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Manners - History

Manners - History

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Americans were less deferential than their European counterparts. As the early nation developed, the practice of bowing and making other outward signs of respect and subordination fell out of favor, especially in the informal West. The handshake, a greeting of equality, became the common greeting. Nevertheless, children were still required to make outward signs of respect to elders, like doffing a hats or making a bow or courtesy.
Most Americans were generally disdainful of aristocratic manners. Many farmers of the Southern up-country disapproved of what they saw as the pretensions of some of the wealthy plantation families. American tavern residents laughed at the haughty airs of European visitors.
Some accused the Society of the Cincinnati for being elitist and exclusionary, and for attempting to emulate the inherited titles of European aristocracy. Founded by officers of the Revolutionary War in 1783, the Society of the Cincinnati was arranged so that the oldest male descendant in succession of a Revolutionary War officer would inherit membership. It was named after the famous Roman general, Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who was called from his small farm to defend Rome from attack. Declared dictator of Rome (519? B.C. - 439? B.C.), he mobilized troops, defeated the attackers, and resigned from the dictatorship to return to his farm, all within 16 days.
Through the Society, the Roman's life of service was to be a model for the Revolutionary War officers and their descendants. The primary purpose of the organization was to lobby for the rights of veterans. Protests against the aristocratic pretensions of the organization came from across the country, even though George Washington himself was president of the Society. One such complaint came from the Massachusetts legislature, which was concerned that the Society would be "dangerous to the peace, liberty and safety of the United States." As a result of national complaints, the Society eventually gave up its political activities and became a social club.
Differing views toward manners were often associated with political party philosophies. Federalists were generally more elitist, formal and aristocratic than their informal Democratic-Republican colleagues. Even President Washington was censured for the "courtly" manners maintained at social functions. Adams was even more formal than Washington. Mrs. Adams had been presented at court when Adams was minister to Great Britain, and she wanted to introduce British courtly manners to presidential social functions. With the end of the Federalist administrations came the end of many of the excesses of formality in which they had indulged.
Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans brought with them an informality that alarmed many of their colleagues. Jefferson answered the door to the White House himself, sometimes dressed in old clothes and shoes with his toes sticking out. He allowed his grandson to run around barefoot in the summer, which did not impress British visitors.
European visitors often accused Americans of having no manners because they disregarded certain practices, but held others as important. In reality, many Americans were eager to live by rules of etiquette, although their priorities were different from the Europeans of their time and Americans of our time. It was considered impolite to simply say "cut up the chicken" to eat: one had to say, "break the goose," "thrust that chicken," "spoil that hen," "pierce the plover, please," or some such appropriate phrase. At the same time, Americans travelers staying in inns did not think twice about being put two or more to a bed, usually with strangers.
Most cities and towns had no sanitation service, so garbage was thrown in the streets. Without indoor plumbing, Americans attended to their sanitary needs either by going outside and digging a hole, or using chamber pots and emptying them outside. Privies, or "necessary houses," were more prevalent in cold parts of the country, such as New England, in which "using the facilities" was more difficult in the exposed climate. Boston was one of the cleanest of the large cities in the country. Scavengers; carts and farmers collecting manure kept the streets relatively clean and orderly. There was still the smell of dead animals and decaying food from Faneuil Hall market and other locations, however.
One of the messiest popular practices was the chewing of tobacco, which had been prevalent since at least the early eighteenth century. Spittoons were gradually set up on steamboat, in saloons, in hotel lobbies, in railroad cars, in courtrooms and in homes. Nevertheless, since most people did not always reach their targets, the yellowish tobacco-tinted spit stained carpets, floors, walls and clothing across the nation. Since washing was not a major part of life for most Americans, many of these stains became permanent.
In such a diverse nation as the United States, there were different approaches toward manners. Some Americans, such as George Washington and many of the wealthy Southern planter class, maintained an ordered formality comparable to the courts of Europe. Others scoffed at such manners, and gloried in defying such "relics of monarchy." Still other fell somewhere in between, aspiring to better manners, while recognizing that the realities of their lives made elaborate etiquette impractical and pretentious.


Etiquette ( / ˈ ɛ t ɪ k ɛ t / and / ˈ ɛ t ɪ k ɪ t / French: [e.ti.kɛt] ) is the set of conventional rules of personal behaviour in polite society, usually in the form of an ethical code that delineates the expected and accepted social behaviours that accord with the conventions and norms observed by a society, a social class, or a social group. In modern English usage, the French word étiquette (ticket) dates from the year 1750. [2]


The Big Boy mascot Edit

The chain is best known for its trademark chubby boy with a pompadour hairstyle wearing red-and-white checkered overalls holding a Big Boy sandwich (double-decker cheeseburger). The inspiration for Big Boy's name, as well as the model for its mascot, was Richard Woodruff (1932–1986) of Glendale, California. [23] When he was six years old, Woodruff walked into the diner Bob's Pantry as Bob Wian was attempting to name his new hamburger. Wian said, "Hello, Big Boy" to Woodruff, and the name stuck. Warner Bros. animation artist Ben Washam sketched Richard's caricature, which became the character seen on the company trademark. [note 3]

In 1955, Bob Wian hired Manfred Bernhard, son of graphic designer Lucian Bernhard, [8] : 12 to create a new public image for Big Boy. [24] Bernhard was not impressed with Washam's mascot, saying it was sloppy and had a moronic expression. [24] The "West Coast Big Boy" mascot was revised, fiberglass statues molded, schemes created for menus and building designs, and a comic book for children launched.

In 1951, Bob Wian's original franchisee Dave Frisch developed a slightly different Big Boy character. He was slimmer, wore a side cap, saddle shoes and striped overalls. Having reddish or blonde hair he was portrayed in a running pose. [note 4] Known as the "East Coast Big Boy", he was copyrighted by Frisch's and used for statues and comic books for Frisch's, and its subfranchisees Manners and Azar's. Before 1954, Parkette (Shoney's) used both versions, though never together. [25] [26] Since 1956, the Wian "West Coast Big Boy" design was used exclusively by all franchisees other than Frisch's, Manners and Azar's. In the late 1960s, both characters were redrawn to appear similar, incorporating the checkered outfit, pompadour and hamburger above the raised arm from the West Coast design, and the running pose and direction of the East Coast design. In the 1980s, the hamburger was removed from the West Coast design representing a de-emphasis of the hamburger in North American Big Boy restaurants, it also accommodated the Japanese Big Boy restaurants, which do not serve hamburgers on a bun.

Big Boy statues Edit

The changing Big Boy
A. 1937. The first Big Boy (left) was derived from a sketch by Warner Brothers animation artist Bennie Washam in 1937. A frequent customer, Washam doodled the character on a napkin for Bob Wian for a free lunch. [27] The logo, redrawn holding a hamburger (right), was typically used by Wian and several early franchisees: Parkette (Shoney's), [25] Elias Brothers [28] and Frejlach's. [29] The orientation was also reversed.
B. 1952. Wian's first franchisee, David Frisch, developed his own Big Boy character. Dated 1952, the design was copyrighted in 1951 and became known as the East Coast Big Boy. He was the model for fiberglass statues used by Frisch's, and subfranchises Azar's and Manners. This Big Boy varied between blond and reddish blond hair. Unlike West Coast designs (A) and (C), he held the hamburger in both hands and was always running to his left.
C. 1956. This scheme introduced the modern Big Boy character and is the model for the iconic fiberglass statues. It replaced Wian's original figure (A), and was actually seen in 1955 Shoney's advertisements. Typically drawn with the hamburger atop his right arm, occasionally the hamburger was raised atop his left arm. [30] Shown is a common version of the several renderings used. By 2009, a new styled version is sometimes being used again. [31] [32]
D. 1969. Revised East Coast Big Boy. [33]
E. 1969. Revised West Coast Big Boy.
Differences between the East and West Coast designs, including the statues, created confusion along the Ohio-Michigan border where Frisch's and Elias Brothers operated. This motivated a common Big Boy mark, derived with elements of both predecessors, (B) and (C). He retained the look of the West Coast figure (C) but assumed the running pose and orientation of the East Coast figure (B). Nonetheless similar West and East Coast versions were realized, maintaining the facial style of the previous marks, respectively. Frisch's continued to use (D) through 2016.
F. 1981. To emphasize a full menu the hamburger was removed from the West Coast design.
G. 1988. After buying Big Boy, Elias Brothers lowered the left arm completely.

Early versions of the West Coast Big Boy statues were gigantic, measuring up to 16 feet tall [34] [35] with later versions as short as 4 feet. [36] The early statues always included the Big Boy hamburger above mascot's raised right arm much later versions eliminated the hamburger with both arms clutching the suspenders instead. The hamburger remained a part of the Frisch's East Coast statues, though the slingshot was eliminated from the figure's back pocket. Although still used by that chain, some Frisch's restaurants currently display the West Coast statue instead.

