What seems to be the attractive thirteenth century church of San Lorenzo Maggiore in Naples in fact contains a startling secret – the amazing underground remains of the Greco-Roman city of Neapolis. For lovers of ancient Rome it’s simply unmissable.
Established in approximately 470 BC by the Cumans, Neapolis would later become the Roman city of Naples and the remains reflect this change as well as development into medieval times.
The main find at the San Lorenzo Maggiore Ruins are the remains of the Greek meeting place and marketplace, known as the Agora. A Roman food market or “Macellum” has also been found, partially incorporated into the cloisters of a church, the cloisters themselves dating back to the fourteenth century.
Visitors to the San Lorenzo Maggiore Ruins can also see public buildings such as what would have been the public treasury or “Aerarium” and a series of roads and “tabernae” or shops including a laundrette and a bakery.
Beneath the thirteenth century church of San Lorenzo Maggiore, there are also the remnants of a sixth century AD Christian basilica. This truly remarkable place is also an informative museum, with exhibits and historical information covering the archaeological excavations at the site. This impressive site features as one of our Top 10 Tourist Attractions in Italy.
San Lorenzo Maggiore
The Basilica of San Lorenzo Maggiore is located in Corso di Porta Ticinese and is one of the world’s most important churches for the history of westerly architecture. The basilica was built between late 4 th century and early 5 th century in a zone that was central during the Roman Age, just outside the walls and on the way to Pavia, nearby the circus and the amphitheatre (much of its building material was recovered and used for the church’s construction) the basilica was not an Arian church, on the contrary it was a palatine basilica, situated next to the imperial palaces.
The Basilica di San Lorenzo Maggiore was restored in 1573 by Martino Bassi after the collapse of part of the structure during the same restoration Milan’s largest dome was built and it was completed in 1619. In 1894 Cesare Nava re-designed the façade of the church. The basilica is made of a central body topped by a dome, surrounded by smaller buildings laid with a sunburst pattern and built in different ages. The bare stone walls, the perforated windows, the exedras and the ambulatory are early-Christian features.
The basilica houses many ancient masterpieces: the atrium of the chapel of Sant’Aquilino shows traces of mosaics dating back to the 4 th century that in the past covered it entirely, the Cittadini chapel shows a fresco dating back to late 14 th century “Madonna col bambino e Santi”, the chapel of San Sisto is mostly early-Christian. The chapel of Sant’Aquilino is part of the historical complex that still shows its original structure the chapel is also the entrance of the basement of the basilica, where you’ll see the foundations made of stone blocks recovered from other imperial buildings.
San Lorenzo Maggiore
The church of San Lorenzo Maggiore, near via San Gregorio Armeno, is one of the most fascinating churches in Naples and its history is complex. This area was originally the centre of ancient greek life in Naples, then a forum in Roman times before being abandoned due to a landslide. In 1270 this area was donated to the Franciscan order by King Charles I, for them to build a new church. The plan was grand, as the Angevin court wanted to express their power through the construction of a new building. Thanks to documents, we now know that San Lorenzo Maggiore wasn't just another church, but a very important cultural and political centre in Neapolitan life. Here, King Alphonse of Aragon held the investiture ceremony for his son Ferdinand. The Angevin family have their monumental tombs here, like the Tomb of Catherine of Austria, first wife of Charles, made by Tino da Camaino (1323-1325). Many other important artists left masterpieces here, like the wonderful altarpiece by Simone Martino and the Polyptych by Colantonio, one of the most important figures of the fifteenth century in Napoli (both works are now at the Museo Capodimonte). The Gothic style was replaced by the Baroque style and then earthquakes helped to alter the appearance of the church. Still visible is the original ancient greek pavement and also from the from the Baroque period, we still have the magnificent Cacace family Chapel and the chapel dedicated to Saint Anthony from Padua, both in polychrome marble designed by Cosimo Fanzago, who realised one of his most significant works, creating a fascinating harmony of sculpture, architecture, painting and marble. Still today, it is possible to see all the different stratifications and modifications of styles and centuries.
There is also a lot more to this church for underneath is a roman time capsule. Underneath the church is the remnants of Roman Napoli. You can visit these underground excavations by descending a staircase and you will see a roman road with shops.
There are also historical halls of the convent, a courtyard and a museum which houses a collection of the history of the church.
