Starting from its original conception and design by the owners and naval architects at the White Star Line through construction at Harland and Wolff's shipyards in Belfast, Nick Barratt explores the pre-history of the Titanic. He examines the aspirations of the owners, the realities of construction and the anticipation of the first sea-tests, revealing that the seeds of disaster were sown by the failure to implement sealed bulkheads - for which the original plans are now available. Barratt then looks at what it was like to embark on the Titanic's maiden voyage in April 1912. The lives of various passengers are examined in more detail, from the first class aristocrats enjoying all the trappings of privilege, to the families in third-class and steerage who simply sought to leave Britain for a better life in America. Similarly, the stories of representatives from the White Star Line who were present, as well as members of the crew, are told in their own words to give a very different perspective of the voyage. Finally, the book examines the disaster itself, when Titanic struck the iceberg on 14 April and sunk hours later. Survivors from passengers and crew explain what happened, taking you back in time to the full horror of that freezing Atlantic night when up to 1,520 people perished. The tragedy is also examined from the official boards of inquiry, and its aftermath placed in a historic context - the damage to British prestige and pride, and the changes to maritime law to ensure such an event never took place again. The book concludes by looking at the impact on those who escaped, and what became of them in the ensuing years; and includes the words of the last living survivor, Millvina Dean.
The origins of World War II, 1929–39
The 1930s were a decade of unmitigated crisis culminating in the outbreak of a second total war. The treaties and settlements of the first postwar era collapsed with shocking suddenness under the impact of the Great Depression and the aggressive revisionism of Japan, Italy, and Germany. By 1933 hardly one stone stood on another of the economic structures raised in the 1920s. By 1935 Adolf Hitler’s Nazi regime had torn up the Treaty of Versailles and by 1936 the Locarno treaties as well. Armed conflict began in Manchuria in 1931 and spread to Abyssinia in 1935, Spain in 1936, China in 1937, Europe in 1939, and the United States and U.S.S.R. in 1941. See the video .
The context in which this collapse occurred was an “economic blizzard” that enervated the democracies and energized the dictatorial regimes. Western intellectuals and many common citizens lost faith in democracy and free-market economics, while widespread pacifism, isolationism, and the earnest desire to avoid the mistakes of 1914 left Western leaders without the will or the means to defend the 1919 order. This combination of demoralized publics, stricken institutions, and uninspired leadership led historian Pierre Renouvin to describe the 1930s simply as “la décadence.”
The militant authoritarian states on the other hand—Italy, Japan, and (after 1933) Germany—seemed only to wax stronger and more dynamic. The Depression did not cause the rise of the Third Reich or the bellicose ideologies of the German, Italian, and Japanese governments (all of which pre-dated the 1930s), but it did create the conditions for the Nazi seizure of power and provide the opportunity and excuse for Fascist empire-building. Hitler and Mussolini aspired to total control of their domestic societies, in part for the purpose of girding their nations for wars of conquest which they saw, in turn, as necessary for revolutionary transformation at home. This ideological meshing of foreign and domestic policy rendered the Fascist leaders wholly enigmatic to the democratic statesmen of Britain and France, whose attempts to accommodate rather than resist the Fascist states only made inevitable the war they longed to avoid.
Timeline of lyrical singers in South America
Whoever wants to discover opera does not always have an experienced music lover, an expert or an educator at his or her side to support and guide him or her in this field. So : Abadie (Argentinian opera singer) or Álvarez (Argentine tenor) ? Kremer (Russian American singer) or Cristina Kiehr (Argentine opera singer) ? However, the knowledge available about musicians is enormous. It was processed to select the 10, 25, 50. most popular lyrical singers around the world, for those living or having lived en South America, . And this objectively, and for the first time (soclassiq exclusivity).
20th Century Studios
20th Century Studios, Inc.  [a] [b] is an American film studio that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company.  The studio is located on the Fox Studio Lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles.  Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures distributes and markets the films produced by 20th Century. 
20th Century was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios for over 80 years. Formerly known as the Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, it was formed from the merger of the Fox Film Corporation and the original 20th Century Pictures in 1935. In 1985, the studio became known as 20th Century Fox after being acquired by News Corporation, which was split and succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013, after spinning off its publishing assets. In 2019, Disney purchased 20th Century through its acquisition of 21st Century Fox.  The studio's current name was adopted on January 17, 2020. 
From founding to 1956
Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, and began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent.  
Spyros Skouras, then manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen (and later became president of the new company).  The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. 
Fox Film Corporation and Twentieth Century Pictures merged in 1935. Initially, it was speculated in The New York Times that the newly merged company would be named Fox-Twentieth Century Pictures.  However, 20th Century brought more to the bargaining table besides Schenck and Zanuck, as it was profitable and had more talent than Fox. The new company, Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Schenck and Zanuck.  Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief. 
The company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century-Fox after spending 18 months in the school. The contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. 
For many years, 20th Century-Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding, even though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915.  The company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, and Betty Grable. 20th Century-Fox also hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930s.  
Higher attendance during World War II helped 20th Century-Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U.S. Army training films. His partner, William Goetz, filled in at 20th Century-Fox. 
