Anna Comnena (1083-after 1148): The Alexiad. [Full text]
      The account of her father, the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I, by Princess Anna Comnena is perhaps the most important historical work by a woman writer written before the modern period.
    • Anna Comnena (1083-after 1148): The Alexiad [Books 10 and 11].
      See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Anna Comnena. .
    • Raymund d'Aguiliers: Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem.
    • William of Tyre (c.1130- 1190): History of Deeds done Beyond the Sea, excerpts..
      William of Tyre's account extends here to the the 1180s.
    • Guillame de Tyr (William of Tyre) (c.1130- 1190): Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum [History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea], full text of Old French version (13th century)
        the Old French translation from the edition of Paulin. ditto ditto , the continuation, from the Recueil des historiens des croisades , from Les gestes des Chiprois as edited by Gaston Raynaud.
      • Government
        • William of Tyre: Godfrey Of Bouillon Becomes "Defender Of The Holy Sepulcher. (chronology). (trans. Helen Nicholson)
          .
        • Fulcher (Fulk) of Chartres: The Latins in the East (Chronicle, Bk III).
        • [Geary 28.3] Ibn Al-Athir: Account of First Crusade, copyrighted
        • [Tierney 41] Usamah (1095-1188): Autobiography - on the Crusades, copyrighted: see next items
        • Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095-1188): Autobiography: Excerpts on the Franks, c.1175 CE.
        • Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095-1188): On European Piracy, c.1175 CE. [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
        • Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095-1188): On Muslim and Christian Piety, c.1175 CE. [At CCNY]
        • The Tale of Two Hashish-Easters (Traditional), and another Hashish Tale, from Arabian Nights [At Drug Library]
        • Philip K. Hitti : The Assasins [At Drug Library]
        • A Christian-Muslim Debate [12th Century]. , 1248
        • General
          • Catholic Encyclopedia: The Military Orders
          • St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153): In Praise of the New Knighthood, early 12th Century, on the Templars.
          • See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Bernard of Clairvaux, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge: Bernard of Clairvaux, Catholic Encyclopedia: The Knights Templars, and Catholic Encyclopedia: Hospitallers of St. John Of Jerusalems (Knights of Malta).
          • William of Tyre: The Foundation of the Order of Knights Templar.
          • Primitive Rule of the Templars, 1129. [At ORB]
          • Catholic Encyclopedia: The Military Orders
          • The Rule and Statutes of the Teutonic Knights, 1264. [At ORB]
            See the ORB Military Orders Page on this.
          • the Baltic Crusade 1199-1266
          • Calling the Crusade
            • William of Tyre: The Fall of Edessa.
            • Otto of Freising: The Legend of Prester John.
            • Eugenius III: Call for Second Crusade, Dec. 1, 1146. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Blessed Eugene III.
            • Osbernus: De expugnatione Lyxbonensi [The Capture of Lisbon], 1147.
              The first, and most lasting, military encounter of the Second Crusade was the Capture of Lisbon.
            • Conrad II: Letters to the Abbot of Corvey, 1148.
              On the failures of the Germans' Crusade.
            • Odo of Deuil: The Crusade of Louis VII.
              Odo, Louis VII's chaplain, recounts the preaching of St. Bernard, and the journey of the army.
            • William of Tyre: The Fiasco at Damascus, 1148.
            • Annales Herbipolenses, s.a. 1147: A Hostile View of the Crusade.
            • St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153): Apologia for the Second Crusade.
            • Latin Problems
              • William of Tyre: Latin Disarray, 1150-1185.
              • Aymeric, patriarch of Antioch: The Decline of Christian Power in the Holy Land, 1164, Letter to Louis VII of France. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
              • Ansbert: Letter from the East to the Master of the Hospitallers, 1187.
              • Ernoul, a Frank: The Battle of Hattin, 1187. [At Hillsdale]
              • Ernoul: The Battle of Hattin, 1187.
              • De Expugatione Terrae Sanctae: The Battle of Hattin, 1187.
              • De Expugatione Terrae Sanctae: The Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, 1187.
              • Roger of Hoveden: The Fall Of Jerusalem, 1187.
              • Henry II, King of England: The Saladin Tithe, 1188
              • The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: Letters, 1189.
                Letters by Frederick I and Ex-Queen Sibylla blaming the Byzantine Emperor for problems.
              • Historia de Expeditione Frederici Imperatoris: Death of Frederick Barbarossa, 1190.
              • Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: Richard the Lion-Hearted Conquers Cyprus, 1191.
              • Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: The Siege and Capture of Acre, 1191.
              • Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: Philip Augustus Returns to France, 1191.
              • Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: Muslim Hostages Slain at Acre, 1191.
              • Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: Richard the Lionheart Makes Peace with Saladin, 1192.
                .
                Letter of the Duke of Lorrain to the Archbishop of Cologne, 1197 - before the crusade was checked by the death of Henry VI.
              • .
                Texts from Villehardoun, Robert de Clari, Choniates, etc.
          • Geoffry de Villehardouin: Chronicle of the Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople, full text
          • Robert de Clari: The Capture of Constantinople, selections.
          • Nicetas Choniates: Capture of Constantinople, 1204.
          • Innocent III: Letter 136: Reprimand of Papal Legate, 1204.
          • The Fifth and Later Crusades