The church is free, but you have to pay to visit the other parts and the museum.
There are also guided tours in english
Guided tour, showing the underground origins of the church.
The altar with the Madonna of the rosary and saints by Massimo Stanzione in the Cacace Chapel.
The courtyard of the monastery of San Lorenzo Maggiore.
The frescoes in the Pope Sisto V Hall.
The frescos of the Franciscan order in the internal halls of the friars refectory.
Detail of the Cacace family Chaptel by Cosimo Fanzago.
The library of san Lorenzo Maggiore.
The Roman area underneath the church.
Piazza S.Gaetano, 316 - 80138 Napoli
Tickets for the underground guided tour and the Museum: 9 € / Concession with Artecard, over 65, teachers and university students € 7 / Under 18 € 6 € / School groups € 4
The Church of San Lorenzo Maggiore in Naples
Il monumental complex of San Lorenzo Maggiore represents a fascinating example of Greek-Roman architecture in the heart of the historic center of Naples. In fact, here lies the heart of the ancient city, where you can take a journey back in time even exploring the subsoil of Neapolis.
La early Christian basilica was dedicated to the protomartyr Lorenzo between 533 and 555, years of the bishopric of John II, and donated to the Franciscan friars in 1234. Between 1270 and 1275, at the behest of Charles I, a larger basilica was built.
The Roman subsoil
The San Lorenzo Maggiore complex offers the opportunity for visitors to perform a real journey back in time to the ancient "Neapolis", where you can follow a road of the time with the related shops, admire the "Cryptoporticus" and the "Macellum.
Inside the rooms of the complex it is possible to accommodate private events, exhibitions or conferences. These are the rooms:
Information on the Church of San Lorenzo Maggiore
Every day from 9: 30 to 17: 30
- Full: € 9 (20% discount with Artecard)
- Reduced: € 7 (over 65, Campania Artecard, Teachers, University)
- Reduced: € 6 - School groups - Under 18
Piazza San Gaetano 316, Naples
How to reach us
Subway 1 Line, Dante stop, take Via Port'Alba and Via dei Tribunali (about 9 minutes on foot).
Subway 2 Line, Cavour stop, walk through via Costantinopoli, piazza Bellini, via dei Tribunali (about 15 minutes).
The archaeological site of San Lorenzo Maggiore, the chest of Naples’ history
Negli Scavi archeologici di San Lorenzo Maggiore "è racchiuso il Dna di Napoli” disse il maestro Riccardo Muti. Nel “grazioso e bel tempio”, Boccaccio incontrò Fiammetta e vi soggiornò Petrarca. Tre epoche sovrapposte e condensate in un unico luogo. La Neapolis Sotterrata offre un viaggio sotto terra a ritroso nel tempo alla scoperta delle origini della storia di Napoli
Gli scavi archeologici di San Lorenzo Maggiore: una visita sotto terra alla scoperta della storia di Napoli
“The Dna of Naples is to be found here” said Master Riccardo Muti, In rhe “pretty and beautiful temple” as Boccaccio called it, the famous poet met Fiammetta, and always here Petrarch lived for a while. Three superimposed periods, joined into a unique, precious casket, to be discovered from top to bottom.
Painters, architects, sculptors and archaeologists have written wonderful pages on the basilica of San Lorenzo Maggiore in Naples. It is here, in the heart of the city of Naples, that the two souls of the city of Virgil and St. Gennaro join together, creating an amalgam of rare beauty. “It’s a monument to books. In the complex of San Lorenzo Maggiore one can read the history of Naples in clear letters. The Dna of Naples is to be found here” said Master Riccardo Muti, before a concert. This phrase perfectly describes the “pretty and beautiful temple” as Boccaccio called it. The famous poet met Fiammetta, his inspiring muse, for the first time in this church in 1334 and always here, a few years later, Petrarch lived for a while.
The monumental complex of Piazza San Gaetano, which attracts thousands of visitors each year and hosts important events, represents a kind of “trait d’union”, a rare example of the continuity of life, which testimonies the plurisecular life of Naples. Above, stands the thirteenth-century church founded by Carlo d’Angiò. At the bottom, lies what remains of an ancient Greek-Roman settlement. At the centre, as a symbolic “watershed”, are the ruins of a building dating back to the Norman domination. Three superimposed periods, joined into a unique, precious casket, to be discovered from top to bottom.
