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Cape Romain AP - History

Cape Romain AP - History

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Cape Romain

A cape on the coast of South Carolina.

(AK: dp. 10,505; 1. 391'9", b. 52'; dr. 23'11", s. 11 k.
cpl. 52; a. 1 6", 1 3"; cl. Cape Romain)

Cape Romain (No" 2970) was launched as War Mercury 4 May 1918 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.,Sparrows Point, MD.; acquired from the Shipping Board and commissioned as Cape Romain 25 June 1918, Lieutenant Commander H. E. Sanders, USNRF, in command; and reported to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service.

Cape Romain stood out of Baltimore 29 June 1918 for New York, where she loaded cargo for Argentina. On 13 July she sailed for La Plata and Buenos Aires, where she discharged and loaded cargo, returning to Boston 26 September. Between 16 October and 22 February 1919, Cape Romain made two voyages to French ports carrying supplies for the Army of Occupation. She was decommissioned at New York on 3 March 1919 and returned to the Shipping Board.

Construction and commissioning, 1943–1944 Edit

Cape Johnson, a 5,668-ton Maritime Commission C1-B type cargo ship, was built at Wilmington, California. She was launched on 20 February 1943 by Consolidated Steel Corporation, Ltd., Wilmington, California, under a Maritime Commission contract and sponsored by Mrs. A. C. Steward. The ship was converted to a troop transport by Los Angeles Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. capable of carrying 1,575 troops. Cape Johnson was acquired by the Navy under bareboat charter and commissioned on 1 June 1944, Commander L. C. Farley, USNR, in command and then reported to the Pacific Fleet. [1] [2]

1944–1946 Edit

Cape Johnson was initially used to redistribute Army and Marine forces between the Marianas and bases in the South Pacific. In November 1944 she arrived with a supply echelon off the assault areas at Leyte in the Philippines and then landed her troops at Samar. In January 1945, Cape Johnson landed troops in Lingayen Gulf during the initial assault on Luzon Island. In mid-February she arrived off Iwo Jima with Marine Corps troops and cargo, which she put ashore as needed through the end of March. The transport then returned to San Francisco and carried troops from there to Manila. [1]

With the bitter fighting on the island over, Cape Johnson embarked men of the 5th Marines, whom she carried to Pearl Harbor. Sailing on to San Francisco, where she arrived on 22 April 1945, Cape Johnson transported troops from the west coast to Manila, and on 16 August cleared the Philippines for Pearl Harbor. With occupation troops loaded there, the transport arrived at Wakayama, Honshū, Japan on 27 September, and then began transpacific crossings returning servicemen to the States. She was decommissioned 25 July 1946 and returned to her former owner the next day. The ship was sold for scrapping, on 10 June 1963, to Zidell Explorations, Inc., Portland, Oregon. [1]

The American geologist Harry Hess commanded the USS Cape Johnson during her commission. In addition to his Naval duties, Hess carefully tracked his travel routes to Pacific Ocean landings on the Marianas, Philippines, and Iwo Jima, continuously using his ship's echo sounder. This unplanned wartime scientific surveying enabled Hess to collect ocean floor profiles across the North Pacific Ocean, resulting in the discovery of flat-topped submarine volcanoes, which he termed guyots. This information led to many discoveries which helped to form the basis of the theory of plate tectonics. [3]

Cape Johnson received two battle stars for World War II service. [1]


The city is named after Jean Baptiste de Girardot, who established a temporary trading post in the area around 1733. He was a French soldier stationed at Kaskaskia between 1704 and 1720 in the French colony of La Louisiane. The "Cape" in the city name referred to a rock promontory overlooking the Mississippi River it was later destroyed by railroad construction. [6] As early as 1765, a bend in the Mississippi River, about 60 miles (97 km) south of the French village of Ste. Genevieve, had been referred to as Cape Girardot or Girardeau (both pronounced the same in French).

The settlement of Girardeau is said to date from 1793 when the Spanish government, which had acquired Louisiana in 1764 following the French defeat in the Seven Years' War, granted Louis Lorimier, a French-Canadian, the right to establish a trading post. This gave him trading privileges and a large tract of land surrounding his post. Lorimier was made commandant of the district and prospered from the returns on his land sales and trade with indigenous peoples, such as the Ozark Bluff Dwellers and the Mississippian people.