In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio.  During the next few years, with pictures like Wilson (1944), The Razor's Edge (1946), Boomerang, Gentleman's Agreement (both 1947), The Snake Pit (1948), and Pinky (1949), Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. 20th Century-Fox also specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven (1945), starring Gene Tierney, which was the highest-grossing 20th Century-Fox film of the 1940s. The studio also produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair (1945), the only work that the partnership written especially for films.
After the war, audiences slowly drifted away with the advent of television. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce" they were spun off as Fox National Theaters in 1953.  That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven process. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, and "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, 20th Century-Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, and in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. 
Zanuck announced in February 1953 that henceforth all 20th Century-Fox pictures would be made in CinemaScope.  To convince theater owners to install this new process, 20th Century-Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs (about $25,000 per screen) and to ensure enough product, 20th Century-Fox gave access to CinemaScope to any rival studio choosing to use it. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire (also 1953), Warner Bros., MGM, Universal-International), Columbia Pictures and Disney quickly adopted the process. In 1956, 20th Century-Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures, later Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope (but "branded" RegalScope). 20th Century-Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I (both 1956).
CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance, but by 1956 the numbers again began to slide.   That year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer, seldom being in the United States for many years.
Production and financial problems
Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later.  President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, 20th Century-Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra (1963) began production in 1959 with Joan Collins in the lead.  As a publicity gimmick, producer Walter Wanger offered $1 million to Elizabeth Taylor if she would star  she accepted and costs for Cleopatra began to escalate. Richard Burton's on-set romance with Taylor was surrounding the media. However, Skouras' selfish preferences and inexperienced micromanagement on the film's production did nothing to speed up production on Cleopatra.
Meanwhile, another remake — of the Cary Grant hit My Favorite Wife (1940) — was rushed into production in an attempt to turn over a quick profit to help keep 20th Century-Fox afloat. The romantic comedy entitled Something's Got to Give paired Marilyn Monroe, 20th Century-Fox's most bankable star of the 1950s, with Dean Martin and director George Cukor. The troubled Monroe caused delays on a daily basis, and it quickly descended into a costly debacle. As Cleopatra ' s budget passed $10 million, eventually costing around $40 million, 20th Century-Fox sold its back lot (now the site of Century City) to Alcoa in 1961 to raise funds. After several weeks of script rewrites on the Monroe picture and very little progress, mostly due to director George Cukor's filming methods, in addition to Monroe's chronic sinusitis, Monroe was fired from Something's Got to Give  and two months later she was found dead. According to 20th Century-Fox files, she was rehired within weeks for a two-picture deal totaling $1 million, $500,000 to finish Something's Got to Give (plus a bonus at completion), and another $500,000 for What a Way to Go. Elizabeth Taylor's bout with pneumonia and the media coverage of the Burton affair allowed Skouras to scapegoat the two stars for all the production setbacks, which helped earn the long-time industry professional Taylor a new disruptive reputation.  Challenges on the Cleopatra set continued from 1960 into 1962, though three 20th Century-Fox executives went to Rome in June 1962 to fire her. They learned that director Joseph L. Mankiewicz had filmed out of sequence and had only done interiors, so 20th Century-Fox was then forced to allow Taylor several more weeks of filming. In the meantime during that summer of 1962 Fox released nearly all of its contract stars to offset burgeoning costs, including Jayne Mansfield.  
With few pictures on the schedule, Skouras wanted to rush Zanuck's big-budget war epic The Longest Day (1962),  an accurate account of the Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, with a huge international cast, into release as another source of quick cash. This offended Zanuck, still 20th Century-Fox's largest shareholder, for whom The Longest Day was a labor of love that he had dearly wanted to produce for many years. After it became clear that Something's Got to Give would not be able to progress without Monroe in the lead (Martin had refused to work with anyone else), Skouras finally decided that re-signing her was unavoidable. But days before filming was due to resume, she was found dead at her Los Angeles home and the picture resumed filming as Move Over, Darling, with Doris Day and James Garner in the leads. Released in 1963, the film was a hit.  The unfinished scenes from Something's Got to Give were shelved for nearly 40 years. Rather than being rushed into release as if it were a B-picture, The Longest Day was lovingly and carefully produced under Zanuck's supervision. It was finally released at a length of three hours, and was well received.
At the next board meeting, Zanuck spoke for eight hours, convincing directors that Skouras was mismanaging the company and that he was the only possible successor. Zanuck was installed as chairman, and then named his son Richard Zanuck as president.  This new management group seized Cleopatra and rushed it to completion, shut down the studio, laid off the entire staff to save money, axed the long-running Movietone Newsreel (the archives of which are now owned by Fox News), and made a series of cheap, popular pictures that restored 20th Century-Fox as a major studio. The saving grace for the studio's fortunes came from the tremendous success of The Sound of Music (1965),  an expensive and handsomely produced film adaptation of the highly acclaimed Rodgers and Hammerstein Broadway musical, which became a significant success at the box office and won five Academy Awards, including Best Director (Robert Wise) and Best Picture of the Year.
20th Century-Fox also had two big science-fiction hits in the decade: Fantastic Voyage (1966), and the original Planet of the Apes (1968), starring Charlton Heston, Kim Hunter, and Roddy McDowall. Fantastic Voyage was the last film made in CinemaScope the studio had held on the format while Panavision lenses were being used elsewhere.