In recent years, Big Boy statues have come into conflict with local zoning ordinances. In 2002, Tony Matar, a Big Boy franchisee in Canton, Michigan was cited in violation of local sign ordinances. The town claimed the statue was a prohibited second sign Matar asserted that the 7 foot statue was a sculpture, not a sign. [37] A 2004 compromise allows the existing statue to remain with the words "Big Boy" removed from the figure's bib. [38] When a Brighton, Michigan franchise closed in early 2015 for financial reasons, zoning codes caused the entire sign—topped with a rotating Big Boy statue—be taken down before the restaurant could be reopened. [39] In contrast the planning commission in Norco, California—known as Horsetown USA—was concerned that the statue was not western enough. In response, the restaurant's Big Boy statue is now outfitted wearing a cowboy hat and boots. [40]

A few other modified statues are in official use. In Cincinnati's Great American Ball Park, a Frisch's statue is painted wearing a 1970s Reds baseball uniform with a Reds ball cap added. Frisch's Big Boy hamburgers are sold at two of the park's concession booths. [41] Rather than modifying a typical statue, the Big Boy restaurants in Manistique [42] [43] and St. Ignace, [44] Michigan display full scale moose statues dressed in checkered overalls with "Big Boy" printed across the chest. To conform with Gaylord, Michigan's Alpine theme, the local restaurant's statue previously wore a green Tyrolean hat. [45] (The restaurant was rebuilt in 2016, and no longer displays the modified statue.)

In March 2017, Frisch's unveiled a restyled statue. The new statue resembles the West Coast design but wears striped overalls like the original East Coast Big Boy. [46] The debut statue wearing a Reds uniform is placed near the existing statue at Great American Ball Park another is planned for an unnamed Frisch's restaurant. [47] Frisch's will gradually swap the new statues for existing restaurant statues in need of repair. [46]

Because of the closing or separation of former Big Boy restaurants, many West Coast statues were acquired by private individuals, often traded through eBay. [48] [49] Smaller versions of the statues are sold as coin banks and bobblehead figures. [50] The three dimensional Big Boy figure was also used on early ash trays, [51] salt and pepper shakers, [52] wooden counter displays and as small unpainted pewter models. [53]

Gigantic air inflatable Big Boy figures are available and typically used for restaurant openings and special promotions, where permitted. [54]

Adventures of the Big Boy comic book Edit

  • Top row (left to right): No. 1, July 1956, West Coast and East Coast versions No. 13, July 1957, West Coast and East Coast versions.
  • Bottom row: No. 155, June 1969, West Coast and East Coast versions No. 156, July 1969, combined version No. 1, Shoney's version, 1976 (month unknown).

Adventures of the Big Boy (initially The Adventures of Big Boy) was a promotional comic book given free to children visiting the restaurants. Intended to "give the kids something to do while they waited for their food", [55] the book involves the escapades of Big Boy, his girlfriend Dolly and dog Nugget. From the comic books children could also join the Big Boy Club, a kids club offering them free Big Boy hamburgers, [56] decoder cards, [56] pin-back buttons [57] and other premiums. The serial – sometimes called "King of the Giveaways" [24] [55] – once had distribution estimated at three million copies. [58]

Manfred Bernhard commissioned Timely Comics to produce the book. In the first year, Adventures of the Big Boy was managed by Sol Brodsky, written by Stan Lee and drawn by Bill Everett, Brodsky, and Dan DeCarlo. [59] [55] [60] [note 5] DeCarlo continued drawing in the second year and Lee writing the series through 1961. [61] [note 6] For 17 years, starting in the mid 1970s, Manny Stallman drew the (Marriott) series, [62] followed by Bob Bindig who drew the series until 1995. [55] [63] [note 7]

Variations Edit

Because of the distinct East and West Coast Big Boy mascots, dual versions of Adventures were produced, identical except for the detail of the Big Boy figure. [65] In July 1969, the versions merged, and a fluffy brown haired Big Boy appeared. [65] In 1976, Shoney's began publishing their own series instead. [note 8] Contracted to Paragon Products, this version featured an older, leaner Big Boy, with his siblings Katie and Tripp replacing Dolly and Nugget, [55] and was adopted by the JB's and Azar's Big Boy franchises. [67] After 75 issues, it became Shoney's Fun and Adventure Magazine introducing a Shoney's mascot ("Uncle Ed" bear) in place of Big Boy, allowing it to serve Shoney's non-Big Boy restaurants. [55] [note 9]

Cancellation Edit

In 1996, after 39 years and 466 issues, [67] Big Boy cancelled the comic book and hired Craig Yoe's Yoe! Studio to revamp the characters and produce a magazine styled replacement. [68] [69] After 63 issues, the Big Boy Magazine was itself cancelled in 2008. [70]

The Big Boy hamburger Edit

The signature Big Boy hamburger is the original double deck hamburger. [71]

The novel hamburger started as a joke. In February 1937, some local big band musicians, who were regular customers of Bob's Pantry, visited the restaurant. When ordering, bass player Stewie Strange asked, "How about something different, something special?" [72] [emphasis added]. [note 10] Bob Wian improvised, creating the first (then unnamed) Big Boy, intending the thing "look ridiculous, like a leaning tower". [72] Demand for "the special" soared but Wian sought a "snappy" name, which became Big Boy. [72] [note 11] In 1938, the Big Boy hamburger cost 15¢ [8] : 156 [76] ($2.65 in 2018). [77] The Big Boy costs $6.49 in Michigan, in 2018. [78] Several slogans were used from the 1950s through the 1970s to promote the Big Boy hamburger, such as, "A Meal in One on a Double–Deck Bun" and "Twice as Big, Twice as Good". On menus from that period, it was called, ". the Nationally Famous, Original Double–Deck Hamburger. ".

The Big Boy hamburger inspired and was the model for other double deck hamburgers. This includes McDonald's Big Mac, [79] Burger Chef's Big Shef [80] and Burger King's Big King. [81] [82]

The Big Boy consists of two thin beef patties placed on a three-layer bun with lettuce, a single slice of American cheese, and either mayonnaise and red relish (a combination of sweet pickle relish, ketchup and chili sauce), [74] : D4 Big Boy special sauce (often called thousand island dressing) or (at Frisch's, Manners and Azar's) tartar sauce on one or each slice of bun. (Regardless, the Big Boy condiment used was often simply referred to as "special sauce" on menus chainwide.) Wian used a sesame seed bun while Frisch's used a plain bun and included pickles. [note 12] The Big Boy hamburger originally called for a quarter pound (4 ounces) of fresh ground beef, but later, franchisees were permitted to use frozen beef patties, and the minimum content reduced to a fifth of a pound to offset increasing food costs. Other specifications were exacting, such as the bun's bottom section being 1½ inches high and the center section ¾ inches, and 1½ ounces of shredded lettuce used. [83]

Originally, the Big Boy hamburger was the only common menu item required of all Big Boy franchisees. [83]

Other core menu items Edit

Just as Bob Wian's Big Boy hamburger was served by all franchises, the early franchises also contributed signature menu items. Frisch's provided the "Brawny Lad" and "Swiss Miss" hamburgers, Shoney's contributed the "Slim Jim" sandwich and Hot Fudge Ice Cream Cake, while Strawberry Pie was introduced by Eat'n Park. Hot Fudge Cake and Strawberry Pie remain popular dessert items chainwide but other items were not necessarily offered by all franchises, and franchises would sometimes change the item's name: The "Slim Jim" became the "Buddie Boy" at Frisch's, and Elby's renamed the "Swiss Miss" as the "Brawny Swiss". [84] [85] Similarly, when franchisees left Big Boy, they would typically rebrand the Big Boy hamburger: it became the "Superburger" (Eat'n Park), [86] the "Buddy Boy" (Lendy's), [87] the "Big Ben" (Franklin's), [88] and the "Elby Double Deck hamburger" (Elby's). [89] Shoney's reintroduced the "Classic Double Decker", somewhat different than the Big Boy, about a decade after leaving. [90]

Big Boy offers breakfast, burgers and sandwiches, salads, dinner combinations, and various desserts. [84] [91]

Bob Wian developed rules and philosophies about how Big Boy should operate. Besides the (construction of the) Big Boy hamburger he attributed most of his success and that of his franchisees to following these rules. [72] His fundamental restaurant principles were: "serve the best quality food, at moderate prices, in spotless surroundings, with courtesy and hospitality." [92] [83] He believed "the customer is always right" and instructed employees that, "if any food item is not satisfactory, return it cheerfully and apologize for the error". [11] Wian said he had five basic rules for building his business: " 'be a good place to work for, sell to, buy from, and invest in. And be a good neighbor in the community.' " [93] He also attributed the growth to, "capable management and conservative policy of not trying to seat more people than can be served or opening more restaurants than can be serviced." [93] If some disruption occurred at a restaurant, such as a new manager or renovation, Wian would postpone advertising until operations would return to his standards. [8] : 81

Typical of Big Boy restaurants, Elby's Big Boy used a nine-step process waiting on dining room customers: [94]

  1. Greet customers within one minute of being seated, serving water and taking beverage orders.
  2. Serve beverages and take meal orders.
  3. Call in meal orders to kitchen.
  4. Place setups (e.g., silverware) and condiments, serve salad items.
  5. Watch kitchen (number panel) for completed order and promptly serve meals to table.
    (The kitchen should complete orders within 8 minutes, 10 minutes for steaks.)
  6. Check back with customers within a few minutes: "Is everything OK?"
  7. Return and place check on the table: "I'll return shortly."
  8. Suggest dessert and take dessert orders.
  9. Serve desserts or deliver final check, remove empty dishes.