Near the eighteenth-century cloister of the basilica, is it possible to admire the ruins of the ancient Roman Macellum in the archaeological site of San Lorenzo Maggiore. The structure was arranged on terraces and has, in its center, a circular colonnade (tholos).
Through a modern staircase, it is possible to directly access the archaeologal site of San Lorenzo Maggiore, “The Buried Naples” from the cloister of the church. Here, at 7.8 meters underground, there is the ancient Forum of Neapolis and an old market which dates back to the 4th century BC. Other stratifications of the imperial age are to be found there.
The route runs along a narrow street (cardine), over which there are nine shops, each with two rooms. Originally, they may have hosted public offices, including the Aerarium, where the city treasury was guarded. Following the decay of the Empire, they became small workshops such as bakeries and laundries.
At the end of the narrow street, on the right, there is an open cryptoportic (the covered market): the area is divided into small buildings. These are shops with masonry desks that were used for displaying the merchandise on sale. The final part of the “porch” is linked to a large vaulted environment where there is a late-Hellenistic hydraulic structure: it was used to channel the flow of rainwater. A little further away, immediately next to a tub, there is another complex: three large interconnecting rooms, with a mosaic floor and an impluvium in the central part of the house. It may have been a schola, which was, a building intended for meetings of religious or commercial associations. In this area there are also some wall remakes of the late antique medieval period.
The archaeological site of San Lorenzo Maggiore in Naples was brought to light with a vast excavation campaign that began in the late seventies of the last century. Interrupted several times, the campaign was finally concluded in May 2009, thanks to the funding of the European Union. Many of the objects and finds recovered during the excavations are now on show in the adjacent Opera Museum, hosted in the bell tower of the Basilica, which is worth a visit.
(translate by Teresa Freddo)
Pope Gregory IX decided in 1235 to erect a church dedicated to St. Lawrence. It is the so-called Foro church (Paleochristian era) which was attributed to the Franciscans.
Charles I of Anjou, shortly after his victory over Manfred at the battle of Benevento, around 1270, supported the reconstruction of the basilica and the convent, in a mixture of French Gothic and Franciscan styles.
The apse, unique in its kind in southern Italy, is an example of French Gothic. While towards the transept, the Gothic becomes Italian, sign of the evolution of the builders.
In the centuries that followed and experienced earthquakes, the basilica was often refitted, and from the 16th century, heavy Baroque decorations were inserted. Between the end of the nineteenth and the second half of the twentieth century, baroque ornamentation was removed with a few exceptions such as the facade of Ferdinando Sanfelice and the two chapels of Cosimo Fanzago.
The San Lorenzo Museum occupies the three floors above the courtyard it is dedicated to the history of the San Lorenzo church and that of the region since antiquity.
Of the scores of churches in the Campus Martius of historical, architectural, and artistic interest, Sant’Agostino (1479–83) is perhaps the most Roman. The church, constructed entirely of travertine looted from the Colosseum, was a favourite of many artists of the Renaissance period and beyond. Caravaggio painted the Madonna with Pilgrims Raphael did the fresco of Isaiah. Many expectant mothers and women wishing to conceive have prayed at the foot of the Madonna del Parto (“Madonna of Childbirth” c. 1519), sculpted by Jacopo Sansovino.
SAN LORENZO MAGGIORE HISTORICAL COMPLEX
The complex of San Lorenzo Maggiore is a path back in time that covers a historical period from the fifth century BC. C. until the end of the XVIII century AD. The complex is a perfectly preserved historical testimony of how the city has grown and evolved, a continuous mix of ancient and modern. In the complex of San Lorenzo Maggiore there are layers of different buildings, the result of various urban developments over the centuries.
These strata represent the civil, cultural, political and institutional changes of different civilizations, which share the same geographic space, unique in its kind from the Agora to the Forum, from the foundations of the early Christian Basilica to the stronghold of the convent of the Franciscan friars, all coexisting in the cloister of San Lorenzo Maggiore. This site also hosted the seat of the city government, which can be found by visiting the archaeological area.