Zanuck stayed on as chairman until 1971, but there were several expensive flops in his last years, resulting in 20th Century-Fox posting losses from 1969 to 1971. Following his removal, and after an uncertain period, new management brought 20th Century-Fox back to health. Under president Gordon T. Stulberg and production head Alan Ladd, Jr., 20th Century-Fox films connected with modern audiences. Stulberg used the profits to acquire resort properties, soft-drink bottlers, Australian theaters and other properties in an attempt to diversify enough to offset the boom-or-bust cycle of picture-making.
Foreshadowing a pattern of film production still yet to come, in late 1973 20th Century-Fox joined forces with Warner Bros. to co-produce The Towering Inferno (1974),  an all-star action blockbuster from producer Irwin Allen. Both studios found themselves owning the rights to books about burning skyscrapers. Allen insisted on a meeting with the heads of both studios, and announced that as 20th Century-Fox was already in the lead with their property it would be career suicide to have competing movies. Thus the first joint-venture studio deal was struck. In hindsight, while it may be commonplace now, back in the 1970s, it was a risky, but revolutionary, idea that paid off handsomely at both domestic and international box offices around the world.
20th Century-Fox's success reached new heights by backing the most profitable film made up to that time, Star Wars (1977). Substantial financial gains were realized as a result of the film's unprecedented success: from a low of $6 in June 1976, stock prices more than quadrupled to almost $27 after Star Wars' release 1976 revenues of $195 million rose to $301 million in 1977. 
Marvin Davis and Rupert Murdoch
With financial stability came new owners, when 20th Century-Fox was sold for $720 million on June 8, 1981 to investors Marc Rich and Marvin Davis.  20th Century-Fox's assets included Pebble Beach Golf Links, the Aspen Skiing Company and a Century City property upon which Davis built and twice sold Fox Plaza.
By 1984, Rich had become a fugitive from justice, having fled to Switzerland after being charged by U.S. federal prosecutors with tax evasion, racketeering and illegal trading with Iran during the Iran hostage crisis. Rich's assets were frozen by U.S. authorities.  In 1984 Marvin Davis bought out Marc Rich's 50% interest in 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation for an undisclosed amount,  reported to be $116 million.  Davis sold this interest to Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation for $250 million in March 1985. Davis later backed out of a deal with Murdoch to purchase John Kluge's Metromedia television stations.  Murdoch went ahead alone and bought the stations, and later bought out Davis' remaining stake in 20th Century Fox for $325 million.  From 1985, the hyphen was quietly dropped from the brand name, with 20th Century-Fox changing to 20th Century Fox.  
To gain FCC approval of 20th Century-Fox's purchase of Metromedia's television holdings, once the stations of the long-dissolved DuMont network, Murdoch had to become a U.S. citizen. He did so in 1985, and in 1986 the new Fox Broadcasting Company took to the air. Over the next 20-odd years the network and owned-stations group expanded to become extremely profitable for News Corp.
The company formed its Fox Family Films division in 1994 to boost production at the studio and would handled animation films. In February 1998, following the success of Anastasia, Fox Family Films changed its name to Fox Animation Studios and drop its live action production which would be picked up by other production units. 
Since January 2000, this company has been the international distributor for MGM/UA releases. In the 1980s, 20th Century Fox — through a joint venture with CBS called CBS/Fox Video — had distributed certain UA films on video thus UA has come full circle by switching to 20th Century Fox for video distribution. 20th Century Fox also makes money distributing films for small independent film companies.
In late 2006, Fox Atomic was started up  under Fox Searchlight head Peter Rice and COO John Hegeman  as a sibling production division under Fox Filmed Entertainment.  In early 2008, Atomic's marketing unit was transferred to Fox Searchlight and 20th Century Fox, when Hegeman moved to New Regency Productions. Debbie Liebling became president. After two middling successes and falling short with other films, the unit was shut down in April 2009. The remaining films under Atomic in production and post-productions were transferred to 20th Century Fox and Fox Spotlight with Liebling overseeing them. 
In 2008, 20th Century Fox announced an Asian subsidiary, Fox STAR Studios, a joint venture with STAR TV, also owned by News Corporation. It was reported that Fox STAR would start by producing films for the Bollywood market, then expand to several Asian markets.  In 2008, 20th Century Fox started Fox International Productions . 
Chernin Entertainment was founded by Peter Chernin after he stepped down as president of 20th Century Fox's then-parent company News Corp. in 2009.  Chernin Entertainment's five-year first-look deal for the film and television was signed with 20th Century Fox and 20th Century Fox TV in 2009. 
In August 2012, 20th Century Fox signed a five-year deal with DreamWorks Animation to distribute in domestic and international markets. However, the deal did not include the distribution rights for previously released films which DreamWorks Animation acquired from Paramount Pictures later in 2014.  Fox's deal with DreamWorks Animation ended on June 2, 2017 with Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie, with Universal Pictures taking over the distribution deal with DreamWorks Animation due to NBCUniversal's acquisition of DreamWorks Animation on August 22, 2016, starting on February 22, 2019 with the release of How to Train Your Dragon: The Hidden World.
21st Century Fox era
In 2012, Rupert Murdoch announced that News Corp. would be split into two publishing and media-oriented companies: a new News Corporation, and 21st Century Fox, which operated the Fox Entertainment Group and 20th Century Fox. Murdoch considered the name of the new company a way to maintain the 20th Century Fox's heritage.  