Bob Wian was discerning of employees, hiring wait staff—which he considered a profession—by appearance, intelligence and enthusiasm. [11] He preferred employees with little or no restaurant experience which afforded training in the Big Boy tradition. [83] [95] Wian said that he "conned [employees] into believing in themselves . I put my cooks in chef's outfits, even though they couldn't boil an egg". [74] : D4 Other than wait staff, employees typically started as dishwashers and busboys, and advanced to short-order cooks, and then possibly to management. [83] [92] [95] Bob's Big Boy was one of the first restaurant chains to offer health insurance and profit-sharing to employees. [96]

Bob Wian excelled at franchise relations. He led 20-person training crews to open new Big Boy restaurants, [72] made periodic nationwide tours of the franchises, [97] was available for consultations and claimed to know every manager's name. [74] : D4 He also assembled the principal franchisees as board members of the National Big Boy Association to participate in leadership. After Wian left, some Big Boy operators began to question the value of their franchise. [98] [99] [100]

Operation and history Edit

In addition to the Big Boy name, the "Big Boy" concept, menu, and mascot were originally licensed to a wide number of regional franchise holders (listed in the next section). Because many of the early franchisees were already in the restaurant business when joining Big Boy, "Big Boy" was added to the franchisee name just as the Big Boy hamburger was added to the franchisee's menu. In this sense it is confusing when referring to a chain, as each named franchisee was itself a chain and Big Boy could be considered a chain of chains. People tend to know Big Boy not simply as Big Boy but as the franchise from where they lived such as Bob's Big Boy in California, Shoney's Big Boy in the south or Frisch's Big Boy in much of Ohio, Marc's Big Boy in the Upper Midwest, among the many others.

Each regional franchisee typically operated a central commissary which prepared or processed foods and sauces to be shipped fresh to their restaurants. [9] [101] [102] [103] However, some items might be prepared at the restaurants daily, such as soups and breading of seafood and onion rings.

Through the 1950s and 1960s, the emphasis changed from drive-in restaurant to coffee shop and family restaurant. New franchisees without existing restaurants signed on. A larger standard menu was developed. Most adopted a common graphic design of menus and promotional items, offered by Big Boy but personalized to the franchise. Stock plans of restaurant designs were provided by Los Angeles architects Armet and Davis or Chicago architectural designer Robert O. Burton, and modified as needed.

In the 1960s, Big Boy and other drive-in restaurants could not compete with the spreading fast food restaurants such as McDonald's and Burger King. Big Boy built its last drive-in in 1964 and by 1976, only 5 of the chain's 930 restaurants offered curb service. [1] [104] Big Boy redefined itself as a full service restaurant in contrast to fast food. Nonetheless, in the late 1960s and 1970s, Bob's, Shoney's and JB's also opened Big Boy Jr. stores, designed as fast food operations which offered a limited menu. Sometimes called drive-ins, these junior stores did not use carhops. [105] [106] [107] In 1993, Marc's Big Boy similarly developed Big Boy Express stores using dual drive-thrus and no interior dining area. [108] Two Express stores were built, offered for sale a year later and closed in 1995. [109] [110]

Several franchises also held Kentucky Fried Chicken franchises and sold that chicken in their Big Boy restaurants these included Marc's, [111] McDowell's, [112] [113] Lendy's and one or more Shoney's subfranchises. The practice was discouraged and Big Boy eventually provided a similar scheme of selling buckets of take out chicken, marketed as Country Style [114] or Country Cousin Chicken. [115] Franchises who resisted the change were forced to remove Kentucky Fried Chicken menu items and physically relocate those operations. [113] However, Marriott sold "Pappy Parker Fried Chicken" in Bob's Big Boys [116] the Marriott owned brand was also sold in the company's Hot Shoppes and Roy Rogers Restaurants, [117] [118] and later Marriott Hotel Restaurants. [119]

Big Boy's origins as a drive-in restaurant, required a much smaller investment to open and much lower costs to operate: a small building having no dining room or limited counter space. Thus persons of modest assets could become Big Boy operators. It was the profits from these operations which allowed not only additional drive-ins, but operators to build modern restaurants with large pleasant dining rooms. Many of the early successful franchisees would probably not have assets (converted to present value) sufficient to join Big Boy today.

By 1979, there were more than a thousand Big Boy restaurants in the U.S. and Canada, and about 20 franchisees. Shoney's, Elias Brothers and Frisch's—charter franchisees—controlled the vast majority. [120] These mega franchisees paid practically no fees, e.g., Frisch paid $1 per year for its core four state territory. After Bob's, the four original franchisees (in order) were Frisch's, Eat'n Park, Shoney's (originally called "Parkette") and Elias Brothers, all clustered near the state of Ohio. All, including Bob's, remain in operation today, albeit Elias Brothers is simply known as Big Boy, and Eat'n Park and Shoney's dropped Big Boy affiliation in the 1970s and 1980s.

Big Boy developed named franchisees in several ways. Very quickly the Big Boy name and even the Big Boy character were being widely used without permission. Bob Wian, needing Big Boy restaurants operating in multiple states to maintain national (U.S.) trademark protection, offered very generous franchise agreements to Frisch's, Eat'n Park and Parkette (Shoney's). In 1952, Wian instituted a formal franchise process and Elias Brothers became the first such "official" franchisee paying Wian 1% of sales. Bob Wian also settled trademark infringements allowing the rogue operator to become a licensed franchisee, such as McDowell's Big Boy in North Dakota. [121] Franchisees were permitted to subfranchise these early subfranchisees often used their own name and operated independently: Frisch's licensed Azar's, and Manners Shoney's licensed Adler's, Arnold's, Becker's, Elby's, Lendy's, Shap's, Tune's, and Yoda's. [122] [123] (An eastern Pennsylvania Elby's franchisee briefly operated as Franklin's Big Boy before dropping Big Boy.)

Acquisitions and mergers also occurred. In the early 1970s, Frisch's acquired Kip's Big Boy JB's acquired Vip's, Kebo's, Leo's and Bud's which were rebranded JB's. Shoney's acquired the Missouri territory previously assigned to Tote's. After buying Big Boy, Elias Brothers bought Elby's and TJ's. Elby's was unique in leaving and rejoining the Big Boy system. When Marriott purchased Big Boy (Wian Enterprises) in 1967, this included Bob's Big Boy. The name "Bob's" would be used by all Marriott owned Big Boys and became common in parts of the eastern U.S. and elsewhere, far away from Bob's historic territory.

Frisch's now owns the "Big Boy" name in a defined four-state region and it's franchisee Azar's closed in 2020. Bob's is licensed Big Boy Restaurant Group. Many of the other former franchise owners (Shoney's, particularly) have expanded into the former territories of other franchise holders.

After buying the Big Boy system from Marriott, Elias Brothers planned to phase out franchise names, [124] only generally realized by Big Boy Restaurants International after 2000. [125] This was intended to strengthen the trademark but also prevent defections, such as happened with Shoney's Big Boy retaining identity as Shoney's. [126] [127] The same occurred with Eat'n Park, Elby's, Lendy's, JB's, and Abdow's who kept their names after leaving Big Boy. Big Boy now permits operators to informally identify by location such as Tawas Bay Big Boy in East Tawas, Michigan. [128]

Unlike most modern franchises, the historic Big Boy franchisees differed somewhat from one another in pricing and menus. After purchasing Big Boy in 1987, Elias Brothers intended to standardize the name and menu, but Bob's, Frisch's and McDowell's (now known as Bismarck Big Boy) continue to offer distinctions from the standard Big Boy menu. [129]

Franchising costs today Edit

Big Boy Restaurant Group and Frisch's Big Boy Restaurants both continue to offer franchises in their exclusive territories, each having 20 year terms. As of 2014, Big Boy Restaurant Group charges a $40,000 franchise fee, and an ongoing 4% royalty and up to 3% advertising fees based on weekly gross revenue. [130] [131] (In most of Michigan the franchisee pays a 2% advertising fee and must spend an additional 1% on local advertising. Franchisees in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan or outside of Michigan pay a ½% advertising fee and must spend 1½% on local advertising.) [132] As of 2020, Frisch's Big Boy charges a $40,000–$45,000 franchise fee, and an ongoing 4% royalty and 2½% advertising fees on gross revenue. [133] [note 13] The majority of Big Boy Restaurant Group units are franchised [130] while the majority of Frisch's units are currently company owned. [135] Big Boy Restaurant Group franchise agreements are not renewable but new agreements are required. [130]

Roster of named franchisees Edit

Big Boy restaurants were cobranded with at least 34 different names representing various franchisees. These franchisees are listed below with territories, time span, founders, comic book code (in brackets) and additional notes, as known:

  • Abdow's (Western and Central Massachusetts, Connecticut, 1963–1994, founded by George and Ron Abdow and their sister Phyllis Abdow-LaVallee) [136][137] Abdow's opened as a Hi-Boy franchisee in 1959, bought a Big Boy franchisee in 1963 and changed the corporate name to Abdow's Big Boy in 1965. [138] Abdow's left Big Boy in 1994 over menu conflicts with Elias Brothers and value served for the franchise fees, removing 18 restaurants from the national chain. [139][140] Now defunct, many converted to Elxsi Corporations's Bickfords Family Restaurants or remain vacant. [N]
  • Adler's (Lynchburg, Virginia, 1958–1960, founded by Abe Adler) [141] Became a Lendy's Big Boy, when Adler sold the business to Leonard Goldstein of Lendy's. [142]
  • Arnold's (Folsom, Pennsylvania, 1955–?, founders unknown) Arnold's and Tune's operated in the Philadelphia area. [143]
  • Azar's (Northern Indiana, Colorado, 1953-2020, [144][99][note 14] founded by brothers Alex, David and George Azar) Opened in Ft. Wayne, Indiana as a Frisch's subfranchise and in 1967 expanded to the Denver, Colorado market. Operated 26 units in 1984. [99] Alex Azar's son, George Azar, became CEO. [146] After closing during the COVID-19 pandemic, the last Azar's Big Boy closed permanently. [147][148] Alex Azar became a member of the Big Boy Board of Directors. [149] [T]
  • Becker's (Rochester and Buffalo, New York, 1956 [150] –1965, [151] founded by Abe Becker) Shoney's opened a restaurant in Rochester in the mid 1950s which may have become Becker's Big Boy. [122] By 1957, Becker's was operating four Big Boy restaurants in Greater Rochester. [152] Trying to expand too quickly created a financial crisis and the end of the franchise. [153]

Logos of historic Big Boy franchisees.

Franchisees were once required to use their own name with the Big Boy name and character. Some changed logos periodically and these show designs used while a Big Boy affiliate, most dating from the mid 1950s to the mid 1960s. Eat'n Park, Shoney's and JB's are no longer affiliated with Big Boy. Logos for Adler's, Arnold's, Bud's and Chez Chap were not available to the artist.