            After the Fourth Crusade, the nature of the movement changed. Never again was there a general multinational crusade directed at the Holy Land. The experiences of 1187-92 had shown that Egypt was the base of Muslim power, and so expeditions were directed there. It would be a mistake to see the end of crusading fervour however. During the thirteenth century there were eight large expeditions, as well as other manifestations of crusading ideas. None of these expeditions could avoid the effects of the rise of the Mongols and Mamelukes in the Middle East - where armies increased in size and made the small Western units meaningless. The eight thirteenth-century expeditions were:

            1. 1218, Andrew of Hungary's Crusade
            2. 1218-21, The Fifth Crusade
            3. 1228-29, Frederick II's Crusade
            4. 1239, Thibaut of Navarre's Crusade
            5. 1240-41, Richard of Cornwall's Crusade
            6. 1248-54, The Sixth Crusade - St. Louis's Crusade
            7. 1270-72, Edward of England's (Later Edward II) Crusade
            8. 1270 St. Louis's second Crusade [To Tunis]
              , 1212.
        • Innocent III: Summons to a Crusade, 1215.
        • Philip de Novare: The Crusade of Frederick II, 1228-29. .
          Letters by Frederick II: To Henry III of England, and by Gerold, Patriarch of Jerusalem, To All the Faithful, 1229. .
          Letter from the Master of the Hospitalers at Jerusalem, to Lord De Lamaye.
        • St. Louis's Crusades
          • Jean de Joinville: Memoirs , full text. [At Virginia]
          • Al-Makrisi: Arab Account of the Crusade of St. Louis.
          • Guy, A Knight: Letter from the Sixth Crusade, 1249.
          • Ludolph of Suchem: The Fall of Acre, 1291 Philip de Novare: The Crusade of Frederick II, 1228-29.
          • Battle of Lepanto
          • Allenby in Jerusalem

          The Internet Medieval Sourcebook is part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project . The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

          © Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021


          Middle Ages

          Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

          Middle Ages, the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century ce to the period of the Renaissance (variously interpreted as beginning in the 13th, 14th, or 15th century, depending on the region of Europe and other factors).

          When did the Middle Ages begin?

          The Middle Ages was the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century CE to the period of the Renaissance (variously interpreted as beginning in the 13th, 14th, or 15th century, depending on the region of Europe and other factors).

          What was the role of Christendom?

          After the dissolution of the Roman Empire, the idea arose of Europe as one large church-state, called Christendom. Christendom consisted of two distinct groups of functionaries: the sacerdotium, or ecclesiastical hierarchy, and the imperium, or secular leaders.In theory, these two groups complemented each other, attending to people’s spiritual and temporal needs, respectively. In practice, the two institutions were constantly sparring, disagreeing, or openly warring with each other.

          How long did the Migration Period last?

          The Migration Period was a historical period sometimes called the Dark Ages, Late Antiquity, or the Early Middle Ages. The period lasted from the fall of Rome to about the year 1000, with a brief hiatus during the flowering of the Carolingian court established by Charlemagne.

          What were the major artistic eras of the Middle Ages?

          Romanesque art was the first of two great international artistic eras that flourished in Europe during the Middle Ages. Romanesque architecture emerged about 1000 and lasted until about 1150, by which time it had evolved into Gothic. Gothic art was the second of two great international eras that flourished in western and central Europe during the Middle Ages.Gothic art evolved from Romanesque art and lasted from the mid-12th century to as late as the end of the 16th century in some areas.

          What socio-economic system is perceived as characteristic of the Middle Ages?