Fox Stage Productions was formed in June 2013.  In August 2013, 20CF started a theatrical joint venture with a trio of producers, both film and theater, Kevin McCollum, John Davis and Tom McGrath. 
In September 2017, Locksmith Animation formed a multi-year production deal with 20th Century Fox, who will distribute Locksmith's films, with Locksmith aiming to release a film every 12–18 months. The deal was to bolster Blue Sky's output and replace the loss of distributing DreamWorks Animation films. 
Technoprops, a VFX company that worked on Avatar and The Jungle Book, was purchased in April 2017 to operate as Fox VFX Lab. Technoprops' founder Glenn Derry would continue to run the company as vice president of visual effect reporting to John Kilkenny, VFX president. 
On October 30, 2017, Vanessa Morrison was named president of a new created 20th Century Fox division, Fox Family, reporting to the Chairman & CEO and Vice Chairman of 20th Century Fox. The family division would develop films that appeal to younger moviegoers and their parents both animated films and films with live action elements. Also, the division would oversee the studio's family animated television business, which produce based holiday television specials on existing film properties, and oversee feature film adaptation of its TV shows.  To replace Morrision at Fox Animation, Andrea Miloro and Robert Baird were named co-presidents of 20th Century Fox Animation. 
20th Century Fox issued a default notice in regards to its licensing agreement for the under-construction 20th Century Fox World theme park in Malaysia by Genting Malaysia Bhd. In November 2018 Genting Malaysia filed suit in response and included soon to be parent The Walt Disney Company. 
Disney acquisition and rebranding
On December 14, 2017, The Walt Disney Company announced plans to purchase most of the 21st Century Fox assets, including 20th Century Fox, for $52.4 billion.  After a bid from Comcast (parent company of NBCUniversal) for $65 billion, Disney counterbid with $71.3 billion.  On July 19, 2018, Comcast dropped out of the bid for 21st Century Fox in favor of Sky plc and Sky UK. Eight days later, Disney and 21st Century Fox shareholders approved the merger between the two companies.  Although the deal was completed on March 20, 2019,  20th Century Fox was not planning to relocate to Walt Disney Studios in Burbank. It would retain its headquarters in Century City on the Fox Studio Lot, which is currently leased to Disney by Fox Corporation, for seven years.  Various units were moved out from under 20th Century Fox at acquisition.
On January 17, 2020, Disney renamed the studio as 20th Century Studios (legally, 20th Century Studios, Inc.  ), which served to help avoid brand confusion with the Fox Corporation. Similar to other Disney film units, distribution of 20th Century films is now handled by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, while 20th Century's sister company, Searchlight Pictures, operates their own autonomous distribution unit.  The first film released by Disney under the studio's new name was The Call of the Wild. 
In January 2020, held-over production president Emma Watts resigned from the company.  On March 12, 2020, Steve Asbell was named president, production of 20th Century Studios, while Morrison was named president, streaming, Walt Disney Studios Motion Picture Production to oversee live action development and production of Walt Disney Pictures and 20th Century Studios for Disney+. Philip Steuer will now lead physical and post production, as well as VFX, as president of production at Walt Disney Studios Motion Picture Production. Randi Hiller will now lead casting as executive vp casting, overseeing for both Walt Disney Pictures and 20th Century Studios. Steuer has served as executive vp physical production for Walt Disney Studios since 2015, and Hiller has led casting for Walt Disney Studios since 2011. Both will dual-report to Asbell and Sean Bailey. 
20th Television is the television production division of 20th Century Studios. 20th Century Fox Television was the studio's television production division, along with Fox 21 Television Studios until they were renamed 20th Television and Touchstone Television respectively in 2020. 20th Television was also the studio's television syndication division until it was folded into Disney-ABC Domestic Television in 2020. 
During the mid-1950s, feature films were released to television in the hope that they would broaden sponsorship and help distribution of network programs. Blocks of one-hour programming of feature films to national sponsors on 128 stations was organized by Twentieth Century Fox and National Telefilm Associates. Twentieth Century Fox received 50% interest in NTA Film network after it sold its library to National Telefilm Associates. This gave 90 minutes of cleared time a week and syndicated feature films to 110 non-interconnected stations for sale to national sponsors. 
Buyout of Four Star
Rupert Murdoch's 20th Century bought out the remaining assets of Four Star Television from Ronald Perelman's Compact Video in 1996.  The majority of Four Star Television's library of programs are controlled by 20th Television today.    After Murdoch's numerous buyouts during the buyout era of the eighties, News Corporation had built up financial debts of $7 billion (much from Sky TV in the UK), despite the many assets that were held by NewsCorp.  The high levels of debt caused Murdoch to sell many of the American magazine interests he had acquired in the mid-1980s.
Between 1933 and 1937, a custom record label called Fox Movietone was produced starting at F-100 and running through F-136. It featured songs from 20th Century movies, first using material recorded and issued on Victor's Bluebird label and halfway through switched to material recorded and issued on ARC's dime store labels (Melotone, Perfect, etc.). These scarce records were sold only at Fox Theaters.
Fox Music has been 20th Century's music arm since 2000. It encompasses music publishing and licensing businesses, dealing primarily with Fox Entertainment Group television and film soundtracks.
Prior to Fox Music, 20th Century Records was its music arm from 1958 to 1981.