The archaeological complex that can be visited today dates back to the imperial age, while only a few traces of the Greek city remain. The visit starts from the cloister, whose well is surmounted by the statue of San Lorenzo by Cosimo Fanzago, one of the most famous in Naples. Along its arcades some of the religious and civil events of the city took place. The cloister was rebuilt in 1771 on the area occupied by a 14th century structure: The cloister was rebuilt in 1771 on the area occupied by a XIV century structure below the current pavement we can admire the vestiges of the tholos (circular structure).
Going down about 10 meters the underground archaeological path develops on a narrow road (cardine), where you can observe various environments. First of all, the treasury, where the city’s public treasury was kept.
After the Treasury, nine shops of two rooms each follow, where elements of the commercial and craft activities carried out in the market are visible: such as, for example, an oven and tubs for dyeing fabrics. At the end of the hinge, on the right you reach the cryptoporticus (covered market) divided into small communicating rooms, each of which bears masonry counters, used for the display of goods.
The last room of the portico communicates with a new sector of the archaeological area: a large room in which a monumental water works dating back to the late Hellenistic market arrangement was visible, which served to channel the flow of water in a situation of strong slope. Next to the water works there is an area consisting of three large vaulted communicating rooms, with mosaic flooring and an impluvium in the central room. In the refined complex you can probably recognize a schola, that is a building intended for the meetings of religious associations or traders. Throughout this sector, remodelling of the walls of the late ancient and medieval ages can be observed.
Sala Sisto V
At the bottom of the cloister, in the right corner, you can admire the Swabian cloister, through which you access the majestic Sixtus V room, formerly the seat of the refectory of the friars. The vaults are entirely frescoed and create an austere and intense atmosphere.
The frescoes were made by Luigi Rodriguez and date back to the early 17th century. The frescoes on the vault represent The Seven Real Virtues, surrounded by Four Minor Virtues this meant that it was deserving to rule the kingdom only those who made these virtues their own.
Further down there are frescoes representing the provinces of the kingdom.
The room Sixtus V in 1442 became the seat of the Neapolitan Parliament it was the scene of very important historical events, we will mention one of many: Alfonso of Aragon recognized his son Ferrante here as his successor.
Between two tuff paintings, through a 14th century portal, you can access an evocative environment with richly frescoed vaults: it is the Chapter room. It takes its name from the Chapter, or a meeting of friars that was held here, to confer the offices.
The chapter house was built at the time of the Swabian domination (1234-1266). The precious decorations in this room are attributed to Luigi Rodriguez and were made in 1608. They depict, in a grotesque decorative style, the friars of the order of Conventual Minors who have distinguished themselves for particular religious and cultural merits. The genealogical tree of Franciscan glory depicts missionary and literary friars as well as those who have become cardinals, popes and saints.
Many of the spaces of the complex are available for corporate events and for concerts.
San Lorenzo Maggiore
San Lorenzo Maggiore is a town and comune in the province of Benevento, in the Campania region of southern Italy. It is a member of the Titerno "Local Action Group".
The main rivers that cross the municipality are the river "Heat" and the torrent of Ianare. The territory is hilly. The town, covers an area of 16.17 square kilometers and is bordered by the towns of San Lupo, Bridge, Paupisi, Vitulano and Sanframondi Guard. San Lorenzo Maggiore is one of the northern slope of Mount Taburno and the more southern border of the Matese. The main rivers that cross the municipality are the river and the river Janare Heat. Environmentally the area is dominated by the two mountain ranges that surround emergencies. They consist, in the south, from the steep slopes of the Taburno-Camposauro that rise, over the course of the heat, rising from a hilly area the majestic relief with its forest cover significantly qualifies the values of the landscapes. To the north it is bounded by the Matese, one of the largest mountain ranges of the Apennines in Campania that extends over the provinces of Caserta, Benevento, Isernia and Campobasso. The massif Taburno- Camposauro rises up to over 1,390 m above sea level and, on the north, it presents an imposing vegetation mainly consists of coppice plus some stretches of high forests between those provisions prevail beech trees and conifers. Doing so presents the southern side of the Matese falling in the municipality of San Lorenzo Maggiore, which for the morpho-soil land, has a more gentle and rounded where the human settlement of the land has formed an agricultural landscape caused by extensions of vineyards and olive groves.
The municipality of San Lorenzo Maggiore has been inhabited since prehistoric times as evidenced by several findings, including the famous "almond Chelles" now preserved in a museum in Paris. This specimen, found in 1915 in the "Filed", is a splinter of quartzite polished by primitive likely to quarter and skinning animals.
