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Henry Tate

Henry Tate

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Henry Tate, the son of a clergyman was born in Chorley, Lancashire in 1819. When he was thirteen he moved to Liverpool and soon afterwards became an apprentice to a grocer. An ambitious young man, Tate owned his own shop by the time he was twenty. Over the next fifteen years he accumulated five more shops.

In 1859 Tate sold his shops and became a partner in a sugar refining company. Ten years later he obtained total control and changed the name of the company to Henry Tate & Sons. In 1872 Tate patented a new method of cutting sugar cubes. He built a new sugar refinery in Liverpool and over the next few years his business expanded very quickly. Tate gave generously to charity. He founded theUniversity Library at Liverpool and gave the nation the Tate Gallery, which was opened in 1897, and contained his own private collection of paintings. Henry Tate died in 1899.

Henry Tandey

Henry Tandey VC, DCM, MM (born Tandy, 30 August 1891 – 20 December 1977) was a British recipient of the Victoria Cross, [note 1] the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the most highly decorated British private of the First World War and is most commonly remembered as the soldier who supposedly spared Adolf Hitler's life during the war. Born with the family name of Tandy, he later changed his surname to Tandey after problems with his father, [3] [ vague ] therefore some military records have a different spelling of his name.


The H. T. Hackney Company is rooted in a feed and grain business established by Henry Tate Hackney and W. C. Everett in 1887, which operated out of a stall on Market Square in Knoxville. [2] [7] In 1891, Hackney bought Everett's stake, and overhauled the company into a full-scale jobbing house. [2] The company thrived during the 1890s amidst Knoxville's late-19th century economic boom, which saw the city's wholesaling sector grow to become the third largest in the South. H. T. Hackney was just one of more than 50 wholesaling companies operating in the city during this period. [8]

The H. T. Hackney Company incorporated on October 1, 1897. [2] Following Henry Tate Hackney's death in 1899, his brother-in-law, Benjamin Morton (1875–1952), became president of the company. [2] In 1905, H. T. Hackney merged with a powerful Knoxville wholesaler, M. L. Ross and Company, which was then under control of William Cary Ross, the son of M. L. Ross and a friend of Morton. [8] In subsequent years, Morton, Ross, and iron manufacturer Hugh Sanford formed an influential triumvirate known as "The Three Musketeers", which controlled a significant portion of the city's business activity in the 1910s and 1920s. [2] Morton served as Mayor of Knoxville from 1923 to 1927. [2]

Under Morton's leadership, H. T. Hackney continued to expand its holdings. At one point, the company operated coal mines at Jellico and an automobile subsidiary, The H. T. Hackney Vehicle Company, [9] and distributed products such as candy, blasting powder, industrial equipment, furniture, oil, produce, and saddles. [2] This diversification helped the company survive the collapse of Knoxville's wholesaling sector, [8] which brought the closures of numerous decades-old firms such as Cowan, McClung and Company. [10]

Morton was succeeded by his son, Julian, who ran the company until his death in 1972. [2] C. E. Harris, a long-time associate of the Mortons, was Chairman and CEO of H. T. Hackney from 1972 until 1982. [2] In 1975, under Harris's leadership, the company greatly expanded its sales volume with the acquisition of the Jellico Grocery Company, which owned warehouses in Harlan, Middlesboro, Somerset and Corbin in Kentucky, and Oneida and Elizabethton in Tennessee. [2]

Bill Sansom has been Chairman and CEO of H. T. Hackney since 1983. [11] During his tenure, the company has continued to expand, acquiring two subsidiaries, furniture maker Holland House and bottled water manufacturer Natural Springs Water. [6] In 2003, the company purchased two convenience store distribution subsidiaries – L&L Jiroch Company and J. F. Walker Company – from the Michigan-based wholesaler Spartan Stores. [12] In 2005, H. T. Hackney closed its Knoxville warehouse and moved its Knoxville-area distribution operations to a new 300,000-square-foot facility located along Interstate 40 in adjacent Roane County, [13] though the company is still headquartered at the Fidelity Building in Downtown Knoxville.