          Feudalism designates the social, economic, and political conditions in western Europe during the early Middle Ages, the long stretch of time between the 5th and 12th centuries. Feudalism and the related term feudal system are labels invented long after the period to which they were applied. They refer to what those who invented them perceived as the most significant and distinctive characteristics of the early and central Middle Ages.

          A brief treatment of the Middle Ages follows. For full treatment, see Europe, history of: The Middle Ages.

          The term and its conventional meaning were introduced by Italian humanists with invidious intent. The humanists were engaged in a revival of Classical learning and culture, and the notion of a thousand-year period of darkness and ignorance separating them from the ancient Greek and Roman world served to highlight the humanists’ own work and ideals. It would seem unnecessary to observe that the men and women who lived during the thousand years or so preceding the Renaissance were not conscious of living in the Middle Ages. A few—Petrarch was the most conspicuous among them—felt that their lot was cast in a dark time, which had begun with the decline of the Roman Empire. Indeed, Petrarch would provide something of a founding statement for the humanists when he wrote, “For who can doubt that Rome would rise again instantly if she began to know herself?”

          In a sense, the humanists invented the Middle Ages in order to distinguish themselves from it. They were making a gesture of their sense of freedom, and yet, at the same time, they were implicitly accepting the medieval conception of history as a series of well-defined ages within a limited framework of time. They did not speak of Augustine’s Six Ages of the World or believe in the chronology of Joachimite prophecy, but they nevertheless inherited a philosophy of history that began with the Garden of Eden and would end with the Second Coming of Christ. In such a scheme, the thousand years from the 5th to the 15th century might well be regarded as a distinct respectable period of history, which would stand out clearly in the providential pattern. Throughout European history, however, there has never been a complete breach with medieval institutions or modes of thought.

          The sack of Rome by Alaric the Visigoth in 410 ce had enormous impact on the political structure and social climate of the Western world, for the Roman Empire had provided the basis of social cohesion for most of Europe. Although the Germanic tribes that forcibly migrated into southern and western Europe in the 5th century were ultimately converted to Christianity, they retained many of their customs and ways of life. The changes in forms of social organization they introduced rendered centralized government and cultural unity impossible. Many of the improvements in the quality of life introduced during the Roman Empire, such as a relatively efficient agriculture, extensive road networks, water-supply systems, and shipping routes, decayed substantially, as did artistic and scholarly endeavours.

          This decline persisted throughout the Migration period, a historical period sometimes called the Dark Ages, Late Antiquity, or the Early Middle Ages. The Migration period lasted from the fall of Rome to about the year 1000, with a brief hiatus during the flowering of the Carolingian court established by Charlemagne. Apart from that interlude, no large political structure arose in Europe to provide stability. Two great kingdoms, Germany and Italy, began to lose their political unity almost as soon as they had acquired it they had to wait until the 19th century before they found it again. The only force capable of providing a basis for social unity was the Roman Catholic Church. The Middle Ages therefore present the confusing and often contradictory picture of a society attempting to structure itself politically on a spiritual basis. This attempt came to a definitive end with the rise of artistic, commercial, and other activities anchored firmly in the secular world in the period just preceding the Renaissance.

          After the dissolution of the Roman Empire, the idea arose of Europe as one large church-state, called Christendom. Christendom was thought to consist of two distinct groups of functionaries: the sacerdotium, or ecclesiastical hierarchy, and the imperium, or secular leaders. In theory, these two groups complemented each other, attending to people’s spiritual and temporal needs, respectively. Supreme authority was wielded by the pope in the first of these areas and by the emperor in the second. In practice, the two institutions were constantly sparring, disagreeing, or openly warring with each other. The emperors often tried to regulate church activities by claiming the right to appoint church officials and to intervene in doctrinal matters. The church, in turn, not only owned cities and armies but often attempted to regulate affairs of state. This tension would reach a breaking point in the late 11th and early 12th centuries during the clash between Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII over the question of lay investiture.

          During the 12th century a cultural and economic revival took place many historians trace the origins of the Renaissance to this time. The balance of economic power slowly began to shift from the region of the eastern Mediterranean to western Europe. The Gothic style developed in art and architecture. Towns began to flourish, travel and communication became faster, safer, and easier, and merchant classes began to develop. Agricultural developments were one reason for these developments during the 12th century the cultivation of beans made a balanced diet available to all social classes for the first time in history. The population therefore rapidly expanded, a factor that eventually led to the breakup of the old feudal structures.