During the rule of the Lombards there is news of a first village called "Filed" and that was in the vicinity of the river Heat in the town still called by that name. Filed in 663 A.D. It was the scene of a major battle that saw challenge the troops of the Lombard Mittola, Count of Capua, with the army of the Byzantine emperor Constans II that remained defeated.
Around 1000 Limata, thanks to its strategic location, it became a thriving commercial center and experienced a rapid demographic change. With the coming of the Normans Limata became home favorite of accounts Sanframondo. Sanframondo William I, son of Raone, in a document dated 1151, translated in 1531 during a trial, he wrote "I Sancto Flaimundo William, son of the late Raone, I had to name de Sancto Framundo, of Norman race, I make known to possess many castles, including the castle said Limata, in the land of Telese gift to Robert, prior of the monastery of Santa Maria della Grotta, a land at the river Heat. On 26 December 1382 the castle of Limata was home Louis I of Anjou, came to occupy the kingdom and to avenge the killing of Queen Joanna I of Naples. Sanframondo I had to provide for the provisioning of thousands of riders and horses. In the fifteenth century Limata passed to the accounts Carafa who kept it until the abolition of feudalism in 1806. The Carafa, who preferred to live in Naples, left the castle and what Limata procured, along with the stench from the nearby river Calore , the abandonment of the town which in 1570 saw the appointment of his latest pastor. Some refugee Limata retreated on the hills, thus founding the current San Lorenzo Maggiore in 1532 was inhabited by eighty families that grew to two hundred and six in 1595. San Lorenzo was administered, like the other towns of southern Italy, from a Universitas whose council was made up of four citizens appointed every year in May by citizens landowners. The members of the council together with six other members elected annually also formed the Council. The meeting had to be authorized by the Governor or Viceconte which protected the interests of landowners and who resided in the county seat, in Cerreto Sannita. The earthquake of June 5, 1688 caused extensive damage to the country that was quickly rebuilt much that in 1724 there were 1700 inhabitants. After years of Italian unification, the municipality was concerned by some of the phenomena of banditry.
MONUMENTS AND PLACES OF INTEREST
Near C.da Piana south of the city center, in the "Limata" are the remains of the eponymous village whose origins can be traced back to 700 AD approx. Limata was an important strategic center for all forms of domination that followed, by the Lombards to the Normans, Swabians Angevins. For Limata transiting the Via Latin, one of the three arteries Roman indicated by Strabo as "nobilissimae viarum". The castle, built by Zottone I, first Duke of the Lombards in Benevento, dominated the Valley below and telesina, militarily speaking, was in his time the function to control and intercept all communications coming from the basin of Benevento, from Molise, from Maddaloni, dall'avvallamento of Montesarchio and dall'Alifano. In 663 A.D. filed was the scene of a major battle between the Emperor Constans II and the Lombards led by the Count of Capua Mittola. Around the year 1000, again because of its location, it became a thriving commercial core and had a rapid demographic change with the advent of the Normans became the seat of Sanframondo that December 26, 1382 hosted in Limata Louis of Anjou. In the fifteenth century it passed to the Carafa and in later centuries began its downturn until the abandonment in favor of the New Village of San Lorenzo at the time called "Castrum Sancti Laurentii"
Collegiate Church of San Lorenzo
In the historic center, it was finished in 1417. In 1553 it was raised to collegiate and this was the subject of a series of expansions funded dall'Universitas and citizens . The altar from the church of S. Maria della Strada, is surrounded by the seventeenth-century wooden choir and is dominated by a painting of the martyrdom of San Lorenzo, performed in the eighteenth century by Francesco Mazzacca . Also interesting are the wooden sculpture of San Lorenzo, the bell tower ( 1661 ) and the altarpiece of the Madonna with Child and Saints Lawrence and loving .
In 1934 the collegiate church was visited by Prince Umberto II of Savoy, who was in the area to visit the Regiment of Lancers of Aosta engaged in maneuvers in the valley telesina .
Sanctuary and Convent of Santa Maria della Strada
According to legend, centuries ago the Madonna would have appeared to a pious woman inviting her to dig the place where the church stands today. At a depth of twelve palms he would have been found a small chapel with an image of the Virgin removed the icon from the earth would begin to pour water considered miraculous. This chapel narrated in the legend is the crypt of the church, and in it there is a hole where flowed a spring of water, dried up in the twentieth century. Church and convent, abandoned in the nineteenth century, were recovered in the year 1990. The building houses the precious icon in the late Byzantine style depicting the Madonna and Child.