The Twentieth Century Fox Presents radio series  were broadcast between 1936 and 1942. More often than not, the shows were a radio preview featuring a medley of the songs and soundtracks from the latest movie being released into the theaters, much like the modern day movie trailers we now see on TV, to encourage folks to head down to their nearest Picture House.
The radio shows featured the original stars, with the announcer narrating a lead up that encapsulated the performance.
Motion picture film processing
From its earliest ventures into movie production, Fox Film Corporation operated its own processing laboratories. The original lab was located in Fort Lee, New Jersey along with the studios. A lab was included with the new studio built in Los Angeles in 1916.  Headed by Alan E. Freedman, the Fort Lee lab was moved into the new Fox Studios building in Manhattan in 1919.  In 1932, Freedman bought the labs from Fox for $2,000,000 to bolster what at that time was a failing Fox liquidity.   He renamed the operation "DeLuxe Laboratories," which much later became DeLuxe Entertainment Services Group. In the 1940s Freedman sold the labs back to what was then 20th Century Fox and remained as president into the 1960s. Under Freedman's leadership, DeLuxe added two more labs in Chicago and Toronto and processed film from studios other than Fox.
20th Century Family
20th Century Family (formerly Fox Family) is a family-friendly production division of 20th Century Studios. Besides family-friendly theatrical films, the division oversees mixed media (live-action with animation), family animated holiday television specials based on film properties and film features based on TV shows.
On October 30, 2017, Morrison was transferred from her post as president of 20th Century Fox Animation, the prior Fox Family Films, to be president of a newly created 20th Century Fox division, Fox Family, which as a mandate similar to Fox Family Films. The division pick up supervision of a Bob's Burgers film  and some existing deals with animation producers, including Tonko House.  With the sale of 21st Century Fox to Disney in March 2019, rights to The Dam Keeper feature animated film returned to Tonko House. 
With the August 2019 20th Century Fox slate overhaul announcement, 20th Century Fox properties such as Home Alone, Night at the Museum, and Diary of the Wimpy Kid have been assigned for Disney+ release and assigned to 20th Century Family.  On March 12, 2020, Morrison was named president, Streaming, Walt Disney Studios Motion Picture Production to oversee live action development and production of Disney Live Action and 20th Century Studios for Disney+. 
- Bob's Burgers: The Movie
- The Prom Goer's Interstellar Excursion based film, produced with Chernin Entertainment
- Paper Lanterns live-action/animated family film written by Jonny Sun and produced with Chernin Entertainment 
- The Garden live-action/CGI musical film based on book of Genesis's the Garden of Eden with Franklin Entertainment 
Fox VFX Lab (defunct)
Fox VFX Lab was a visual effects company division of 20th Century Studios that was acquired in 2017 known as Technoprops. It is led by president John Kilkenny. Besides their visual effects activities, the division oversees different parts of the world to apply for and work on projects that include films such as Avatar, The Jungle Book, Rogue One, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows, Doctor Strange, and Warcraft  and also video game properties like Need for Speed (2015), Battlefield 1, Rainbow Six Siege, Watch Dogs 2, Just Cause 3, Rise of the Tomb Raider, Assassin's Creed Syndicate, Mafia III, Halo 4, Mortal Kombat 11, Far Cry (Far Cry 5 and Primal), Call of Duty (Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare and Black Ops III) and Sonic the Hedgehog (Sonic Forces and Team Sonic Racing).   On August 1, 2019 Disney would reportedly shut down the unit after firing all of its executives and employees.  
Fox Atomic (defunct)
Fox Atomic was a youth-focused film production company and division of Fox Filmed Entertainment that operated from 2006 to April 2009. Atomic was originally paired with Fox Spotlight Pictures under the same leadership.
In late 2006, Fox Atomic was started up  under Fox Searchlight head Peter Rice and COO John Hegeman  as a sibling production division under Fox Filmed Entertainment.  Debbie Liebling transferred to Fox Atomic in 2007 from Fox.  In January 2008, Atomic's marketing unit was transferred to Fox Searchlight and 20th Century Fox,  when Hegeman moved to New Regency Productions. Debbie Liebling became president. After two middling successes and falling short with other films, the unit was shut down in April 2009. The remaining films under Atomic in production and post-productions were transferred to 20th Century Fox and Fox Spotlight with Liebling overseeing them. 
- Turistas (December 2006) 
- The Hills Have Eyes 2 (2007) 
- 28 Weeks Later (2007) 
- The Comebacks
- The Rocker
- Miss March
- 12 Rounds
Films in production at shut down and transferred to other Fox units
- I Love You, Beth Cooper (July 10, 2009)  20th Century Fox release, 1492 Pictures production company, directed by Chris Columbus and starring Hayden Panettiere
- Post Grad (August 21, 2009) through Fox Searchlight directed by Vicky Jenson and starring Alexis Bledel
- Jennifer's Body (September 18, 2009)  20th Century Fox release, directed by Karyn Kusama and starring Megan Fox
Fox International Productions (defunct)
Fox International Productions was the division of 20th Century Fox in charge of local production in 12 territories in China, Europe, India and Latin America from 2008 to 2017.