          The 13th century was the apex of medieval civilization. The classic formulations of Gothic architecture and sculpture were achieved. Many different kinds of social units proliferated, including guilds, associations, civic councils, and monastic chapters, each eager to obtain some measure of autonomy. The crucial legal concept of representation developed, resulting in the political assembly whose members had plena potestas—full power—to make decisions binding upon the communities that had selected them. Intellectual life, dominated by the Roman Catholic Church, culminated in the philosophical method of Scholasticism, whose preeminent exponent, St. Thomas Aquinas, achieved in his writings on Aristotle and the Church Fathers one of the greatest syntheses in Western intellectual history.


          Links: Medieval - History

          Anna Comnena: World’s first woman historian. Complete text of the Alexiad translated by Elizabeth Dawson.

          Attending to Early Modern Women Resources: Annotated links to high quality academic resources. Materials range from bibliographic databases to full-text resources, images, and sound recordings. The site contains information for 18th century research as well.

          The Beguines: A solid essay on this late 12th century, autonomous, nonhierarchical female order.

          Diaries of court ladies of old Japan: Within site “A Celebration of Women Writers.” Translation of complete book by Annie Sehpley Omori and Kochi Doi. Illustrations. Find Lady Murasaki Shikibu’s diary here.

          The Diary of Murasaki Shikibu: Here on line you'll find Murasaki's whole diary, complete with illustrations, some in color. An incredible resource.

          Granuaile O'Malley Use this site to find links to others about this famous Irish Sea Captain and Raider.

          The Grievance Rhetoric of Chinese Women from Lamentation to Revolution: Fascinating article featuring selections from the 16th century story "The Shrew" (loved by students), bridal laments, and revolutionary peasant "speaking bitterness" complaints.

          Handbook for William: A Carolingian Woman's Counsel for Her Son: This wonderful excerpted letter by aristocrat Dhuoda of Septimania (c.806/11 - 843?) advising her son how to behave is one of the very few surviving first person accounts we have from this early Medieval period. It is part of the "Other Women's Voices" site.

          International Joan of Arc Society: Notable for texts related to Joan, pedagogic resources, images, and interactive map.

          Life of Women in Tudor England: Essentially a long essay. Attractively presented and easily accessible for middle school students.

          The Lives of Medieval Women An engaging, attractive, information packed site produced by two high school girls. A must see!

          Medieval Feminist Index: A site to help in your search. Indexed under subjects, broad topics, journals and essays.

          Medieval Women: Learning Medieval Realms: Student Activity investigating womens active lives using documents and pictures from the British Library.

          Monastic Matrix: This collaborative effort makes available materials devoted to the participation of Christian women in the religion and society of medieval Europe. Divided into eight sections currently containing over 8,000 citations.

          Tudor Women: One page of a ton of information on women in different periods. The "About Human Internet", "Women's History" site has tons of material from women in ancient times to heads of state. Usually short biographies, some quotes.

          The Very Model of a Medieval General: the Career of Matilda of Tuscany: Thorough site which focuses on primary sources regarding this fascinating, politically powerful and influential 11th century ruler.

          The Witching Hours: Find original documents including trial accounts on the 17th and 18th European persecutions.

          Women of History: Nice collections of biographies some lesser known luminaries.


          Links: Medieval - History

          Schedule - Virtual Author Visit

          In-person learners head to 3rd hour for the author’s presentation.

          Remote learners log out of 2nd hour and join the author online from home, and then they will join 3rd hour afterward.

          Dan Gemeinhart’s presentation via Google Meet:

          In-person learners: Teachers open the link at school and students will watch the teacher’s screen

          Teachers, please mute yourselves and turn off your camera: Author Visit - Click Here for the Google Meet Link

          Remote learners: Students will have access to the link, and Mrs. Waldie will monitor everyone online

          Teachers, do nothing more than remind remote learners to check their email.

          Students will mute themselves and turn off their cameras.

          This will be recorded in case anyone misses it.

          The author is aware that we will turn off our cameras and mut ourselves in order to minimize any distractions so that the 900+ students/staff can focus on his virtual presentation.

          The rest of the day follows our normal schedule.

          Journal: Black death video...10 facts

          Create a Poster that shows:

          Several photos, maps, graphs, or drawings to demonstrate your Middle Ages topic.

          Information, written in your own words, that allows us to learn from the research you completed.