On August 30, 2011, H. T. Hackney hired former University of Tennessee basketball coach Bruce Pearl as its Vice President of Marketing. [14]

In September 2011, H. T. Hackney launched a new furniture manufacturing subsidiary, H.Home. This new subsidiary operates factories in Bean Station, Tennessee, and Athens, Tennessee, and its products include upholstery, living room furniture, recliners, and sofas. [15]

The H. T. Hackney Company distributes over 30,000 different products to over 20,000 retail locations in 21 states. [6] Products include frozen food, baked goods, candy, snack foods, tobacco, cosmetics, and deli items, [6] and its major trading partners include General Mills, Kraft, Valvoline, Procter & Gamble, and Kellogg's. [1]

Retailers serviced by H. T. Hackney include convenience stores, drug stores, travel centers, and small grocery stores. [6] The company distributes products through a network of 28 distribution centers across 10 states, ranging as far north as Grand Rapids, Michigan, and as far south as Miami, Florida. [1]

The company's subsidiaries include Indianapolis-based Holland House Furniture which manufactures dining room suites, bedroom furniture, and rocking chairs, [16] Johnson City-based Natural Springs Water which produces bottled water, and Detroit-based Uncle Ray's snack foods. [6]

In 2019, H. T. Hackney had $5 billion in estimated sales. According to Forbes, it is the nation's 36th-largest privately held company. [4]

The art of success: Henry Tate and Sons

Henry Tate establishes the business
Henry Tate (1819 – 1899) was born in Chorley, Lancashire to a Unitarian minister from Newcastle upon Tyne. He was apprenticed to an elder brother at a grocery shop in Liverpool from 1832.

Tate acquired his own grocery shop at Old Haymarket, Liverpool, from Aaron Wedgwood (1789 – 1840) in 1839. He began to focus on the sale of tea.

Tate had six shops by 1855 four in Liverpool, one in Birkenhead and one in Ormskirk. He expanded into the wholesale trade from 1857.

Tate entered into partnership with John Wright, a sugar refiner of Manesty Lane in Liverpool, from 1859. In order to concentrate on the sugar business, he sold his grocery interests to a brother-in-law in 1861.

Tate built a sugar refinery of his own at Earle Street in 1862. Little is known of Tate’s refineries at this time, but they probably produced low quality sugar and treacle.

Tate bought out Wright’s stake in 1869, and his sons Alfred Tate (born 1846) and Edwin Tate (1847 – 1928) were brought into the business, which was renamed Henry Tate & Sons.

Tate acquires new patent rights
Henry Tate acquired the rights to the new Boivin-Loiseau sugar purification process in 1872. Despite having been first offered to every other sugar refiner of scale, none but Tate had recognised its potential. It was this patent that really offered Tate a serious advantage over his rivals, as it was more efficient than the then-predominant Greenock process.

Tate established a new refinery on Love Lane, Liverpool in 1872. The factory produced 1,000 tons of sugar every week. The business employed 400 people by this time.

Tate partnered with David Martineau, a London sugar refiner, to acquire the British rights to Eugen Langen’s sugar cube manufacturing process in 1875. Sugar had previously been sold to grocers in large cones, with servings to customers then broken off with a hammer. The old method was inefficient, and the pre-packaged “Tate’s Cube Sugar” was to prove a great success.

Early packaging for Tate’s Cube Sugar

Tate acquired a derelict shipyard at Silvertown on the Thames in London in 1874-5. He established his largest sugar refinery there in 1878, and appointed Edwin Tate as manager. The new refinery focused solely on sugar cube production.

By 1883 Tate had the largest sugar producing capacity in Liverpool, and the third largest capacity in London. The Liverpool plant produced hard sugar and the London plant produced soft sugar.

Henry Tate & Sons employed 538 people by 1889.

At the age of 76, Tate was asked why he did not retire. He replied, “when you pull on a string and gold sovereigns come tumbling down, it’s very difficult to stop pulling that string”. However he finally did retire the following year.

Henry Tate & Sons was registered as a private limited company in 1896. William Henry Tate (1842 – 1922), became the first chairman, and his brothers served as directors.

Henry Tate in 1897 by Hubert Von Herkomer

Henry Tate was a private man, a good employer and a generous benefactor. He built the Tate Gallery for the people of Britain at a cost of £500,000, and donated his collection of art including Waterhouse’s The Lady of Shalott. Other benefactions, sometimes anonymous, but always discreet, amounted to almost £1 million. Despite his great wealth he lived a modest life, and refused a baronetcy twice before finally accepting in 1898, having been told by the Prime Minister that a third refusal would offend the Royal family. He died the following year.

At the turn of the century the factories in Silvertown and Liverpool employed between 2,000 and 3,000 people. The London buildings occupied 36,000 square metres, and the Liverpool buildings occupied 19,400 square metres.

Public offering and acquisitions
Henry Tate & Sons was registered as a public company in 1903. It was the largest sugar refiner in Europe by 1914.