Also in 1793, Baron Carondelet granted land near Cape Girardeau to the Black Bob Band of the Hathawekela Shawnee, who had migrated from across the Mississippi River. The Band became known as the Cape Girardeau Shawnee. They successfully resisted removal to Indian Territory with the rest of the Shawnee tribe until 1833. [7] [8] [9]

In 1799, American settlers founded the first English school west of the Mississippi River in Cape Girardeau at a landmark called Mount Tabor, named by the settlers for the Biblical Mount Tabor. [10]

The town of Cape Girardeau was incorporated in 1808, prior to Missouri statehood. It was reincorporated as a city in 1843. The advent of the steamboat in 1835 and related river trade stimulated the development of Cape Girardeau as the biggest port on the Mississippi River between St. Louis, Missouri and Memphis, Tennessee. [ citation needed ]

During the Civil War, the city was the site of the Battle of Cape Girardeau on April 26, 1863. The Union and Confederate armies engaged in a minor four-hour skirmish, each sustaining casualties generally believed to be in the low double-digits.

For years travelers had to use ferries to cross the Mississippi River from Cape Girardeau. In September 1928 a bridge was completed between Missouri and Illinois. Built to accommodate cars, it was 20 feet (6.1 m) wide under standards of the time. [11]

The Old Federal Courthouse, located at Broadway and Fountain Streets and built in the late 1940s, was the subject of a U.S. Supreme Court case when it was being developed. In United States v. Carmack, 329 U.S. 230 (1946), the Court upheld the federal government's authority under the Condemnation Act of 1888 to seize land owned by a state or locality. [12]

In December 2003, the "Old Bridge" was succeeded by a new four-lane cable-stayed bridge crossing the Mississippi River at Cape Girardeau. Its official name is "The Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge.", honoring former U.S. Rep. Bill Emerson (R-Mo.) The two towers of the bridge reach a height of approximately 91 metres (299 ft). The "Old Bridge" was demolished after the Emerson Bridge opened.

The City of Cape Girardeau was recognized in January 2008 by First Lady Laura Bush as a Preserve America Community for its work in surveying and protecting historic buildings. [13]

The city is known to some as "The City of Roses" because of a 9-mile (14 km) stretch of highway that was once lined with dozens of rose bushes. [ citation needed ] Although there used to be many prominent rose gardens around the community, few of these gardens have been maintained. The city is also known as "Cape Girardeau: Where the River Turns a Thousand Tales," due to the history of the town and the Mississippi River.

Historic landmarks Edit

Numerous murals commemorate the city's history. The largest is the Mississippi River Tales Mural, located on the city's downtown floodwall. Covering nearly 18,000 square feet (1,700 m 2 ), it spans the length of the downtown shopping district and features 24 panels. Behind the floodwall lies the Riverfront Park of Cape Girardeau Missouri, where riverboats dock and visitors can view the Mississippi River.

There are 39 historic sites in Cape Girardeau that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Of these, eight are historic districts, such as Cape Girardeau Commercial Historic District, which was listed in 2000 and includes multiple contributing properties. The growth of the town can be documented through Sanborn Maps, over 80 of which are available online. [14] Other landmarks include the Fort D Historic Site and the Confederate War Memorial.

Among the city's older cemeteries are Apple Creek Cemetery, Salem Cemetery, and Old Lorimier Cemetery.

Climate Edit

Cape Girardeau has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons and is located in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6b. [17] Winter typically brings a mix of rain, sleet, and snow, with occasional heavy snowfall and icing. The city has a January daily average of 33.1 °F (0.6 °C) and averages 14 days annually with temperatures staying at or below freezing the first and last freezes of the season on average fall on October 23 and April 7, respectively. [18] Summer is typically hazy, hot, and humid with a July daily average of 78.6 °F (25.9 °C), and there is an average of 48 days a year with high temperatures at or above 90 °F (32 °C). [18] The average annual precipitation is 46.8 inches (1,190 mm), with the rainiest season being spring. [18] Extremes in temperature range from 107 °F (42 °C), which last occurred on June 29, 2012, down to −18 °F (−28 °C) on January 11, 1977. [18]

Climate data for Cape Girardeau Regional Airport, Missouri (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1960–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
Average high °F (°C) 42.4
Average low °F (°C) 23.9
Record low °F (°C) −18
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.47
Average snowfall inches (cm) 3.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 8.6 8.7 11.0 10.6 12.3 9.8 8.9 7.6 7.7 8.5 10.0 9.8 113.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 2.5 2.4 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.3 1.4 7.9
Source: NOAA [18] [19]
Historical population
Census Pop.
18703,585 34.6%
18803,889 8.5%
18904,297 10.5%
19004,815 12.1%
19108,475 76.0%
192010,252 21.0%
193016,227 58.3%
194019,426 19.7%
195021,578 11.1%
196024,947 15.6%
197031,282 25.4%
198034,361 9.8%
199034,438 0.2%
200035,349 2.6%
201037,941 7.3%
2019 (est.)40,559 [3] 6.9%
source: [20]

The Cape Girardeau-Jackson, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area encompasses Alexander County, Illinois, Bollinger County, Missouri and Cape Girardeau County, Missouri and has a population of 96,275.