          *Bullet points are fine, but must be written in complete sentences with your own words.

          Create 3 questions that are straightforward and information on the poster should provide students with the information they need to answer them.

          An answer key that can be accessed (but it must be hidden while answering the questions).

          Create a Poster that shows:

          Several photos, maps, graphs, timelines or drawings to demonstrate your Middle Ages topic.

          Information, written in your own words, that allows us to learn from the research you completed.

          *Bullet points are fine, but must be written in complete sentences with your own words.

          Create 3 questions that are straightforward and information on the poster should provide students with the information they need to answer them.

          An answer key that can be accessed (but it must be hidden while answering the questions).


          How Do You Treat the Black Death?

          Physicians relied on crude and unsophisticated techniques such as bloodletting and boil-lancing (practices that were dangerous as well as unsanitary) and superstitious practices such as burning aromatic herbs and bathing in rosewater or vinegar.

          Meanwhile, in a panic, healthy people did all they could to avoid the sick. Doctors refused to see patients priests refused to administer last rites and shopkeepers closed their stores. Many people fled the cities for the countryside, but even there they could not escape the disease: It affected cows, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens as well as people.

          In fact, so many sheep died that one of the consequences of the Black Death was a European wool shortage. And many people, desperate to save themselves, even abandoned their sick and dying loved ones. “Thus doing,” Boccaccio wrote, �h thought to secure immunity for himself.”


          History of Ghana

          Medieval Ghana (4th - 13th Century): The Republic of Ghana is named after the medieval Ghana Empire of West Africa. The actual name of the Empire was Wagadugu. Ghana was the title of the kings who ruled the kingdom. It was controlled by Sundiata in 1240 AD, and absorbed into the larger Mali Empire. (Mali Empire reached its peak of success under Mansa Musa around 1307.)

          Geographically, the old Ghana is 500 miles north of the present Ghana, and occupied the area between Rivers Senegal and Niger.

          Some inhabitants of present Ghana had ancestors linked with the medieval Ghana. This can be traced down to the Mande and Voltaic peoeple of Northern Ghana--Mamprussi, Dagomba and the Gonja.

          Anecdotal evidence connected the Akans to this great Empire. The evidence lies in names like Danso shared by the Akans of present Ghana and Mandikas of Senegal/Gambia who have strong links with the Empire. There is also the matrilineal connection. . MORE

          Gold Coast & European Exploration: Before March 1957 Ghana was called the Gold Coast. The Portuguese who came to Ghana in the 15th Century found so much gold between the rivers Ankobra and the Volta that they named the place Mina - meaning Mine. The Gold Coast was later adopted to by the English colonisers. Similarily, the French, equally impressed by the trinkets worn by the coastal people, named The Ivory Coast, Cote d'Ivoire.

          In 1482, the Portuguese built a castle in Elmina. Their aim was to trade in gold, ivory and slaves. In 1481 King John II of Portugal sent Diego d'Azambuja to build this castle.

          In 1598 the Dutch joined them, and built forts at Komenda and Kormantsil. In 1637 they captured the castle from the Portuguese and that of Axim in 1642 (Fort St Anthony). Other European traders joined in by the mid 18th century. These were the English, Danes and Swedes. The coastline were dotted by forts built by the Dutch, British and the Dane merchants. By the latter part of 19th century the Dutch and the British were the only traders left. And when the Dutch withdrew in 1874, Britain made the Gold Coast a crown colony.

          By 1901 the Ashanti and the North were made a protectorate. . MORE

          Britain and the Gold Coast. The first Britons arrived in the early 19th century as traders in Ghana. But with their close relationship with the coastal people especially the Fantes, the Ashantis became their enemies. . MORE

          Economic and Social Development (Before 1957)
          1874--Gold Mine in Wassa and Asante. Between 1946-1950 gold export rose from 6 million pounds to 9 million pounds.
          ..MORE

          Political Movements and Nationalism in Ghana (1945 - 1957)
          The educated Ghanaians had always been in the fore-front of constructive movements. Names that come into mind are --Dr Aggrey, George Ferguson, John Mensah Sarbah. Others like king Ghartey IV of Winneba, Otumfuo Osei Agyeman Prempeh I raised the political consciousness of their subjects. However, movements towards political freedom started soon after WWII.