  • Bob's (California, Arizona, Nevada, Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, Oregon, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Vermont and Indiana, Ohio, Florida, New York and Pennsylvania toll roads and airport locations operated in several states by the Marriott Corp. or others, 1936+, founded by Robert C. "Bob" Wian) The original Big Boy chain, which in Wian's time was confined to Southern California, Arizona and Nevada. Because Marriott developed and acquired Big Boy restaurants elsewhere, principally the northeastern U.S., Bob's developed a more diverse territory and identity. Bob's in Nevada and Arizona were purchased by JB's Big Boy. [154] Currently, Bob's operates only five restaurants – all in Southern California. Bob's units are the only operators under the domain of the Big Boy Restaurant Group now permitted to use a franchise name for public identity. Wian was the original chairman of the Big Boy Board of Directors. [A]
  • Chez Chap (Westmount, a suburb of Montreal, Quebec, 1978–?, founded by Chapman Baehler) Baehler was Bob Wian's stepson. [156]
  • Don's (Burlington, Vermont, 1984, founded by Donald Allard) One of several chain restaurants operated by Allard. [157][158] Restaurant was rebranded as Bob's Big Boy about 1986, [159] and closed, with plans to construct a Red Lobster Restaurant on the site in 1991. [160] As of 2020, there has been an Olive Garden on that site for some years.
  • Eat'n Park (metro Pittsburgh, 1949–1975, [161] founded by Larry Hatch and William Peters) Hatch and Peters were supervisors at Isaly's in Pittsburgh. [162] On Isaly's business in Cincinnati, Hatch saw the success of the Frisch's Big Boy Drive-In prompting contact with founder Bob Wian, who needed national exposure to gain national trademark protection. [163] Within a year Eat'n Park opened as the second Big Boy franchisee. When the 25 year franchise agreement expired Eat'n Park dropped Big Boy, attributed to the loss of drive-in popularity but primarily motivated by the end of the $1 per year license fee the franchise had enjoyed. [164] Pittsburgh area Big Boy rights were reassigned to Elby's in 1977. [165] [D]
  • Elby's (Northern West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio, Maryland, [166] 1956–1984, 1988–2000, founded by brothers George, Ellis and Michael Boury) Named after a brand of flavoring syrup sold by the Bourys' restaurant supply business. [103] Originally acquired the Big Boy rights to northern West Virginia through Shoney's. [122][123][167] In 1960 Elby's expanded into Ohio, [168] licensed through Frisch's. Six years later, Bob Wian awarded Elby's franchisor rights to Pennsylvania, excluding the Pittsburgh and Philadelphia areas Pittsburgh was awarded Elby's in 1977. [165] When Frisch's refused existing terms on a fourth Ohio unit in 1971, [169] Elby's withdrew from Big Boy affiliation in Ohio, leading to a long running trademark battle by Frisch's. [170] In August 1984 Elby's dropped Big Boy entirely, four months after Shoney's—franchisor for Elby's West Virginia stores—broke affiliation. [99][167] Opened units in Maryland after leaving Big Boy. The Elby's name and most company restaurants were sold to Elias Brothers in 1988 becoming Big Boys again. (George and Michael Boury retained nine Ohio units that could not become Big Boys because of nearby Frisch's operations they were rebranded as Shoney's restaurants until placed for sale in 1993. [171] ) Although officially stripped of the Elby's name, identity was so strong that the Elby's name continued in print advertisements. [126][172] The last remaining Elby's closed in 2000 in response to the Elias Brothers financial crisis. [E]
  • Elias Brothers (Michigan, Northeastern Ohio, Ontario, Canada, 1952–2000, founded by Fred, John and Louis Elias) In 1938 the brothers opened Fred's Chili Bowl in Detroit and later the Dixie Drive-In in Hazel Park, which would become the first Elias Brothers Big Boy. Considered the "first official franchisee" because they were the first to formally apply to Bob Wian. [8] : 111 Worked with Wian, Schoenbaum and Manfred Bernhard to create the 1956 Big Boy character design and launch the comic book. Owned the Big Boy system from 1987 through 2000 when the bankrupt company was sold to Robert Liggett. Many Michigan units continue operations stripped of the Elias Brothers name and these are the vast majority (90%) of Big Boy Restaurant Group's Big Boy stores. Fred Elias became a member of the Big Boy Board of Directors. [149] [F]
  • Franklin's (Eastern Pennsylvania, 1966–1978, founded by Marvin and Joseph Franklin) Subfranchised by and originally operated as Elby's. [173] Franklin discontinued use of the Elby's name in 1976, but initially continued to operate as Big Boy Restaurants. [174][175][note 15] Opposing lawsuits were filed. In August 1978, a federal court cancelled Franklin's contracts with Elby's, awarded Elby's an undisclosed cash settlement and enjoined Franklin's from use of the "Elby's" and "Big Boy" names, food items, recipes and other materials. [179] Nonetheless, Franklin's renamed the "Big Boy" the "Big Ben" and adopted a Benjamin Franklin theme. [88] Elby's subsequently built new restaurants adjacent to several Franklin's units. [180][181] The 12 unit chain was sold to Hershey's Foods and Friendly's Restaurants in 1985. [182]
  • Frejlach's (Illinois, 1954–196?, founded by Irvin Frejlach) Added Big Boy to their established chain of ice cream shops. [29] Unlike other franchisees, the stores did not directly use the Big Boy name they remained Frejlach's Ice Cream Shoppes not Frejlach's Big Boy. [183] The company also owned rights to McDonald's restaurants in Cook County (Chicago), Illinois which were sold back to Ray Kroc in 1956. Irvin's brother Lucian "Lou" Frejlach became a member of the Big Boy Board of Directors. [149]
  • Frisch's (Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee Florida until the early 1990s, 1947+, founded by David Frisch) The Cincinnati restaurant chain and first franchisee, began serving Big Boy hamburgers in 1946, but opened their first Big Boy Drive-In restaurant in 1948 Frisch's now operates 96 Big Boys and franchises 25 Big Boys to others. Frisch's subfranchised to Azar's and Manners, which used the Frisch's styled Big Boy, to Milton and David Bennett in 1955, who operate as Frisch's in northwest Ohio and also licensed Elby's to operate three Big Boy units in the upper Ohio Valley until 1971. In 2001 Frisch's became the perpetual owner of the Big Boy trademark in most of Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana and Tennessee, and received $1.2 million to relinquish all other Big Boy territories to Big Boy Restaurants International, to whom Frisch's is no longer a franchisee or licensee. [184] On August 24, 2015, Frisch's was sold to an Atlanta-based private equity fund, ending family ownership and control of the chain. [21][167][185] [X]
  • JB's (Arizona, Utah, Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, Wyoming, Washington, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Nebraska, Kansas, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut [154] 1961–1988, founded by Jack M. Broberg.) The first JB's Big Boy opened in 1961 in Provo, Utah. In the 1970s JB's expanded by acquiring neighboring Big Boy franchisees: Vip's, Leo's, Kebo's and Bud's. After Marriott refused granting additional territory, in 1984, JB's sued to leave Big Boy. The parties settled, JB's paying $7 million in exchange for additional territory, including central and northern California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada and Arizona where it operated as Bob's Big Boy JB's also purchased 29 existing Bob's Big Boy restaurants from Marriott. [186][187] Citing a lack of benefit except use of the Big Boy symbol for its over $1 million annual franchise fees, in 1988 JB's allowed its Big Boy franchise to expire, removing 110 units from the Big Boy system. [188] As of December 2016, fifteen JB's Restaurants operate in five states. [189] [H]
  • JB's (Canada - Ontario, Alberta and Quebec, 1969–1979, founded by John Bitove, Sr.) Bitove, a well known Canadian businessman, was the franchisee for Canada generally, along with Roy Rogers Restaurants, both Marriott owned brands. JB's of Canada grew to 32 Big Boy restaurants before selling to Elias Brothers. [190]
  • Kebo's (Seattle and Tacoma, Washington area before JB's dba Bob's, ?–1974, founded by W. Keith Grant.) "Kebo" came from the owners, Keith, Ed and Bob. Two units were sold to JB's in 1974.
  • Ken's (Maryland, Washington DC, [191] 1963–?, founded by Bill Bemis) named in honor of Bill Bemis' father Ken Bemis, who founded the White Log Coffee Shop chain. [192][193] Three Maryland Ken's Big Boys operated in 1969. [191] "Ken's" became "Bob's" in the early 1970s. [K]
  • Kip's (Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, 1958–1991, founded Fred Bell, Thomas W. Holman and James Reed) Bell owned and operated Kip's of Texas, while Holman and Reed owned and operated Kip's of Oklahoma and Kansas. [194] Acquired by Frisch's in 1972. Kip's territory was transferred to Big Boy Restaurants International in 2001. Bell became an original member of the Big Boy Board of Directors. [B]
  • Lendy's (Western Virginia, 1955–1964, founded by Leonard Goldstein) Owned by Goldstein but operated as Shoney's 1955–1959. [123] Territory proximity to Yoda's angered Goldstein and concurrent franchise with Kentucky Fried Chicken antagonized franchisor Alex Schoenbaum, prompting Lendy's to leave Big Boy. [195][196] Renamed the "Big Boy" hamburger as the "Buddy Boy" and created a Buddy Boy mascot similar to Frisch's Big Boy character.
  • Leo's (Spokane, Washington, Montana, 1966–1971, founded by Leo A. Hansen, Jr. [197] ) The first Leo's Big Boy opened in Great Falls, Montana in 1966. Grew to four units before being acquired by and renamed JB's in 1971, Hansen becoming a vice-president of JB's Big Boy. [198]
  • Manners (Northeastern Ohio (Cleveland TV market), 1954–1979, founded by Robert L. and Ramona Manners) Franchisee through Frisch's, used the Frisch styled mascot design. Like Frisch's, Manners was already established having opened Manners Drive-In in 1939, 15 years before becoming a Big Boy franchisee. [199] Paid Frisch's $10 per month for each location. In 1968 Manners Big Boy was sold to Consolidated Foods (now known as Sara Lee Corporation). Marriott purchased the 39 units in 1974 and five years later dropped the name "Manners". [200] Marriott sold 26 remaining restaurants to Elias Brothers in 1985. [201] [W]
  • Marc's (Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, 1958–1995, founded by Ben Marcus and Gene Kilburg [72] ) Owned by the Marcus Corporation, Marc's Big Boy debuted in Milwaukee in November 1958. [202] The chain grew to 4 units by 1962, 22 units by 1970, [203] doubling this number within 4 years [204] and eventually operated as many as 64 Big Boys over a 4 state territory. [205][108] Among these, acquiring Illinois Top's Big Boy restaurants by 1974—rebranding those in Chicago suburbs Marc's. [206] In 1989, Marc's Big Boy Corporation was renamed Marc's Restaurants [207] and a two-year experiment launched completely removing Big Boy at two of its stores, the test demonstrating no effect on business. In 1992, the Marc's format was upscaled and renamed Marc's Big Boy Cafes [205] in 1993 13 Big Boy Cafes were converted to Marc's Cafe and Coffee Mills, and the company launched 2 Big Boy Express drive-thru stores. [108][note 16] The following year, the 13 Cafe and Coffee Mill restaurants were sold to a group of employees, with 3 remaining Big Boys and 2 Big Boy Express units offered for sale. [109] In 1995, the company closed its last Big Boy operation. [110] Some former units later operated as Annie's American Cafe and as Perkins Restaurants. However, in 2017 the Marcus Corporation sold Big Boy hamburgers at the [email protected] restaurant in its downtown Milwaukee hotel [205][208] in March 2017, the sandwich is priced at $11 on the lunch menu [209] and $12 on the dinner menu both served with fries. [210] [J] Now known as Aria Café and Bar at Saint Kate hotel, as of 2019 the Big Boy goes for $15. [211] [J]
  • Mark's (Hyattsville, Maryland, 1960 [212] –1962? [213] ) A single unit existed at 3050 East-West Parkway, Hyattsville, which was a Ken's Big Boy in 1964. [213][191]
  • McDowell's (North Dakota, 1954–1960 independently as "Big Boy Drive-Inn", 1960+ as franchise, founded by Harley McDowell) A trademark infringement suit against McDowell was filed by Wian in 1959 ultimately resulting in a franchise agreement. [121] Operates exclusively as a drive through. McDowell's name was dropped and the remaining store is now called the Bismarck Big Boy. Along with Big Boy hamburgers, the single restaurant sells flying pizza-burgers and french fries by the pound with chicken gravy. [L]
  • Mr. B's (New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, [214] 1963–1969, [215] founded by Manfred Bernhard) [8] : 75 [216] Operated a restaurant in Keene, New Hampshire and Brattleboro, Vermont.
  • Shap's (Chattanooga, Tennessee, 1959–1964?, founded by I. Shapiro, Pem Cooley, and E. D. Latimer) Franchised by Shoney's. Shap's was abbreviated for Shapiro's. Operated two small units in Chattanooga. Latimer bought out the other partners and changed the name to its franchisor's, Shoney's. [217]
  • Shoney's/Parkette (Tennessee, Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, Georgia, Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, West Virginia, Maryland, Missouri, New York, Philadelphia, PA, 1952–1984, [note 17] founded by Alex Schoenbaum), Originally called the Parkette, in 1952 it became Parkette Big Boy Shoppes. An unrelated "Parkette Drive-In" had opened in Kentucky [218] so in 1954, a public contest for a new name resulted in Parkette becoming Shoney's, which was also a reference to founder Alex "Shoney" Schoenbaum. [219] Shoney's also subfranchised to Arnold's, Becker's, Elby's, [167] Lendy's, Shap's, Tune's, and Yoda's., [122][123] and many using the Shoney's name. Ray Danner, the Nashville Shoney's franchisee purchased the company in 1971 and five years later dropped Big Boy from the company name. [220][note 18] In April 1984 Shoney's Inc.—by then the largest Big Boy franchisee with 392 units—paid $13 million to break its contract with Big Boy, allowing expansion into Frisch's and other franchisees' Big Boy territories. [99][221] Schoenbaum became a member of the Big Boy Board of Directors. [149] [M][P]
  • Ted's (Rhode Island, Eastern Massachusetts) Massachusetts was divided between Ted's Big Boy in the east and Abdow's Big Boy in the west, corresponding to the division of Rhode Island and Connecticut between the two franchises.
  • TJ's (Rochester, Batavia and Syracuse, New York, 1972–?, founded by Anthony T. Kolinski, John Gazda and John Giamartino) [222] Grew to 9 stores by 1986. [223] TJ's was purchased by Big Boy (Elias Brothers). Elias closed 4 stores in 1992 [224] and sold one Syracuse store to a local investor. It closed 3 more Syracuse restaurants in 1994. [225][226]
  • Tops (Illinois, 1956–1993, founded by Lucian Frejlach [227] ) Operated primarily in the suburbs of Chicago. [228] By 1974, the Chicago area stores became Marc's Big Boys, while the central Illinois units remained Tops. [206] [Q]
  • Tote's (Missouri, 1964–197?, founded by Edward R. Todtenbier) [229][230] Todtenbier was a Frisch's franchisee in Anderson, Indiana, and planned to open 33 Tote's Big Boys in Missouri, 9 in the St. Louis area. [231] In 1972 the Missouri Big Boy territory was reassigned to Shoney's. [232] [U]
  • Tune's (Philadelphia and Levittown, Pennsylvania, 1956–1963, [233][234][235] founded by Jack Engel [236] ) In the mid to late 1950s Alex Schoenbaum seeded various franchises including Tune's. [122][237] Two drive-in restaurants opened. [238] By the early 1960s, the Levittown unit closed [239] and the other was rebranded as Shoney's.
  • Vip's (New Mexico, Texas, [240] Wyoming, [241] 1962–1982. founded by Daniel T. Hogan and James O'Conner [242] ) Vip's refers to two distinct restaurant chains. The Big Boy franchisee relevant here, Vip's Big Boy of New Mexico, was acquired by JB's Big Boy in 1972 but continued using the Vip's name until rebranded in 1982. [243][244][154] The other, Vip's Restaurants of Salem, Oregon, was not a Big Boy franchisee but sold units to JB's Big Boy, which operated them as Bob's Big Boy. [186] The non-Big Boy, Salem-based chain had 53 locations at its peak, all sold and rebranded, including 35 to Denny's in 1982 and 16 to JB's in 1984. [245]
  • Yoda's (Western Virginia, founded by Jack Young and Bill Schroeder) Young was Leonard Goldstein's (Lendy's) brother-in-law. Merged with Lendy's. [196][123]

Outside the United States Edit

Mady's Big Boy of Windsor, Ontario, was not a franchisee, though sometimes identified as one and using a similar looking mascot. [246] In 1965 Bob Wian sued Mady's for trademark infringement but failed because (his) Big Boy was judged not widely known in Canada. The case is considered important in Canadian and international trademark law. [247] In 1973 Elias Brothers bought Mady's and established an Elias Big Boy on Mady's original site. [248] John Bitove, Sr. owned the rights to Big Boy for the remainder of Canada, which he sold to Elias Brothers in 1979. [190] During the mid to late 1980's there was one in Nassau, Bahamas.