2010 census Edit

As of the census [2] of 2010, there were 37,941 people, 15,205 households, and 8,466 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,334.5 inhabitants per square mile (515.3/km 2 ). There were 16,760 housing units at an average density of 589.5 per square mile (227.6/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 81.13% White (80.21% Non-Hispanic White), 12.75% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.89% Asian, 0.04% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 1.54% from other races, and 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.76% of the population.

There were 15,205 households, out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 44.3% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 19.3% under the age of 18, 20.2% between the ages of 18 and 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, and 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age in the city was 32.1 years. The gender makeup of the city was 47.4% male and 52.6% female.

2000 census Edit

As of the census [4] of 2000, there were 35,349 people, 14,380 households, and 8,297 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,456.5 people per square mile (562.4/km 2 ). There were 15,827 housing units at an average density of 652.1 per square mile (251.8/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 87.32% White, 9.30% Black or African American, 1.13% Asian, 0.39% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, and 1.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.10% of the population.

There were 14,380 households, of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.3% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.90.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 20.5% under the age of 18, 18.4% from ages 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $36,502, and the median income for a family was $47,592. Males had a median income of $31,575 versus $21,392 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,877. About 8.5% of families and 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 and over.

According to the Cape Girardeau Chamber of Commerce, there are more than 100 employers in Cape Girardeau who employ at least 100 workers. The top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Southeast Health 2,950
2 St. Francis Medical Center 3,143
3 Procter & Gamble 1,200
4 Southeast Missouri State University 1,107
5 Cape Girardeau Public Schools 713
6 Drury Hotels 582
7 Jackson R-II School District 479
8 Robinson Construction 475
9 Isle of Capri Casino 450
10 Mondi 428

Health Edit

St. Francis HealthCare System serves the Cape Girardeau area. This system contains six different centers. St. Francis offers immediate care in Cape Girardeau and Perryville. Landmark Hospital is a 30-bed facility that treats patients with catastrophic or chronic medical conditions. St. Francis also has joint partnership with the Physician Alliance Surgery Center, which performs ear, nose, throat, and general surgery. The Black River Medical Center offers three beds and an emergency room. The main medical center is a 308-bed facility in Cape Girardeau that serves over 650,000 people. Patients come from Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, and Arkansas. Some of the services offered at the main campus are the Neurosciences Institute, Orthopedic Institute, Family BirthPlace, Heart Hospital, Emergency and Trauma Center, Cancer Institute, and Fitness Plus.

Southeast Health is a health care system with its main facility, Southeast Missouri Hospital, located in Cape Girardeau. This healthcare system serves patients from southeast Missouri, western Kentucky, southern Illinois, and northern Arkansas. Southeast Health also has a cancer center, heart center, fitness center, breast care and diagnostic center, campus health clinic, diabetes center, pharmacy, and hospice. Additional hospice services, including respite for caregivers and grief & bereavement services can be found at Crown Hospice, [21] which serves the Cape Girardeau and Poplar Bluff areas.

Municipal Edit

Cape Girardeau is a home rule city that utilizes the council-manager form of government. The Cape Girardeau City Council is the elected governing body. The city council consists of the mayor and six city council members. The mayor is directly elected at-large (citywide) for a four-year term and the city council members are elected from six wards for staggered four-year terms.

State and federal Edit

In the Missouri General Assembly, Cape Girardeau is in the 27th Senate District and is currently represented by Republican Holly Rehder. Most of the city is included in the 147th Legislative District and is currently represented by Republican Wayne Wallingford small northern portions of the city are in the 146th Legislative District, represented by Republican Ashley Aune.

Presidential Edit

Cape Girardeau city vote
by party in presidential elections [22]
Year Democratic Republican Third Parties
2016 32.02% 4,547 62.13% 8,823 5.85% 830
2012 35.34% 5,143 62.40% 9,081 2.25% 328
2008 39.90% 6,275 58.83% 9,252 1.28% 201
2004 35.72% 5,430 63.44% 9,645 0.84% 128
2000 35.26% 4,792 62.22% 8,456 2.52% 342
1996 38.79% 5,582 54.64% 7,863 6.57% 946

During the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries, Democrats in the city gave a majority of their votes to former Vice President Joe Biden. He received 1,635 votes (54.88%) out of the total 2,979 votes cast in the city. Bernie Sanders, who had won the city four years earlier in 2016, placed second with 1,241 votes (41.66%). Although she had suspended her campaign before the date of the Missouri primary, U.S. Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts garnered 35 votes (2.14%) to finish third ahead of U.S. Representative Tulsi Gabbard of Hawaii with 24 votes (0.81%). Former Mayor Michael Bloomberg of New York City followed in fifth with 17 votes (0.57%).