          This happened because suddenly people realised the colonisation was a form of oppression, similar to the oppression they have just fought against. The war veterans had become radical. The myth surrounding the whiteman has been broken. The rulers were considered economic cheats, their arogance had become very offensive. They had the ruling class attitude, and some of the young District Commissioner (DC) treated the old chiefs as if they were their subjects. Local pay was bad. No good rural health or education policy. Up to 1950 the Govt Secondary schools in the country were 2, the rest were built by the missionaries.

          There was also the rejection of African culture to some extent. Some external forces also contributed to this feeling. African- Americans such as Marcus Garvey and WE Du Bois raised strong Pan-African conscience.

          In 1945 a conference was held in Manchester to promote Pan African ideas. This was attended by Nkrumah of Ghana, Azikwe of Nigeria and Wallace Johnson of Sierra Leone. The India and Pakistani independence catalysed this desire.

          Sir Alan Burns constitution of 1946 provided new legislative council that was made of the Governor as the President, 6 government officials, 6 nominated members and 18 elected members.

          The executive council was not responsible to the legislative council. They were only in advisory capacity, and the governor did not have to take notice.


          Links: Medieval - History

          Internet Medieval Sourcebook

          Selected Sources: Reformation

          • Luther
          • Calvin
          • Radicals
          • England
          • WEB See Modern History Sourcebook: Reformation Page for many more texts on the Protestant and Catholics Reformations.
          • Raimon de Cornet (14th cent. troubadour): Poem Criticizing the Avignon Papacy
          • Petrarch (1304-1374): Letter Criticizing the Avignon Papacy
          • Marsiglio of Padua (d.1343): Defensor Pacis: Selections from Text, 1324.
          • Marsiglio of Padua (d.1343): Defensor Pacis: Conclusions, 1324 Same Text with Introduction also available, complete, and in a different version from Tierney. [Geary has copyrighted selections from body of the text, chaps. 3 and 13.]
          • John XXII: Condemnation of Marsiglio of Padua, 1327.
          • The Condemnation of Wycliffe, 1382 and Wycliffe's Reply, 1384. Also includes John Wycliffe (1324-1384): Condemned Propositions 1382,
            See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Lollards.
          • John Wycliffe (1324-1384): On the Sacrament of Communion [Excerpt from Trialogus]. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Utraquism.
          • Dante Alighieri (1265-1321): Divine Comedy: Inferno XIX - Hell: third pit - on Papal Avarice. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Dante Alighieri.
          • Dante Alighieri (1265-1321): Divine Comedy: Inferno XIX. [Another version]
          • Desiderius Erasmus (ca. 1469-1536): The Praise of Folly (Moriae Encomium), 1509 [At this Site][Full text]
          • Desiderius Erasmus (ca. 1469-1536): In Praise of Folly, trans. John Wilson, 1688 [Full text] [At CCEL]
            More Erasmus texts are at the Erasmus Text Project [At Sewanee]
          • Jan Hus (1372/73-1415): Final Declaration, July 1, 1415 [At this Site]
          • Sir (St.) Thomas More (1478-1535): Utopia, 1516 [At this Site][Full text]
          • Luther
            • WEB Project Wittenberg
              Sources on Luther and the Lutheran tradition.
            • WEB Selected Works of Martin Luther, 1483 - 1546 [At ICLNet]
            • Martin Luther (1483-1546): 95 Theses, 1517
              See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Martin Luther, [Warning - a tendentious article].
            • Martin Luther (1483-1546): Martin Luther: 95 Theses - in Latin, 1517
            • Martin Luther (1483-1546): Letter to Archbishop of Mainz [On Indulgences], 1517.
            • Martin Luther (1483-1546): To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation [At Hanover]
              See also Introduction to this text.
            • Martin Luther (1483-1546): On the Freedom of a Christian, (1483-1546), extracts. [At WSU]
            • Martin Luther (1483-1546): On the Freedom of a Christian, full text, See also Martin Luther (1483-1546): Von der Freiheit eines Christenmenschen, In German.
            • Martin Luther (1483-1546): The German Mass and Order of Divine Service. [At Hanover]
            • Martin Luther (1483-1546): Luther Before 1517: Letters to Spalatin
              These letters are interesting in showing Luther's atitude towards Rome and towards theology. They also reveal that Luther's hatred of Jews, best seen in his 1543 letter, was not some affectation of old age, but was present very early on.
            • "On The Jews and Their Lies", a treatise by Martin Luther (translated by Martin H. Bertram, Luther's Works, Vol. 47: The Christian In Society IV, ed. by Franklin Sherman (c) 1971 Fortress Press, pages 121-306) has been removed because of copyright objections. We will attempt to provide a new translation of the German text at some point, but meanwhile welcome a translation any scholar wishes to supply.
            • Leo X: Exsurge Domine, June 15 1520. [At Papal Encyclicals]
              The papal Bull which condemned Martin Luther.
            • John Calvin: Letter to the King, [On the Clergy]. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Calvin, John.
            • John Calvin: The Order of Excommunication and of Public Repentance 1569 [At SWRB]
              , adopted by a Swiss Brethren Conference, February 24, 1527 [At Anabaptists.org]
            • Archbishop Thomas Cramner: Letter on Henry VIII's Divorce, 1533.
            • Henry VIII (r.1509-1547): The Act of Supremacy 1534, excerpts [At Then Again] , 1539. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Suppression of English Monasteries Under Henry VIII.
            • The Act of Uniformity, 1559, [At Hanover] , 1662 [At BCP]
              With some texts from the first Book of Common Prayer of 1549 and the second Book of 1552.
            • WEB Oremus: An Anglican Liturgical Library
            • The Tridentine Creed of Pius IV, 1564 [At Traditional Catholic.net] [English and Latin]
            • St. Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556): The Spiritual Exercises [excerpts]. The full text is available [At CCEL]. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Ignatius Loyola, Saint and Catholic Encyclopedia: The Society of Jesus (Jesuits). and Norman O'Neal, S.J.: A Sketch of the Life of St. Ignatius Loyola [At LUC]
            • St. Francis Xavier: Letter from India, to the Society of Jesus at Rome, 1543
            • St. Francis Xavier: Letter on the Missions, to St. Ignatius de Loyola, 1549
            • St. Francis Xavier: Letter from Japan, to the Society of Jesus at Goa, 1551
            • St. Francis Xavier: Letter from Japan, to the Society of Jesus in Europe, 1552
            • Hsu Kuang-chi: Memorial to Fra Matteo Ricci, 1617