Built in the sixteenth century, it contains a statue of the saint known for his particular bill that dates back to the period of construction of the church. In the building there are works in marble Vitulano and a sink of 1596 wanted archpriest De Vincentis.
Church of the Annunciation or Ss. Name of God
Church of SS. Name of God Probably founded around 1550, it was restored and enlarged several times over the centuries. In 1876 it was decorated with plaster made by Donato Di Crosta of Cerreto. Of particular interest is the chapel of St. Catherine, built by the spouses Brizio-Cinquegrani and has four white marble statues (some stolen in 1976) depicting St. Catherine, St. Peter, St. Paul and St. Francis. Most notable is the sculpture of the Madonna of Health, very old, from Limata.
The parish priest of San Lorenzo has long held the position of provost. The complete list of provosts is not known the following names are derived from a list compiled from studies undertaken by the priest A. Baruffaldi, carved in marble and placed in the basilica itself. Among them were two Archbishops and one Pope.
- Anselmo da Bovisio (?–1097), who was appointed Archbishop of Milan
- Ambrogio (1116–1119)
- Belengerio (1137–?)
- Guifredo (1146–1152)
- Corvo (1158–1176)
- Giacomo (1187–1203)
- Anizone (1208–1225)
- Guglielmo (1228–1251)
- Ardizone del Conte (1254–1285)
- Filippo del Conte (1285–1312)
- Bonifacio Pusterla (1313–1314)
- Ardizone del Conte (1321–1338)
- Antonio del Conte (1340–1347)
- Francesco da S. Zenone (1350–1359)
- Francesco da Legnano (1363–1371)
- Giovanni da Mandello (1376–1385)
- Giovanni di Sommariva (1392–1399)
- Martino di Canale (1406–1436)
- Enea Silvvio Piccolomini (1436–1440), in 1458 elected Pope as Pius II
- Leonardo da Vercelli (1441–1444)
- Filippo da Gallarate (1448–1460)
- Nicolò da Appiano (1461–1496)
- Bernardino Lanterio (1500–1505)
- Francesco Cazzaniga (1510–1519)
- Giacomo de Spaldis (1522–1525)
- Francescco Aaccursio (1528–1545)
- Ottoviano Arcimboldo (1546–?)
- Giovan Battista della Chiesa (1551–?)
- Giovan Aandrea Pionnio (1569–1579)
- Giovan Battista Recalcato (1579–1589)
- Giulio Cesare Negri (1589–1594)
- Massimiliano Pusterla (1594–1607)
- Giovan Stefaano Ciami (1607–1608)
- Andrea Bassi (1609–1629)
- Tullo Piantanida (1629–1630)
- Giulio Maschera (1630–1650)
- Giovan Ambrogio Torriani (1650–1666)
- Orazio Baruverio (1667–1688)
- Giovan Antonio Galllo (1688–1717)
- Carlo Ambrogio Curioni (1717–1728)
- Settimio Lodi (1728–1733)
- Pier Antonio Valmaginio (1733–1747)
- Carlo Antonio Belvisi (1748–1770)
- Antonio Airoldo (1771–1795)
- Giovan Battista Aloardi (1795–1819)
- Giovanni dell'Oro (1820–1830)
- Giovan Battista Redaelli (1830–1854)
- Giovan Battista Gadola (1855–1865), formerly Parish priest of Legnano
- Achille Achino (1867–1876)
- Giovan Battista Thomas (1877–1895)
- Luigi Bignami (1896–1905), who was appointed Archbishop of Siracusa
- Carlo Rigogliosi (1906–1932)
- Giovanni Maria Stoppani (1932–1960)
- Anselmo Redaelli (1960–?)
- Carlo del Corno (1968–1984)
- Angelo Manzoni (1984–1986)
- Riccardo Busnelli (1986–1996)
- Augusto Casolo (1996–still in office)
The apse area of the ancient basilica is now a park. Previously the area was occupied by a channel or a lake (probably with a port), while later it was used in public executions, one of which is recounted in Alessandro Manzoni's Storia della Colonna Infame.