In 2008, 20th Century Fox started Fox International Productions under president Sanford Panitch. The company had $900 million in box-office receipts by the time Panitch left the company for Sony on June 2, 2015.  Co-president of worldwide theatrical marketing and distribution for 20th Century Fox Tomas Jegeus was named president of Fox International Productions effective September 1, 2015.  The company struck a development and production deal in November 2015 with Zhejiang Huace, a Chinese entertainment group.  In December 2017, 20th Century Fox film chairman-CEO Stacey Snider indicated that Fox International Productions would be dissolved in favor of each local and regional offices producing or acquiring projects. 
Logo and fanfare
The familiar 20th Century production logo originated as the logo of Twentieth Century Pictures and was adopted by 20th Century-Fox after the merger in 1935. It consists of a stacked block-letter three-dimensional, monolithic logotype (nicknamed "the Monument") surrounded by Art deco buildings and illuminated by searchlights.  In the production logo that appears at the start of films, the searchlights are animated and the sequence is accompanied by a distinctive fanfare that was originally composed in 1933 by Alfred Newman.  The original layout of the logo was designed by special effects animator and matte painting artist Emil Kosa Jr..  
The 20th Century logo and fanfare have been recognised as an iconic symbol of a golden age of Hollywood. Its appearance at the start of popular films such as How Green Was My Valley (1941) and MASH (1970) established its recognition. 
In 1953, Rocky Longo, an artist at Pacific Title, was hired to recreate the original logo design for the new CinemaScope picture process. Longo tilted the "0" in "20th" to have the logo maintain proportions in the wider CinemaScope format.  Alfred Newman also re-composed the logo's fanfare with an extension to be heard during the CinemaScope logo that would follow after the Fox logo. Although the format had since declined, director George Lucas specifically requested that the CinemaScope version of the fanfare be used for the opening titles of Star Wars (1977). Additionally, the film's main theme was composed by John Williams in the same key as the fanfare (B ♭ major), serving as an extension to it of sorts.   In 1981, the logo was slightly altered with the re-straightening of the "0" in "20th". 
In 1994, after a few failed attempts, Fox in-house television producer Kevin Burns was hired to produce a new logo for the company, this time using the then-new process of computer-generated imagery (CGI) adding more detail and animation, with the longer 21-second Fox fanfare arranged by Bruce Broughton used as the underscore. It would later be re-recorded by David Newman in 1997 and again in 1998.  
In 2009, an updated logo created by Blue Sky Studios debuted with the release of Avatar. 
On September 16, 2014, 20th Century Fox posted a video showcasing all of the various versions of the logo, including some variations, up until the 2009 version of the logo, with the 1998 version of the fanfare composed by David Newman, to promote the new Fox Movies website.
On January 17, 2020, it was reported that Disney had begun to phase out the "Fox" name from the studio's branding as it is no longer tied to the current Fox Corporation, with 20th Century Fox and Fox Searchlight Pictures respectively renamed to 20th Century Studios and Searchlight Pictures. Branding elements associated with the studio, including the searchlights, monolith, and fanfare, will remain in use. The first film that carries the new 20th Century Studios name is The Call of the Wild (coincidentally the original film adaptation was the original Twentieth Century Pictures' final movie before its merger with Fox Film).   
For the 20th Century Studios logo, its print logo debuted on a movie poster of The New Mutants   while the on-screen logo debuted in a television advertisement for and the full version debuted on February 21, 2020 with the film The Call of the Wild. 
The 20th Century Studios logo was animated by Picturemill, based on Blue Sky Studios' animation. 
In the television series Futurama, a "30th Century Fox" logo appears at the conclusion of some episodes in reference to its setting.
Films and franchises
|Cheaper by the Dozen||1950–present|
|The Fly||1958–1989||co-production with Brooksfilm.|
|Dr. Dolittle||1967–2009||co-production with Davis Entertainment.|
|Planet of the Apes||1968–present||co-production with APJAC Productions, Chernin Entertainment and TSG Entertainment.|
|The Omen||1976–2006||co-production with Mace Neufeld Productions.|
|Alien||1979–present||co-production with Brandywine Productions and Scott Free Productions.|
|Revenge of the Nerds||1984–1994||co-production with Interscope Communications.|
|Predator||1987–present||co-production with Davis Entertainment and Silver Pictures.|
|Die Hard||1988–present||co-production with the Gordon Company and Silver Pictures.|
|Home Alone||1990–present||co-production with Hughes Entertainment.|
|Independence Day||1996–present||co-production with Centropolis Entertainment and Electric Entertainment.|
|X-Men||2000–2020||co-production with Bad Hat Harry Productions, The Donners' Company, Genre Films, Marvel Entertainment and TSG Entertainment.|
|Behind Enemy Lines||2001–2014|
|Ice Age||2002–present||co-production with Blue Sky Studios and 20th Century Animation.|
|Wrong Turn||2003–2014||co-production with Constantin Film and Summit Entertainment.|
|Night at the Museum||2006–2014||co-production with 21 Laps Entertainment and 1492 Pictures.|
|Alvin and the Chipmunks||2007–2015||co-production with Fox 2000 Pictures, Dune Entertainment and Regency Enterprises.|
|Taken||2008–2014||US distribution only produced and released elsewhere by EuropaCorp.|
|Avatar||2009–present||co-production with Lightstorm Entertainment.|
|Diary of a Wimpy Kid||2010–present|
The Academy Film Archive houses the 20th Century Fox Features Collection which contains features, trailers, and production elements mostly from the Fox, Twentieth Century, and Twentieth Century-Fox studios, from the late 1920s–1950s. 