The anticipation of greater European competition in the post-war period, as well as a lack of suitable managerial talent in the Tate family convinced Henry Tate & Sons to merge with Abram Lyle & Sons, another large British refiner best known for its golden syrup, in 1921. The new company, Tate & Lyle, had a capital of £4.5 million and employed over 5,000 people. The business controlled around 50 percent of Britain’s sugar refining capacity.

Fairrie & Co of Liverpool was acquired in 1929. The business employed around 900 people. The Fairrie sugar refinery was immediately closed down.

Tate & Lyle was the 32nd most valuable company in Britain by market value in 1930.

A view of the Silvertown refinery in London in 2018. Image from Wikimedia Commons.

Tate & Lyle employed 7,000 people, and was among the 100 largest employers in Britain by 1935.

A major rival emerged after the British government nationalised fifteen sugar beet refiners under the British Sugar name in 1936.

Tate & Lyle acquired Macfie & Sons of Liverpool in 1938. The ageing Macfie refinery was immediately closed down, and production was relocated to Love Lane. Following the acquisition, Tate & Lyle controlled 57 percent of the British sugar market.

The Silvertown site became the largest sugar refinery in the world, with an output of 14,000 tons a week by 1939.

Tate & Lyle employed 10,000 people in Britain by 1958.

Tate & Lyle acquired control of the Canada and Dominion Sugar Company in 1960.

United Molasses, the largest producer of molasses in Britain, was acquired for around £30 million in 1965.

Britain entered the Common Market from 1972, which saw quotas imposed on imported raw sugar cane by the Common Agricultural Policy. As a result, Tate & Lyle was forced to diversify.

Manbre & Garton, a Fulham-based sugar and starch producer, was acquired in 1976. The acquisition gave Tate & Lyle a monopoly on cane sugar production in Britain.

Unfortunately Manbre & Garton was to prove a major drain of financial resources. Combined with other ill-fated diversification attempts, Tate & Lyle profits were declining by the late 1970s. The first dividend cut in three decades was announced in 1979, and 4,000 jobs were lost.

Tate & Lyle grows internationally
Canadian-born Neil McGowan Shaw (born 1929) was appointed managing director of Tate & Lyle in 1980. He would transform the business into a professionally-managed company.

Shaw shut down the Garton starch factories, sold six of Tate’s ships, closed its glucose operations, reduced head office staffing levels and cut out excessive levels of management.

The Love Lane refinery was closed with the loss of 1,750 jobs in 1981. The site had become loss-making due to a sugar glut caused by the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

Worldwide staffing levels had been reduced from 16,400 to 11,400 by 1984.

Tate & Lyle acquired two American manufacturers A E Staley, best known for corn syrup, and Amstar Sugar, the largest cane sugar refiner in the US, at a total cost of $1.8 billion in 1988.

Shaw was described as a quiet man, “seemingly embarrassed by his own power and success”, according to the Toronto National Post.

Bundaberg Sugar of Australia was acquired in 1991.

Tate & Lyle employed 16,000 people by 1993. It was the largest manufacturer of artificial sweeteners in the world.

Shaw stepped down as managing director of Tate & Lyle in 1995.

Tate & Lyle sold its sugar business to American Sugar of Yonkers, New York, in 2010. This allowed the company to concentrate on its industrial food products division.

The Silvertown refinery supplied 40 percent of Europe’s cane sugar demand in 2013.

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History of Tate Library

The Tate Library, the gift of Sir Henry Tate, was opened in 1893 by the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII). It was designed by Sydney R. Smith, who later designed the Tate Gallery (now Tate Britain). The interior has been remodelled in recent years to improve access between the different sections.

The lending library holds books, CDs, DVDs, and hosts computers where sessions can be booked for internet access. The reference library on the first floor has a large collection of encyclopedias, directories, maps, newspapers and magazines and desks can be hired for private study. There is also a small pod which can be hired for meetings.

The Brixton Theatre, which had its own entrance next to the Tate and the auditorium behind it, opened the year after the Library. It was bombed in World War II.The Ritzy Cinema opened in 1911, which dates this photograph before then as there is no sign of it!

The open land in front of the Library was bought by Sir Henry Tate’s widow, Dame Amy Tate, in 1904, and opened as a public garden in 1905. The bronze bust of Sir Henry Tate originally stood on a larger stone base in the centre of the garden as you can see in this picture.

As first laid out, the garden had a very formal layout, surrounded by railings. The gardens had their railings removed for their metal in World War II. The gardens have now been incorporated into Windrush Square.

Sir Henry Tate (1819-1899)

Henry Tate was born in Chorley, Lancashire, the son of a clergyman. When he was 13, he became a grocer’s apprentice in Liverpool. After a seven-year apprenticeship, he was able to set up his own shop.