            The Internet Medieval Sourcebook is part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project . The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

            © Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021


            Medieval World: Crime and Punishment - including witchcraft

            Citation: C N Trueman "Medieval Law And Order"
            historylearningsite.co.uk. The History Learning Site, 5 Mar 2015. 20 May 2019.

            Law and order was very harsh in Medieval England. Those in charge of law and order believed that people would only learn how to behave properly if they feared what would happen to them if they broke the law. Even the &lsquosmallest&rsquo offences had serious punishments. The authorities feared the poor simply because there were many more poor than rich and any revolt could be potentially damaging &ndash as the Peasants Revolt of 1381 proved.

            By the time of Henry II, the system of law in England had been improved because Henry sent out his own judges from London to listen to cases throughout all England&rsquos counties. Each accused person had to go through an ordeal. There were three ordeals:

            Ordeal by fire. An accused person held a red hot iron bar and walked three paces. His hand was then bandaged and left for three days. If the wound was getting better after three days, you were innocent. If the wound had clearly not got any better, you were guilty.

            Ordeal by water. An accused person was tied up and thrown into water. If you floated you were guilty of the crime you were accused of.

            Ordeal by combat. This was used by noblemen who had been accused of something. They would fight in combat with their accuser. Whoever won was right. Whoever lost was usually dead at the end of the fight.

            In 1215, the Pope decided that priests in England must not help with ordeals. As a result, ordeals were replaced by trials by juries. To start with, these were not popular with the people as they felt that their neighbours might have a grudge against them and use the opportunity of a trial to get their revenge. After 1275, a law was introduced which allowed people to be tortured if they refused to go to trial before a jury.

            If you were found guilty of a crime you would expect to face a severe punishment. Thieves had their hands cut off. Women who committed murder were strangled and then burnt. People who illegally hunted in royal parks had their ears cut off and high treason was punishable by being hung, drawn and quartered. There were very few prisons as they cost money and local communities were not prepared to pay for their upkeep. It was cheaper to execute someone for bad crimes or mutilate them and then let them go.

            Most towns had a gibbet just outside of it. People were hung on these and their bodies left to rot over the weeks as a warning to others. However, such violent punishments clearly did not put off people. In 1202, the city of Lincoln in England had 114 murders, 89 violent robberies and 65 people were wounded in fights. Only 2 people were executed for these crimes and it can be concluded that many in Lincoln got away with their crime.


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