History in Focus
When looking at the problem of youth crime in the early 21st century, we are confronted with a highly punitive discourse which talks of 'clamping down' on youth crime, of 'zero tolerance' of 'anti-social behaviour'. While criminologists and practitioners within youth justice alike have attacked this punitive philosophy (1), it would be wrong to see the youth court system as having always been castigatory in its tone and methods. Rather, as this piece will demonstrate, the origins of this system lie in idealistic attempts to solve social problems through tackling the deprivations of young working-class people in order to divert them from criminal ways and to encourage them to play a constructive role in society.
Concern for the welfare of the young was nothing new, as many charities, religious bodies and philanthropists had long been active in providing orphanages, schools and medical services to the children of the poor. However, the growth of this interest in the course of the 19th century accompanied increasing anxieties about Britain's position in the world. These worries were fuelled by debates about the impact of the industrial, urban environment upon British society, and whether this was stripping the nation of a healthy, morally robust workforce. These fears were heightened by the poor physical state of conscripts to the Boer Wars at the turn of the century, which in turn prompted the 1904 Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration. Concern was expressed about the abilities of working-class parents - especially mothers - to bring up strong, fit workers who would be an asset to society, rather than producing lawless thugs. This dread also coincided with and gave impetus to the expansion of opportunities for middle- and upper-class women to expand their public roles through philanthropic activities.
The British legal system introduced different treatments for young offenders from the 1850s onwards, when reformatory and industrial schools were first introduced. In addition to the creation of new punitive measures for dealing with the young, laws were passed removing children from certain areas of industry and restricting their activities in others, while compulsory elementary education was introduced in 1870. In 1889, the 'Children's Charter' introduced legal protections for children from various types of cruelty and enabled the state to intervene in family life. Efforts snowballed, as campaigners pressed in the 1890s and 1900s for greater legal protection and coverage for children and young people. These changes were part of a gradual evolution in the concept of childhood, and a growing interest in how the experiences of youth shaped the adult. These new laws were part of, among other things, an effort to ameliorate the condition of young people by providing them with new opportunities and protections a growing awareness of the developmental importance of childhood and of attempts to impose a middle-class conception of childhood upon the working classes.
Changes in the perception of childhood led to new ideas about the ways in which the delinquent and vulnerable young should be handled by the state. From the 1880s onwards, campaigners began to call in particular for the introduction of a special court to handle cases involving children and young people. (2) These efforts finally bore fruit in the Children Act of 1908, one of several reforms of the Liberal Governments of 1906-14, which included the provision of school meals, school medical inspections and pensions for orphans. Herbert Samuel, the Home Secretary, used the new Children Act to consolidate and simplify a number of existing pieces of legislation, as well as to introduce new features. The Act had six parts: infant life protection the prevention of cruelty the prohibition of juvenile smoking the refining of the roles of industrial and reformatory schools the creation of the juvenile courts and a 'miscellaneous' division which included such provision as the banning of under-fourteens from public houses. (3) While the Act made the law clearer in certain areas, it further extended the power of the state to determine family matters, and it formally introduced the juvenile court to the British legal systems.
The British juvenile courts drew upon a diverse range of intellectual influences. They owed much to the development of the social and socio-medical sciences, notably criminology, psychology and psychiatry. These disciplines developed partly as an attempt to discover the causes of and solutions for deviant behaviours and social problems. While some, like Cesare Lombroso, the Italian criminal anthropologist, (4) looked for biological predispositions towards delinquent behaviours, others looked to the mind. Child psychology and psychiatry - as they are now known - developed at a much slower rate than the study of adults, but had emerged as a distinct discipline by the 1860s. Researchers, from the 1860s onwards, turned their attention to the psychological problems of childhood and how these may differ from those suffered by adults . (5) The Child Study Movement was founded in 1893 by James Sully, a British psychologist. The movement attracted other experts - such as the American psychiatrist G. Stanley Hall - and it also provided a forum for amateur readers alike to explore the psychology and psychiatry of the young. The Child Study Movement encouraged the view that all children were individuals, and should be treated as such by parents, teachers, and medical and social professionals. This also had resonance with radical changes in the operation of philanthropic welfare activities, notably the development by the Charity Organisation Society (COS) of case work. The COS were concerned with the rational distribution of charitable alms among the needy, which they hoped to achieve through the careful investigation and consideration of the needs of individual families. (6)
The Child Study Movement and ideas about the 'scientific' application of welfare had an important influence upon the establishment of the Cook County Juvenile Court. This court was founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1899 by female reformers connected with the city's Hull-House Settlement and its Women's Club. The reformer's aim was to provide individual treatment for troubled children and to neutralise the impact of poor adult influence. They believed that dysfunctional families were the principal cause of juvenile delinquency. More specifically, that slum children misbehaved and broke the law because they were not cared for by their parents in 'appropriate' ways. The women attached to the Cook County Court in turn were highly influential in shaping other courts across the United States, although an alternate model was presented by Ben Lindsay, the self-appointed juvenile judge of Denver, Colorado. Lindsay was a firm proponent of developing 'character' among those young men who attended his court, of instilling in them the middle-class values of duty, courage, independence and self-control. (7) These developments caused a stir among reformist circles in the UK, and inspired the first British juvenile court, which was established in Birmingham in 1900. The British courts shared much in common with their American counterparts in terms of a belief that the delinquent young needed to be saved in order to protect the wider society. As on the other side of the Atlantic, the causes of juvenile delinquency were located in the failure of 'character' and of suitable (male) role modelling as well as in the failure of the family. (8)