Although he did not face a serious primary challenge in 2020, incumbent President Donald J. Trump clinched 1,818 votes (97.53%) out of the total 1,864 votes cast in the city during the 2020 Republican presidential primaries. Among the 46 defections, 26 (1.40%) voted uncommitted while 10 voters (0.54%) choose former Governor of Massachusetts and 2016 Libertarian Party vice-presidential nominee Bill Weld and six voters (0.32%) opted for former U.S. Representative Joe Walsh of Illinois.

In the 2016 Republican presidential primaries, GOP voters in the city of Cape Girardeau backed U.S. Senator Ted Cruz of Texas with 2,802 votes (47.29 percent) over real estate entrepreneur Donald J. Trump who finished second with 2,159 votes (36.44 percent). Former Governor John R. Kasich of Ohio finished third with 568 votes (9.59 percent) ahead of U.S. Senator Marco Rubio of Florida with 267 votes (4.51 percent).

In the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries, Democratic voters in the city supported U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont with 1,334 votes (52.64 percent) over former Secretary of State and U.S. Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton of New York with 1,179 votes (46.53 percent). Likewise, Clinton carried the city eight years earlier in the 2008 Democratic primaries with 2,057 votes (51.43 percent) over former U.S. Senator Barack Obama of neighboring Illinois who received 1,812 votes (45.30 percent) in the city. Former U.S. Senator John Edwards of North Carolina placed third with 102 votes (2.55 percent).

In the 2008 Republican presidential primaries, GOP voters in the city of Cape Girardeau supported former Governor of Massachusetts and current U.S. Senator Mitt Romney of Utah with 1,922 votes (38.48 percent) over former U.S. Senator John McCain of Arizona with 1,592 votes (31.87 percent). Former Governor Mike Huckabee of neighboring Arkansas placed in a not-so-distant third with 1,192 votes (23.86 percent) ahead of former U.S. Representative and libertarian Ron Paul of Texas with 193 votes (3.86 percent). [22]

There are over 20 different schools in Cape Girardeau. These range from pre-kindergarten to higher education. Public and private and parochial school systems are present within the city.

Public schools Edit

  • Alma Schrader Elementary – 1360 Randol Ave
  • Blanchard Elementary – 1829 N Sprigg St
  • Clippard Elementary – 2880 Hopper Road
  • Franklin Elementary – 1550 Themis St
  • Jefferson Elementary – 520 S Minnesota Ave
  • Central Middle School – 1900 Thilenius St
  • Central Junior High School – 205 Caruthers St – 1000 S Silver Springs Road
  • Career and Technology Center – 1080 S Silver Springs Road
  • Alternative Education Center – 330 N Spring St

Private schools Edit

  • Cape Christian School – 2911 Kage Rd
  • Notre Dame Regional High School – 265 Notre Dame Dr
  • Trinity Lutheran School – 55 N Pacific St
  • Eagle Ridge Christian School – 4210 State Highway K
  • Prodigy Leadership Academy – 1301 N Middle St
  • St Mark Lutheran Preschool – 1900 Cape La Croix Road
  • St. Mary's Cathedral School – 210 S Sprigg St
  • St. Vincent De Paul Grade School – 1912 Ritter St

Colleges Edit

  • Cape Girardeau Partnership for Higher Education – 1080 S Silver Springs Road
  • Metro Business College – 1732 N Kingshighway St
  • Southeast Missouri State University – 1 University Plaza
  • Southeast Hospital College of Nursing & Health Sciences – 2001 William St
  • Eclipse School-Cosmetology – 52 S Plaza Way
  • Trend Setters-Cosmetology Inc – 835 S Kingshighway

Public library Edit

The city has one public library: the Municipal Library District of the City of Cape Girardeau. [23]

The City of Cape Girardeau has established a Transportation Trust Fund that implements a .5% local sales tax. All of that money is used on transportation improvement projects. General projects are also included to keep the city's streets in good condition. [ citation needed ]

On June 15, 2000 the Cape Girardeau County Commission passed Resolution 00-06 which formed the Cape Girardeau County Transportation Commission. The CGCTA now offers transportation to the citizens of Cape Girardeau County, which ultimately benefits the citizens of the city of Cape Girardeau. The services that the CGCTA offer are essentially buses and taxis.