Outside of North America, Big Boy Japan owns and operates 274 Big Boy Hamburger Steak & Grill Restaurants in Japan. Founded in 1977, Big Boy Japan now also operates 45 Victoria Station restaurants in Japan and is a subsidiary of Zénsho Holdings Co., Ltd. [3] [22] [249] The Japanese Big Boy Restaurants do not offer the Big Boy hamburger or most other American Big Boy menu items, offering a distinct menu instead. [250] They also offer beer and wine. [250] Zensho had purchased Big Boy Japan from the ailing Daiei in 2002 for 8.65 billion yen. [251] [252]

Big Boy also operated (or planned to open) restaurants in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Brazil, the Philippines and Thailand. [253]

Big Boy Restaurants International Edit

The Michigan-based owner of the Big Boy chain, which chiefly franchises previous Elias Brothers Big Boy restaurants in Michigan, has suffered a gradual loss of franchised restaurants. About 175 Big Boys existed in July 2006, [254] compared to 76 in July 2019.

On April 16, 2017, the last Big Boy restaurant in the city of Detroit closed. [255] The Big Boy in Fenton, Michigan, was expected to close in 2017. [256] Both properties have been sold to developers. Likewise, in 2016, the Jackson, Michigan, Big Boy closed after the site was purchased by a developer. [257]

Other franchisees are simply leaving the Big Boy chain. In April 2017, the Danville Big Boy, the only unit in Illinois, dropped Big Boy and will operate as the Border Cafe. [258] In 2016 both the Ann Arbor, Michigan, restaurant (on North Zeeb Road) [259] and the restaurant in Houghton Lake, Michigan continued to operate but not as Big Boy restaurants. [257] The Tecumseh [260] and Alma, Michigan [13] restaurants announced they will allow their franchise agreements to expire on November 1, 2017 and early 2018, respectively, and both will continue to operate independently. The Marine City, Michigan Big Boy closed in February 2018, to reopen independently by a new owner. [14] However, in the same month, Big Boy added a new franchisee, an existing restaurant reopening as a Big Boy, in Woodhaven, Michigan. [15] In April 2018, the Coldwater, Michigan location closed, media sources noting multiple health code violations and poor customer reviews. [261] [16]

Company-owned restaurants have also closed for under-performance. [262] [263] [264]

Big Boy Restaurants International tried a new fast casual concept known as Big Boy's Burgers and Shakes in Mayfield Heights, Ohio. [265] [256] The restaurant was closed in 2019.

In November 2020, the Big Boy restaurant in Sandusky, Michigan was stripped of its franchise when it refused to comply with Michigan's COVID-19 restrictions. It now operates as Sandusky Family Diner. [266] [267]

Manners and Southern History

The concept of southern manners may evoke images of debutantes being introduced to provincial society or it might conjure thoughts of the humiliating behavior white supremacists expected of African Americans under Jim Crow. The essays in Manners and Southern History analyze these topics and more. Scholars here investigate the myriad ways in which southerners from the Civil War through the civil rights movement understood manners.

Contributors write about race, gender, power, and change. Essays analyze the ways southern white women worried about how to manage anger during the Civil War, the complexities of trying to enforce certain codes of behavior under segregation, and the controversy of college women's dating lives in the raucous 1920s. Writers study the background and meaning of Mardi Gras parades and debutante balls, the selective enforcement of antimiscegenation laws, and arguments over the form that opposition to desegregation should take. Concluding essays by Jane Dailey and John F. Kasson summarize and critique the other articles and offer a broader picture of the role that manners played in the social history of the South.

Essays by Catherine Clinton, Joseph Crespino, Jane Dailey, Lisa Lindquist Dorr, Anya Jabour, John F. Kasson, Jennifer Ritterhouse, and Charles F. Robinson II

Ted Ownby teaches history and southern studies at the University of Mississippi.

Manners History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

When the ancestors of the Manners family emigrated to England following the Norman Conquest in 1066 they brought their family name with them. They lived in Mesnieres a small village in France near Roen and was "granted probably temp. Rollo (c. 846-c.932) to Mainer, a Viking ancestor. It was held as half a knight's fee temp. Philip Augustus by the Abbey of Lyre. The family of Mesnieres long continued in Normandy, Ralph and Roger de Mesieres being mentioned 1198 and William de Mesieres in 1232, whose descendants continued to be of consequence till c. 1400 when the male line ceased." [1] Another source confirms the probably Norman ancestry: "From Menoir, and that from the Latin Manere, to stay or to abide. Lands granted to some military man or Baron by the king, a custom brought in by the Normans." [2]

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Early Origins of the Manners family

The surname Manners was first found in Northumberland where Sir Robert Manners was one of the first on record, when he held land in Northumberland in 1165, and it is suggested that the village Mannor near Lanchester in neighboring Durham was named from the family. "According to Camden and other antiquaries, this noble family had their denomination from the village of Mannor, near Lanchester, co. Durham. They were certainly influential in the northern counties, and Collins traces the name to a William de Manner, who flourished temp. William Rufus. The pedigree is deduced by him from Sir Robert de Manners, lord of Etal in Northumberland, several generations anterior to the reign of Henry III." [3] The first Sir Robert de Manners born (c. 1038) was probably born in Ethdale, Northumberland. He is the progenitor of a long list of sons with the same name.

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Early History of the Manners family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Manners research. Another 157 words (11 lines of text) covering the years 1327, 1340, 1324, 1525, 1488, 1543, 1525, 1559, 1588, 1587, 1588, 1604, 1679, 1640, 1641, 1638, 1711, 1703, 1676, 1721, 1696, 1779, 1697 and 1772 are included under the topic Early Manners History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Manners Spelling Variations

The English language only became standardized in the last few centuries. For that reason, spelling variations are common among many Anglo-Norman names. The shape of the English language was frequently changed with the introduction of elements of Norman French, Latin, and other European languages even the spelling of literate people's names were subsequently modified. Manners has been recorded under many different variations, including Manners, Maners, Manner and others.

Early Notables of the Manners family (pre 1700)

Outstanding amongst the family at this time was Thomas Manners (c.1488-1543), son of the 12th Baron de Ros of Hamlake, who was created Earl of Rutland in 1525 - this was the second creation of this title, which has remained with the Manners, ever since John Manners (c.1559-1588), the 4th Earl of Rutland and.
Another 54 words (4 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Manners Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Manners migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Manners Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Joseph Manners who settled in Virginia in 1635
  • Jos Manners, who arrived in Virginia in 1635 [4]
  • George Manners, who arrived in Maryland in 1646 [4]
  • Mrs. George Manners, who landed in Maryland in 1649 [4]
  • Rebecca Manners, who landed in Maryland in 1649 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Manners Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • William Manners, who arrived in New York in 1838 [4]
  • Patrick Manners, who settled in Boston in 1847
  • H Manners, who arrived in San Francisco, California in 1851 [4]
  • D W Manners, who landed in San Francisco, California in 1851 [4]
  • Frederick Manners, who settled in Philadelphia in 1864
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Manners Settlers in United States in the 20th Century
  • Geo. E.J. Manners, aged 43, who immigrated to the United States from London, in 1903
  • Francis Manners, aged 27, who immigrated to the United States from London, England, in 1910
  • Frederick Manners, aged 30, who settled in America from Birmingham, England, in 1910
  • Jacob F. Manners, aged 38, who landed in America, in 1912
  • Gral Manners, aged 28, who landed in America from London, England, in 1914
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Manners migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Manners Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • James Manners, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • James Manners, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750

Manners migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Manners Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • John Manners, aged 34, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Duke Of Wellington" in 1849 [5]
  • Hannah Manners, aged 38, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Duke Of Wellington" in 1849 [5]
  • Henry Manners, aged 32, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Marion" in 1849 [6]
  • Anne Manners, aged 40, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Marion" in 1849 [6]
  • Henry Manners, aged 12, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Marion" in 1849 [6]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Manners migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Manners Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • Mr. John Manners, British settler travelling from Liverpool aboard the ship "Tornado" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 26th September 1859 [7]
  • Mrs. Eliza Manners, British settler travelling from Liverpool aboard the ship "Tornado" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 26th September 1859 [7]
  • Mr. George Manners, British settler travelling from Liverpool aboard the ship "Tornado" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 26th September 1859 [7]
  • Miss Eliza Manners, British settler travelling from Liverpool aboard the ship "Tornado" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 26th September 1859 [7]
  • Mr. Hedley Manners, British settler travelling from Liverpool aboard the ship "Tornado" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 26th September 1859 [7]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Manners (post 1700) +

  • John Errol Manners DSC (1914-2020), English first-class cricketer and Royal Navy officer from Exeter, Devon
  • Sarah Manners (b. 1975), English actress
  • Russell Henry Manners (1800-1870), English Admiral and astronomer
  • Lady Diana Olivia Winifred Maud Manners (1892-1986), also known as Lady Diana Cooper, English socialite and actress
  • George Phillips Manners (1789-1866), English City Architect of Bath
  • Lord George John Manners (1820-1874), British nobleman
  • Lord Robert Manners (1758-1782), Royal Navy officer
  • General John Manners PC (1721-1770), Marquess of Granby, British soldier
  • John Hartley Manners (1870-1928), British playwright
  • David Manners (1900-1998), Born Rauff de Ryther Daun Acklom, Canadian film actor
  • . (Another 3 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Related Stories +

The Manners Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Pour y parvenir
Motto Translation: To accomplish it

The Weirdest Etiquette Advice From the Past 100 Years

From please and thank you to knowing which fork to use at a dinner party, manners are important. But back when etiquette reigned supreme, there were more than a few dos and don'ts that now seem utterly insane. From women wearing their hair to the *right* way to how to behave at a wedding, we're breaking down the weirdest etiquette advice from the past 100 years.