His business was successful, and grew to a chain of six stores by the time he reached the age of 35. In 1859 Tate became a partner in John Wright & Co. sugar refinery, selling his grocery business in 1861. By 1869, he had gained complete control of the company, and renamed it Henry Tate & Sons.

Tate rapidly became a millionaire after patenting a machine to make sugar cubes – previously it was sold in large “sugar-loaves” which had to be broken up at home. He opened a London sugar factory at Silvertown, which is still there, near London City Airport. At the same time, he set up home in Streatham, where he built up a collection of contemporary British paintings, many of them hanging in his own private library and in the billiard room.

He donated generously to charity, including paying for 3 libraries in Lambeth – one in Windrush Square, one in South Lambeth Road, and one in Streatham.

In 1889 he donated his collection of 65 paintings to the government, on the condition that they be displayed in a suitable gallery, toward the construction of which he also donated £80,000. The National Gallery of British Art, better known as the Tate Gallery, and now Tate Britain, was opened on July 21, 1897, on the site of the old Millbank Prison. There are now other “satellite” Tate galleries – Tate Modern, Tate St.Ives, Tate Liverpool.

About the Friends

The Friends of Tate Library is a formally constituted sub-committee of the Brixton Society and a recognised voice for users of Tate Library Brixton.

It has operated since 2010 representing the users of the Library as “Friends of Tate Library” through Lambeth’s consultations on the future of libraries in the borough.

The Tate Library has full wheelchair access (via the Rushcroft Road entrance and an internal lift) and extensive computer and internet access facilities.

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Tate galleries

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Tate galleries, art museums in the United Kingdom that house the national collection of British art from the 16th century and the national collection of modern art. There are four branches: the Tate Britain and Tate Modern in London, the Tate Liverpool, and the Tate St. Ives in Cornwall.

The Tate Britain, located on the Millbank in the borough of Westminster, resulted from the benefaction of sugar tycoon Sir Henry Tate, who gave both the building and his art collection to the nation. The Neoclassical building was designed by Sidney Smith and was opened to the public in 1897 it has received six extensions, the last of which, the Clore Gallery, opened in 1987 to house the world’s finest collection of works by the British painter J.M.W. Turner. Originally called the Tate Gallery, the museum changed its name to Tate Britain in 2000, when it began displaying only British art. The collection commences with Elizabethan and Jacobean examples. The 18th and 19th centuries are exceptionally well represented, including works by Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, William Hogarth, George Stubbs, John Constable, William Blake, and the Pre-Raphaelites.

The gallery’s extensive collection of modern and contemporary works by international artists was moved to the Tate Modern, which opened in 2000. Located on the Bankside (an area along the south bank of the River Thames), the Tate Modern is a refurbished power station designed by Swiss architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron. The architects later designed an extension called Switch House, which opened in 2016. Instead of being arranged by school or chronology, the museum’s art holdings are displayed according to subject matter, and all significant movements from the 20th century are accounted for: Cubism, Futurism, Abstract Expressionism, Dada, Surrealism, and Pop art. There are notable works by Louise Nevelson, Pablo Picasso, Piet Mondrian, Thomas Struth, Mark Rothko, Lubaina Himid, and Cildo Meireles. The museum frequently commissions large-scale sculptures and site-specific installations from living artists for Turbine Hall, the expansive museum entrance. Previous exhibitions included Olafur Eliasson’s The Weather Project (2003), a 50-foot (15-metre) orb resembling a dark afternoon sun Ai Weiwei’s 100 million hand-painted porcelain “sunflower seeds” (2010) and Kara Walker’s Fons Americanus (2019 “Fountain of America”), a fountain commemorating, albeit sardonically, the victims of the British Empire.

The Tate Liverpool was opened in 1988. Located in a converted warehouse in Albert Dock, it has undergone several renovations, which resulted in its closure in 1997–98. The Tate Liverpool houses British and contemporary art in a wide range of media, from paintings and sculptures to video, installation, and performance pieces. The Tate St. Ives is located in an area that became an artist colony following World War II. Opened in 1993, it overlooks a beach and includes the nearby Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden. The Tate St. Ives collection centres on contemporary art.

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All relationship and family history information shown on FameChain has been compiled from data in the public domain. From online or printed sources and from publicly accessible databases. It is believed to be correct at the time of inputting and is presented here in good faith. Should you have information that conflicts with anything shown please make us aware by email.

But do note that it is not possible to be certain of a person's genealogy without a family's cooperation (and/or DNA testing).

Watch the video: The Henry Tate Statue, Breakdown (May 2022).