In 2011, Cape Girardeau launched the Ride the City campaign. This dedicated 16 miles of bicycle lanes in city streets. There are lanes that are used only by bicycles and lanes where motor vehicles and bicycles can share space.

Public transit Edit

Buses are offered to the citizens by the Cape Transit Authority and have several stops throughout the city. A general admission is $2, senior citizens are $1, and children ages 6 and under are free. Special pick-ups can be made to those who are disabled and live within three-fourths of mile from a designated stop. The Cape Girardeau County Transit Authority handles the city's bus and taxi service. Greyhound buses are also available for long-distance transit. Cape Girardeau is home to local rideshare service, carGO technologies that provides rides from anywhere in Cape Girardeau to surrounding cities such as, Jackson and Scott city.

Air Edit

The City of Cape Girardeau owns the Cape Girardeau Regional Airport. This is a full-service airport that offers flights to and from O'Hare Airport in Chicago, Illinois.

Georgetown Lighthouse

The Georgetown Lighthouse is also referred to as the North Island Light, gaining this name because it stands on the North Island at the mouth of Winyah Bay. It’s the oldest active lighthouse in all of South Carolina, dating back to the early 1800s. The Georgetown Lighthouse has been unmanned since 1968 but still remains a working navigational guide since the U.S. Coast Guard took over its operations that year. Although public tours inside the lighthouse aren’t available, you can take boat tours to see and take pictures of the lighthouse. Rover Tours takes you on a shelling and lighthouse cruise onboard its Carolina Rover, and Cap’n Rod’s Lowcountry Plantation Tours offers a Lighthouse Shell Island Tour. Both are a great way to see and learn more about the lighthouse’s history.

AP Music Theory

Learn to recognize, understand, and describe the basic materials and processes of music. You’ll develop skills by listening to, reading, writing, and performing a wide variety of music.

Course Content

  • Unit 1: Music Fundamentals I: Pitch, Major Scales and Key Signatures, Rhythm, Meter, and Expressive Elements
  • Unit 2: Music Fundamentals II: Minor Scales and Key Signatures, Melody, Timbre, and Texture
  • Unit 3: Music Fundamentals III: Triads and Seventh Chords
  • Unit 4: Harmony and Voice Leading I: Chord Function, Cadence, and Phrase
  • Unit 5: Harmony and Voice Leading II: Chord Progressions and Predominant Function
  • Unit 6: Harmony and Voice Leading III: Embellishments, Motives, and Melodic Devices
  • Unit 7: Harmony and Voice Leading IV: Secondary Function
  • Unit 8: Modes and Form

Exam Dates

Wed, May 12, 2021, 12 PM Local

Fri, May 21, 2021, 12 PM Local

Fri, Jun 4, 2021, 12 PM Local

Cape AP students achieve highest exam passing rate in school history

Cape High Advanced Placement student outcomes continue to improve, as 168 students scored a 3 or higher on one or more AP exams in 2020, the highest passing rate in Cape history, Principal Nikki Miller said.

In 2019, 98 Cape High students scored a 3 or higher on one or more exams, which was also a school record at the time, said Miller.

Miller said more students are interested in taking AP courses and exams than in prior years. In 2018, 165 students took AP classes and 356 took exams in 2020, the number had grown to 255 students taking 383 exams 66 percent of students scored a 3 or higher.

Teachers have been integral in recruiting students for AP classes, Miller said.

Minority student scores have also increased along with the number of minority students participating in the program, Miller said. Data from the past several years shows the mean score of Hispanic students is 3.05, Black students is 3.05, students of two or more races is 2.93 and white students is 2.64.

Regardless of scores, Miller said, the advanced courses help students prepare for college.

“We want them to pass, but the biggest piece is the level of content they’re exposed to,” Miller said. “They’re not as shocked as college freshmen.”

Many U.S. colleges and universities will grant credit and/or let students who score a 3 or above on an AP course skip the equivalent subject course when they enroll.

According to the College Board, which administers the exams, the college course equivalent for a score of 3 is B-, C+ or C for 4 is A-, B+ or B and for 5 is A+ or A.

Miller said Cape has added more AP classes in different subject areas, and students can now take some AP courses, such as human geography and Spanish, as freshmen.

“Our immersion students will be able to take AP Spanish right away in ninth grade,” Miller said.

Among the AP classes offered at Cape High are biology, chemistry, calculus, computer science, environmental science, European history, language and composition, music theory, physics and statistics.

New Cape High Assistant Principal Kristin DeGregory has taken over management of Cape High’s AP program Kyle Bentley, who previously oversaw the program, was named assistant principal at H.O. Brittingham Elementary.