The British manual, The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook of Etiquette for Ladies and Gentlemen, says that a proper lady should only accept one glass of champagne &mdash anything more or less would be improper.

A woman was expected to look fresh, polished, and composed for her husband at all times. In Victorian terms, that meant her hair must be worn up, except when in the privacy of her bed chamber.

When crossing the street, it was expected that a lady would carry her dress in her right hand, lifted outward to the right. This method ensured that only the appropriate amount of ankle was exposed.

The Victorian rules around courting were especially bizarre, but none more than the era's gift etiquette between a couple. A woman could only give a man a gift if he gives her one first &mdash and even then women should only reciprocate with inexpensive or handmade gifts.

Victorians found it incredibly rude to ask a direct question. Instead of asking someone, "How are you doing?" a polite person would reword the question to something along the lines of "I hope you're doing well."

One of the many rules a child was expected to follow in the age of being seen and not heard is to keep your opinions to yourself. It was considered disagreeable for a child to contradict anyone, for ANY reason.

Calling cards were used in the Victoria era to let a friend or family member know you visited them while they weren't home. Of course, these cards came with myriad rules to follow, including that it was primarily the woman's job to leave the cards.

Experts advised parents to not be overly affectionate with their babies, even going as far as recommending parents not play with them until they're four to six months old, so as not to spoil them.

The purity of thoughts was a big thing during the Victorian era, but even in 1910 parenting experts lead mothers to believe that it was their ugly thoughts that lead to conditions like colic &mdash and an old wives tale said that refraining from said thoughts would lead to a beautiful baby.

It wasn't necessary to RSVP to an invitation, but couples who held ceremonies in the city WOULD send out cards that gained guests admittance to the church on their big day.

Even well into the 1920s, parenting experts like John Watson told parents to never hug or kiss their child and to leave them in their crib as much as possible if they didn't want them to be spoiled. This was meant to build strong character in the child, Watson wrote in Psychological Care of the Infant and Child.

Primarily due to safety concerns, it became improper for a pregnant woman to travel during her expecting months at all, even by car.

A few handy tips for college-bound women were shared in a 1938 issue of Mademoiselle, like h ave your mom send flowers to your dorm room so that your male peers will think you are in demand. The magazine also suggested turning off the lights in your room at night so that people will think you aren't at home &hellip even if you are.

It was recommended for women to put in at least 100 strokes a night, for a "shining halo," and keep brushing "until your scalp tingles," according to the 1944 etiquette book, Future Perfect: A Guide to Personality and Popularity for the Junior Miss.

According to Vogue's 1948 Book of Etiquette, the ability to have more than a few drinks was not a good thing back in the day. As the book claims, "She can certainly hold her liquor is not a compliment." So does that mean a woman should refrain from drinking or should she just hide how much she's actually drinking from those around her?

Separating the salt from the pepper is a big etiquette no-no. Instead, one should pass the two spices as a couple, even if the person asked for just one.

The phone was a relatively new form of technology in the 1940s. According to expert Bernice Morgan Bryant, proper phone etiquette meant speaking clearly into the phone and adding a smile (even though they can't see you). People should also "never bark into the phone" with phrases like "Who is it?" or "Whadja want?"

It was typical for men to help women into the car, put on their coat, and even order a woman's meal when at a restaurant. We don't call that chivalry, it sounds more like over controlling.

In a house without a maid (gasp), guests should look to the host to serve the meat, and then pass along each plate to the guest seated to their right until everyone is served, according to Emily Post.

Traditionally, the vegetable was known in British society as finger food. However, in Emily Post's 1975 revision of her etiquette book, she suggests cutting your stalk in half before picking it up to avoid, "the ungraceful appearance of a bent stalk of asparagus falling limply into someone's mouth and the fact that moisture is also likely to drip from the end."

According to a film on table manners made by the Emily Post Institute, which features Emily herself, she says croutons are to be sprinkled onto soup, while crackers are meant to be crumbled. Oh, and crackers are only meant to be served with dishes like Clam Chowder or Oyster Stew.

Yes, even salads required strict guidelines. "Try first to cut your salad with your fork. If you find it difficult, calmly pick up your knife and use it," advises Bernice Morgan Bryant in her 1944 etiquette book.

We all know it's impolite to speak with food in your mouth, but Emily Post's advice in this 1947 video is to avoid all conversation and drinks while eating&mdashwhich seems a bit much if you ask us.

When a man escorted a woman in medieval times, it was on his left arm so that if danger arose his sword arm (right arm) would be free for combat. Although this sounds outdated, it's still considered proper etiquette today and was very closely followed in the 1950s.

It is considered impolite to leave an invitation, especially for a date, up in the air. The proper response was to let the person know right then and there if you can attend or not, which definitely would not fly today in today's world of text invites.

It was unheard of and impolite for a woman to offer money while on a date. The most important piece of dating etiquette during this time was that the man always paid the bill.

The Sears Discovery Charm School was busy turning young girls into refined ladies in the '60s and '70s, teaching them subjects like Exercise/Diet, Voice/Speech, Modeling, Skin Care/Grooming, Make-up, Fashion, and Manners, according to a pamphlet from the school.

It would be considered improper to struggle with a mouthful of food. Any of the table manner etiquette books from the 1950s would tell you to only take one mouthful of food on your fork at a time.

A strong handshake was especially important in the 1960s amongst businessmen. But what is "proper," you ask? Best to keep it elbow level, equal distance apart, firm, and fast.

In the 1960s, practically everyone smoked cigarettes. If you were a man who didn't, odds are you still carried them with you, because that was the gentlemanly thing to do. Everyone had their go-to brand and if a woman was lighting up beside you, it was considered rude not to lend her a light.


Proper codes of behavior have been a concern for thousands of years. The first known book on appropriate behavior was a guide that Ptah-hotep, a government official in Egypt in 2500 b.c., wrote for his son. Several Greeks and Romans wrote behavior guides, including Aristotle, Horace, Cicero, and Plutarch. In thirteenth-century Europe, the chivalric code established precisely and minutely the proper behavior for knights regarding the Christian church, their country, and the treatment of women. During the reign of Louis XIV (1638–1715) in France, the term "etiquette" came into use. Based on the French word "ticket," which denoted the proper paths for nobility to follow in the gardens of the palace of Versailles, the rules of etiquette came to provide a daily, very precise list of functions related to times, places, and proper dress and behavior. Thus, proper etiquette came to be associated with the upper classes and those trying to emulate their behavior.

Nevertheless, proper manners were a concern even of leaders in the more democratic society of eighteenth-century America. At age fourteen, George Washington transcribed his own "Rules of Civility." William Penn published collections of maxims on personal and social conduct. Benjamin Franklin's very popular Poor Richard's Almanac was full of comments on proper behavior. During the nineteenth century, hundreds of books on etiquette were published in the United States. These were designed for the common person and schoolchildren as well as the upper classes. One of the most popular, which has survived to the twenty-first century, is the Youth's Educator for Home and Society, published in 1896, which covered a wide variety of situations, including the usual—parties, traveling, weddings, parents and children, letter writing, and personal hygiene—but also, cycling.

As society has changed, so have rules for proper behavior. After World War I (1914–1918), society became more open as roles of women began to change. Many believed that proper manners would become less important. In 1922, Emily Post published the most popular book on etiquette for society, business, politics, and home and family. Her book became the model for thousands of others since then. The sixteenth edition of Etiquette was published in 1997. Instead of decrying the lack of etiquette among Americans, Post applauded their youthful enthusiasm and sought only to refine it. She claimed that improvements in taste in home decoration were evidence of progress. She also pointed out other examples of improvements for instance, unlike earlier times, weddings no longer had to be set by noon for fear that the bridegroom would no longer be sober after that hour.

There are still many writers on etiquette and manners. Some of the most popular include Miss Manners, or Judith Martin, who presents her comments in several types of media Letitia Baldridge, who was particularly influential during the late 1900s Sue Fox, who joined the "dummies" series with her Etiquette for Dummies (1999) and Emily Post's great granddaughter-in-law, Peggy Post.