On Aug. 18, high school teachers, paraprofessionals and administrators delivered yard signs to students who scored a 3 or better on the exams.


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Kimberley, city, diamond-mining centre, and capital of Northern Cape province, South Africa. It lies near the Free State province border. Founded after the discovery of diamonds on farms in the area in 1869–71, the mining camp of Kimberley grew as a result of the intensive digging of the diamond-bearing pipe at the hill called Colesberg Koppie. The camp was named after John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley, who was then British colonial secretary. The town of Kimberley was created in 1878 and incorporated into the Cape Colony in 1880. In 1885 the Cape Town Railway reached Kimberley, and during the South African War the town was besieged by the Boers for 126 days until relieved by Gen. John French on February 15, 1900. City status was granted in 1912 with absorption of the mining town of Beaconsfield.

After 1888 the Kimberley Mine at Colesberg Koppie and most other mines in the area were controlled by a trust organized by Cecil Rhodes, with production placed in the hands of De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. Kimberley Mine (now called the Big Hole 0.9 mile [1.5 km] in circumference), long the richest diamond-producing mine in the world, was closed in 1914, but several other mines remain productive, and diamond mining and cutting remain prominent industries.

Kimberley’s gardens and squares are dotted with memorials, including an equestrian statue of Rhodes. Important collections of Khoisan artifacts are in the Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum, and the Duggan-Cronin Bantu Gallery contains early 20th-century photographs of African miners. The city has Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals.

Kimberley is the main city of Griqualand West. It is the market and service centre for a prosperous irrigated-farming and cattle-raising area. Iron, salt, and gypsum are also worked in the vicinity. Pop. (2001) 62,526.

Bulls Island: Where the beautiful and wild things are

If you mix clear, sunny skies with a cool spring breeze you get the perfect weather cocktail, just right for exploring one of South Carolina's most beautiful and remote places -- Bulls Island. For anyone looking for a different nature and beach experience, Bulls Island is a place you have to see.

The largest of four barrier islands found within the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, Bulls is a 5,000 acre maritime forest with fresh and brackish water impoundments and a beach area. The six-and-a-half mile uninhabited island remains virtually untouched and is home to countless wildlife and endangered species. In fact, Bulls has a world-renowned reputation for its bird life. More than 275 species of birds are found on or near the island. The place is a nature and bird-lover paradise.

After reading so much about the island before my trip, I was anxious to see the island for myself. My day-long adventure began with a quick run to the store to buy a few last-minute items. Backpack? Check. Insect repellent, bottled water, snacks? Check, check and check. With my supplies loaded up, I was off and headed up U.S. 17 North toward Awendaw's Garris Landing, the public boat dock that services the ferry over to Bulls Island.

When I pulled up at Garris, which is about a 45-minute drive from downtown Charleston, folks were already lined up, eager to hop aboard the Island Cat Ferry. Operated by Coastal Expeditions, the Island Cat has ferried passengers to Bulls Island since 1994. That 16 year track record help put me at ease. As a first-time ferrier, I felt that I would be in good hands. With that reassurance in mind, I headed down the dock, fell in line and shivered to the crisp April winds along with everybody else. It was early. Few people were talking. Yet even in the silence there seemed an unstated camaraderie. Although we were strangers, we seemed bonded by the shared curiosity of what lay ahead beyond Sewee Bay. It wouldn't be long before we'd all find out.

"Anybody headed to Bulls Island?" Chris Owens, a naturalist with the Island Cat Ferry called out as he unlocked the gate that led down to the ferry. After a muffled cheer from the crowd, we filed through the gate and boarded the boat. Onboard, we got a quick weather update. Low tide, light winds and a moderate 72 degree temperature. Island Cat Captain Chris Crolley said we couldn't have picked a better day to visit. Looking out at the gorgeous bay, I definitely agreed with him.

As the Island Cat purred and pivoted through the Intracoastal Waterway destined for Bulls Island, our naturalist guide Chris gave us a quick tutorial on the surrounding area and wildlife. Sometimes called a "24-hour seafood buffet" because of its nutrient-rich waters, the estuary that leads to Bulls Island is home to seagulls, oyster beds and bottlenose dolphins. We got a quick glance at two of the playful mammals during the 30-minute trip to the island. As the dolphins played peak-a-boo at a rate that was much too fast for a photo op, I put down my camera and took a moment to soak in everything: The dolphins escorting our boat. The warm Saturday sun casting a golden hue on the bay. Birds I'd never seen before soaring overhead. Was I still in South Carolina? Who knew the Palmetto State had such natural, hidden beauty? Just as I ended my pause, we arrived at the island.

Bulls Island was originally called Oneiscau by the Sewee Native Americans who inhabited the island throughout the 1600s and early 1700s. The Sewee tribe hunted and fished the tidal creeks of the area. Remnants of Native American culture can still be found on Bulls Island in the forms of discarded oyster and clam shell mounds called middens. In 1670, English settlers arrived to the island. Stephen Bull, a leader among them, would later have the island named after him. The history of Bulls is on display at a covered shelter along the main path that leads into the heart of the island. After reading up on the background of the island, I set off on the 1.5 mile trek to the beach. Along the Sabal palmetto-lined pathway stand red cedar, juniper, wax myrtle and other trees that either I'd never seen or paid attention to. Huge Oak trees dot the area around the island's only house -- an old hunting retreat called Dominick House. Former U.S. Sen. Gayer Dominick built the home around 1925 after he bought Bulls Island as a winter retreat. The Dominick House was once run as an inn for nature enthusiasts. Today it serves as a housing unit for refuge employees and volunteers.

During my visit, Dominick was empty. There were no signs of volunteers anywhere on the island -- just a ferry boat full of tourists and nature -- pristine, beautiful and raw. Perhaps nothing was a truer reflection of that description than the seven foot alligator I passed on my way to the beach. There she was -- a mama gator sprawled out, sunbathing in one of the island's fresh water impoundments. Her baby, just a stone's throw away, was doing the same thing. Had I not been a little concerned that the pair would rise from their rest and lay out across my pathway, I might have stayed with them a little while longer. Instead, I took a quick photo and continued my trek. One gator family was enough for one day. I'd have to visit their friends in Alligator Alley, a sand causeway on the island where multiple alligators gather daily, next time around.

And so I marched on until I finally arrived at Boneyard Beach. It's one of the most beautiful and serene places I've ever seen -- just miles and miles of clear beach decorated with nature's ornaments like sandollars, moon shells and whelk. In fact, the search for sea souvenirs is what drew Renee Talbert of North Myrtle Beach to the island. "We heard the shelling was great and we're really tired of all the commercial beaches," Talbert said. "It's nice to get somewhere and just be able to look at nature."

The northern end of the beach is truly a sight, with dozens of downed sun- and salt-bleached oak, cedar and pine trees strewn about. Their white color makes them look like bones, which gives Boneyard its name.

What a hauntingly gorgeous place, I thought. As I looked around Boneyard, inhaled the salt air and watched the waves crash ashore, I realized that my day was coming to an end much too soon. If I wanted to make it back to the ferry in time, I'd have to leave the beauty of Boneyard behind for now. I packed up my camera, tucked away the memory of the day and headed back to the boat landing.

After a brisk 45-minute walk, I arrived at the dock, where I met up with the other ferry passengers. Our day would end almost as it began. We gathered again waiting on the Island Cat to take us away. A bit weary, this time around there was a stated camaraderie among fellow adventurers -- all of us sitting on a wooden bench sharing stories of gators, birds and the boneyard. All things beautiful, all things South Carolina. What a perfect end to the day.

Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge

In its shallow bays, tides combine the life-giving nourishment of the ocean with the nutrient-laden freshwaters of rivers to make one of the most productive environments on earth.

Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1932 as a wintering ground for migratory waterfowl. Located in Charleston County and stretching for twenty-two miles along the coast between Charleston and the Santee River delta, Cape Romain is a rich natural resource. In its shallow bays, tides combine the life-giving nourishment of the ocean with the nutrient-laden freshwaters of rivers to make one of the most productive environments on earth. Plants and animals from the land, rivers, and ocean are all present at Cape Romain, and all are dependent on the delicate balance of the marshlands.

In support of wildlife&rsquos battle for survival, refuge administrators have employed wildlife management techniques that include relocation of threatened loggerhead sea turtle eggs, a red wolf breeding program on Bulls Island, and management of artificial ponds for waterfowl, wading birds, and alligators. Cape Romain Refuge is host to 335 bird species, 12 types of amphibians, 24 reptile species, and 36 varieties of mammals.

The refuge is open sunrise to sunset, seven days a week, year-round. The only facilities accessible by automobile are the refuge office, Sewee Visitor Center, and Garris Landing. Bulls Island lies nearly three miles off the mainland and is reached by boat or private ferry. Public use opportunities include an observation/fishing pier at Garris Landing and Sewee Visitor Center on the mainland. On Bulls Island there are eighteen miles of trails and roads to hike, a seven mile stretch of beach, picnic tables, a weather shelter, and an observation platform. Saltwater fishing is permitted, and limited hunting is offered. Interpretive exhibits and literature can be found at the Sewee Visitor Center.