15 Delectable Table Manners From History

The next time you visit the past, follow these rules to avoid a dinner party faux pas.


1. Napkins haven’t been invented yet, so wipe your greasy hands with a piece of bread called apomagdalia. When you’re finished, throw it—along with any other scraps—on the floor for the dogs.

2. Don’t butter that roll! The Greeks considered consuming butter and milk barbaric. The poet Anaxandrides dissed the Thracians up north by calling them “butter-eaters.”


3. Before and after a meal, rub your hands in the sand outside your tent.

4. If bread falls to the floor, call the five-second rule: Pick it up, kiss it, raise it to your forehead. (The same practice applies in many other Arab cultures.)

5. After finishing coffee, shake the cup. If not, your host will just pour you more.


6. Forks won’t appear for centuries, so shovel your food down with a sharp knife.

7. When the drinking horn is passed, it’s rude to decline unless you’re old or sick.


8. Before carving into a piece of meat in France, take a moment and swear at it.

9. Erasmus of Rotterdam writes, “If it is possible to withdraw, [farting] should be done alone. But if not. let a cough hide the sound.”

10. Be polite! Toss chewed bones onto the floor. Just remember to look over your shoulder first.


11. Eat with your hands, but keep your pinkie and ring finger clean.

12. Don’t excuse yourself to go to the restroom. Just use a chamber pot at the table.

13. It’s rude to refuse food at a feast, so free up some room by shoving a feather down your throat to puke. (Seneca hated this, writing, “They vomit to eat and eat to vomit.”)


14. Don’t clink glasses! When Austria stopped the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Austrian army supposedly celebrated by bringing glasses together. Bitter Hungarians pledged not to clink drinks for another 150 years. Today, it’s still impolite.

15. Drink from a shoe. Grooms celebrate nuptials by sipping a toast from his bride’s wedding slipper.

Victorian Era Etiquette and Manners

There were countless rules of social manners and etiquette during the Victorian Era (1837-1901), though they now may seem a bit old-fashioned.

To guide the uninitiated, Thomas E. Hill compiled a list of dos and don’ts in his Manual of Social and Business Forms, first published in 1875. Here are some of our favorite practices of social etiquette from the Victorian Era. (Note: Requires a sense of humor!)

Hygiene Etiquette

Bathing: “Upon arising, take a complete bath. A simple washing out of the eyes is not sufficient. The complete bathing of the body once each day is of the utmost importance. Not more than a quart of water is necessary, preferably rainwater.”

Hair: “The head should be washed occasionally with soap and water. When the hair is inclined to be harsh and dry, a moderate application of bear’s grease or other dressing should be used.”

Skin: “Beware of exterior applications of cosmetics. Instead, once every two or three months, take a teaspoonful of powdered charcoal mixed with sweetened water or milk. This will prove efficacious in making the complexion clear and transparent.”

Kissing: “Upon the meeting of intimate friends, among ladies, at the private house, the kiss as a mode of salutation is yet common but this is a custom which ought to be abolished for physiological and other reasons.”

Social Etiquette and Manners

Bowing: “A gentleman should not bow from a window to a lady on the street, though he may bow slightly from the street upon being recognized by a lady in a window. Such recognition should, however, generally be avoided, as gossip is likely to attach undue importance to it when seen by others.”

Dignity: “To greet someone by saying ‘Hello, old fellow’ indicates ill-breeding. If you are approached in this vulgar manner, it is better to give a civil reply and address the person respectfully, in which case he is quite likely to be ashamed of his own conduct.”

Small talk: “No topic of absorbing interest may be admitted to polite conversation. It might lead to discussion.”

Conduct to avoid at the ball: “No gentleman should enter the ladies’ dressing room at a ball.”

Card-playing: “If possible, do not violate the rules of the game and do not cheat. Should you observe anyone cheating, quietly and very politely call it to his attention, and be careful that you do not get excited. People who experience ill-feeling at the game should avoid playing.”

Marriage: “Anyone with bright red hair and a florid complexion should marry someone with jet-black hair. The very corpulent should marry the thin and spare, and the body, wiry, cold-blooded should marry the round-featured, warmhearted, emotional type.”

Husbands: “Always leave home with a tender goodbye and loving words. They may be the last.”

Train travel: “People with weak eyes should avoid reading on trains, and those with weak lungs should avoid talking.”

Street etiquette: “When crossing the pavement, a lady should raise her dress with the right hand, a little about the ankle. To raise the dress with both hands is vulgar and can only be excused when mud is very deep.”

Want more folklore? Check out 100 Ways to Avoid Dying or learn some Herbal Folklore!

Do you know of any other Victorian Era traditions or etiquette? Let us know in the comments!

John Daly: What Is Etiquette and Where Did It Originate?

I am always amazed at how interested my students are to learn about the origin of etiquette. This came up in a class the other day when one of my students suggested, &ldquoI bet most people don&rsquot know about how etiquette evolved. You should tell them in your Noozhawk column.&rdquo I thought, &ldquoWhy not?&rdquo So, here&rsquos how it all began.

It shouldn&rsquot surprise you that the French started it all! Today&rsquos etiquette began in the French royal courts in the 1600s and 1700s. Etiquette used to mean &ldquokeep off the grass.&rdquo When Louis XIV&rsquos gardener at Versailles discovered that the aristocrats were trampling through his garden, he put up signs, or &ldquoetiquets,&rdquo to warn them off, but the dukes and duchesses walked right past the signs. Finally, the king himself had to decree that no one was to go beyond the bounds of the etiquets. Gradually, the meaning of etiquette was expanded to include the ticket to court functions that listed the rules of where to stand and what to do. Like language, etiquette evolved, but in a sense it still means &ldquokeep off the grass.&rdquo We watch for people to stay within certain bounds.

Before that, the first known etiquette book was written in 2400 B.C. by Ptahhotep. It reads as if it were prepared as advice for young Egyptian men climbing the social ladder of the day. One piece of advice was, &ldquoWhen sitting with one&rsquos superior, laugh when he laughs.&rdquo Good manners have been around for a long time!

Even when people ate everything with their fingers, there were right and wrong ways to do it. Since ancient Rome, a lower-class person has grabbed food with all five fingers while one of breeding has used only three, leaving the ring and little finger out of it. Thus, the raised pinkie as a sign of elitism was born. We do not, however, dare raise our pinkies today because this is a sign of pretentiousness and a sure indicator to the well-bred that one does not know the right way to eat, or worse yet, is a shameless social climber.

According to Esther B. Aresty&rsquos The Best Behavior, one of the earliest writers on civility was a &ldquoFriulian Italian,&rdquo Tommasino di Cerclaria, known for his work A Treatise on Courtesy, c 1200. He did some moralizing but did so lightly and deftly. For di Cerclaria, carrying tales, betraying secrets and vainglorious boasting were faults that bordered on sin. Pushing ahead of others in a crowd was also evidence of poor breeding.

Around 1290, a Milanese monk, Bonvicino da Riva, wrote what is probably the first book dealing solely with table etiquette, Fifty Courtesies of the Table. Many of Bonvicino&rsquos rules were as elementary as those taught to little children today: do not loll at the table do not gulp food and liquid in one mouthful turn the head when coughing or sneezing do not lick one&rsquos fingers clean of food or pick the teeth with the fingers do not stare at others&rsquo plates and do not talk with a mouthful of food. Some of the monk&rsquos rules were timeless and enduring.
American etiquette grew from these origins. Based on consideration for others, they still apply today.

Would you believe that the first actual record of American etiquette was George Washington&rsquos Rules of Civility? That&rsquos right, straight from the &ldquoFather of our Country.&rdquo Later, in 1922, Emily Post published Etiquette&mdashIn Society, In Business, In Politics and At Home. Post, a self-proclaimed debutante-turned-writer/publisher, became a best-selling author and paved the way for others to preach good manners. She was followed by Amy Vanderbilt, who proclaimed herself &ldquoa journalist in the field of etiquette.&rdquo Vanderbilt wrote The Amy Vanderbilt Complete Guide to Etiquette.

Peggy Post, Emily&rsquos great-granddaughter, has followed in Granny&rsquos footsteps with The Etiquette Advantage in Business: Personal Skills for Professional Success. She also dispenses her rules of good behavior over the Internet.

Etiquette has expanded beyond society today. Many big businesses staff etiquette trainers to teach good manners to their executives. They teach everything from how to dress, how to act, how to eat and how to converse to writing good business letters. With globalization, executives are also being trained in respecting cultural differences to enhance their success rate in foreign markets.

With the number of etiquette books and coaches available, there&rsquos no excuse for not learning how to make other people feel comfortable and respected. But, you know the saying, &ldquoYou can drag a horse to water, but you can&rsquot make him drink.&rdquo In order for you to drink in good manners, you have to realize what&rsquos in it for you. If being successful in business, with people and in your life is part of your plan, then please start drinking in the information available to you to help you live your dreams.

&mdash John Daly is the founder and president of The Key Class, the go-to guide for job search success. Click here to learn more about The Key Class, get more information on Thursday night classes in Santa Barbara, or to get his book. Connect with The Key Class on Facebook. Follow John Daly on Twitter: @johndalyjr. Click here for previous columns. The opinions expressed are his own.


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