With future of 'unique' tourist attraction unclear, ideas are plentiful

Despite the murky nature of what lies ahead for the home, ideas from other interested parties have been plentiful over time.

Several years ago, Naples-based nonprofit Oceans for Youth created an online campaign in order to raise money to sink the domes and turn them into an artificial reef.

It was eventually taken down after only raising around $200.

The iconic Cape Romano dome home near Marco Island has long been a gem for Southwest Florida tourists. The now submerged home once sat on the shore and consists of six domes, two of which have sunk into the ocean due to erosion. The mysterious dome homes near Marco Island have long enticed tourists in the area. Last time we reported on the domes, the state had taken over jurisdiction of the land the domes are on, but their plans for the property were not yet known. The photo was taken Monday, Oct. 28, 2019. (Photo: H. Leo Kim, The News-Press)

Wayne Hasson, the president of Oceans for Youth and a Naples resident, would still like to see the home taken apart and turned into an artificial reef for divers and fishers to use. However, he said the domes would need to be transported about 30 miles offshore in order to find clear water.

Hasson made it clear that no matter what, the state needs to make a decision soon about the domes. He said they pose a threat to boaters and explorers who he's seen climb on the structures.

"It's an eyesore, and it's also dangerous," he said. "There's nothing beautiful about it . The state needs to do something."

Despite some seeing it as an eyesore, the home has garnered quite a reputation, making it a must-see for many area tourists.

Janet Maples, a Tennessee resident and the daughter of original builders Bob and Margaret Lee, said the domes have always been sought after by curious explorers. She recalled walking up and down the beach on the cape with her months-old daughter while house sitting the domes in the early '90s.

A file photo from 2003 shows the dome home when it was still on land. (Photo: Staff)

"We would have sightseers almost every day," she said.

Sailors in passing boats would pull out binoculars to catch a look at the unique dwelling place, and locals always talked about the house.

"I was in the drugstore one day on Marco and someone was going, 'I hear they protect that place with machine guns,'" she said with a laugh. "It fascinated people from when daddy was building it."

In the home, solar panels were used to generate electricity and heat water, and rainwater was collected around the dome using a cistern.

"(My father) was like way before his time," she said. "It was completely self sustainable."

Maples would like to see nature take its course and the domes to simply drop into the ocean, allowing more animals to utilize the structures.

"That would be awesome for them to keep going like that . The birds certainly love them, so once they drop underwater, I'm sure that the other creatures will."

Ron Michaels, a tour boat captain with Doc Jimmy's Cure-all Marine Adventures, said about 80% of his customers ask to see the domes.

"Maybe they saw them 20, 25 years ago when they were a kid," he said. "A lot of people come back with their kids . It's a popular feature."

Some of the appeal for the structure is now the fact that the domes are slowly sinking away, according to Jack Wert, the executive director and CEO of the Naples, Marco Island, Everglades Convention and Visitors Bureau.

The tourism official said the domes entice many tourists looking for a one-of-a-kind experience.

"From our point of view, it’s been a great thing for people to go and see and something for us to promote," Wert said.

Despite deterioration adding to its potential charm, Wert would like to see action taken to stop the domes from disappearing completely.

"This is unique to Collier County, and we think that’s important to keep in mind," Wert said. "It's something we’d like to see preserved if it’s possible."

The iconic Cape Romano dome home near Marco Island has long been a gem for Southwest Florida tourists. The now submerged home once sat on the shore and consists of six domes, two of which have sunk into the ocean due to erosion. The mysterious dome homes near Marco Island have long enticed tourists in the area. Last time we reported on the domes, the state had taken over jurisdiction of the land the domes are on, but their plans for the property were not yet known. The photo was taken Monday, Oct. 28, 2019. (Photo: H. Leo Kim, The News-Press)

While the convention and visitors bureau wouldn't be directly involved in a restoration or preservation process, Wert would like the entity to be included in future talks regarding the domes. The CVB could encourage and engage other entities, such as businesses, to preserve the domes, if the state allows, according to Wert.

"I think that would be our role to show the positive side of preserving something like that," he said.

Michaels said that "most of us locals" want to see the domes left relatively untouched. However, he noted that it would be nice to have the home marked as a navigational hazard with a blinking light at night.

The domes have value due to the structures attracting sea life, he said. In the winter months, people can also witness hundreds of birds sitting atop the domes in search of heat.

"A lot of people fish around them," he said. "In fact, a lot of our local captains that are making a living will a lot of times go out to those domes . and fish those domes. Why move a viable fish haven that's thriving?

Watch the video: 2021 CAPE HISTORY LECTURES (June 2022).


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