The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 created new problems for those involved in the juvenile courts. Although the courts had made progress in establishing a new model for dealing with the delinquent and vulnerable young, they were stretched to the limit by the rise in juvenile crime that occurred during the war. Cecil Leeson, commissioned by the Howard League to explore this phenomenon, found that the rising crime rate was connected to such role models as fathers, other male relatives, teachers, boys' club leaders and the like being away at the Front. Leeson also believed that many mothers were unable to supervise their children effectively as their energies were pulled between the demands of war work, queuing for rationed food and necessities, keeping up with domestic duties and anxieties about serving relatives and spouses. (9) Leeson's findings resonated with the existing discourse about the needs of the young. From the 1890s, a robust literature about the beneficial impact of boys' clubs had developed. Memoirs such as Alexander Paterson's Across the Bridges exhorted young male graduates to abandon their comfortable surroundings for boys' clubs at university settlements in the slums of East and South East London, while Charles E. B. Russell wrote at length of how the intervention of a sympathetic club leader could restore delinquent boys to good citizenship. (10) As Victor Bailey has pointed out, many of those who were involved in boys' clubs at university settlements went on to prominence within the juvenile courts Paterson and Russell, both inspectors of industrial and reformatory schools, are a good example. (11) Young male graduates were seen to be 'good' role models for young working-class boys. The graduate club leaders could help to keep their club boys out of trouble by providing them with constructive leisure interests, moral guidance and support. While boys' clubs could have a preventative role, a similar model was used by probation officers. The 1907 Probation Act formally introduced probation as a means of rehabilitating those who had broken the law. Before the late 1960s, probation was commonly used to deal with child and youth rather than adult offenders. Probationers could be required to go to a boys' club or to reside away from bad influences the probation officer made regular visits to his or her charges to ensure that they were following their terms and that their welfare needs were being met. (12)
Governmental commitment to the task of reducing and ideally preventing juvenile delinquency continued after the First World War, especially as the Home Office became more comfortable with the changes introduced by the Children Act of 1908. (13) The Children's Branch of the Home Office was established in 1919, which extended their remit beyond the inspection of reformatory and industrial schools to include the management of juvenile courts, probation and places of detention. The Children's Branch was also responsible for monitoring the employment of children, for preventing cruelty to children, as well as for monitoring obscene publications and the trafficking of women and children. (14) It was through the Children's Branch that subsequent reforms of the 1908 Act were carried out.
Campaigners and civil servants alike were unhappy with the limits imposed by the Act, and wished to add more proactive measures to reduce delinquency. A report commissioned by the Board of Education in 1920 argued for a link between the high wages earned by boys in 'blind-alley' labour, the paucity of constructive leisure activities in some areas and higher rates of juvenile crime - again picking up themes expressed by Leeson and other researchers as well as those who had been involved in urban youth work. In January 1925, William Joynson-Hicks, then the Conservative Home Secretary, appointed a committee, chaired by Sir Thomas Molony, to investigate the treatment of 'young offenders'. When the committee reported in 1927, they concluded that 'the welfare of the child or young person should be the primary object of the juvenile court'. They also called for magistrates with experience in dealing with young people, and that younger magistrates should be recruited to these posts. The report reiterated the importance of issues raised by the 1908 Act, notably that juvenile courts should be held at different times and in different places to adult sittings of courts. It also demanded that court proceedings be made as simple as possible in order that children and young people might better understand what was happening around them. But the report went further, calling for children and young people to remain anonymous and to be in no way identifiable in media reporting of cases. It was felt that public knowledge of a child's acts could in future unfairly jeopardise their chances of finding employment. The report also demanded that courts be furnished with as much information as possible about the lives of the children brought before it, about their school attendance, their health and their home environment. Probation was an important part of the work of the court with young offenders, a method by which the young person could be reclaimed to good citizenship through the firm and wise guidance of an appropriate adult. (15)
The report served as the foundation for the Children and Young Persons Bill, which reached enactment in 1933. The Children and Young Persons Act extended those features of the 1908 Act that were seen as needing adjustment, notably in terms of how the courts operated and by reducing the stigma of going to court. The emphasis was squarely upon reclaiming young offenders to good citizenship, of trying to counteract the impact of poverty upon the lives of young people and thereby to reduce levels of criminal behaviour. Although middle-class children certainly came before the courts - often for such crimes as travelling on the railway without a valid ticket - working-class children were disproportionately represented in the courts, with boys forming the majority of all cases seen. (16) The boys were seen as suffering from a wide range of disadvantages that arose from their less fortunate backgrounds: parents who could not provide adequate supervision as they were preoccupied with caring for younger children or working limited access to leisure facilities and supervised play or parents with high wages and a lack of direction in how to spend and save wisely. Certainly the Acts and the reformers behind them can be seen as attempting to control and shape the working-class family based on a middle-class model.
Poverty was not the main explanation of delinquency in all cases. By the inter-war period, magistrates were increasingly referring children and young people for psychological tests. This was a continuation of the influence of the Child Study Movement, and particularly of the development of the Child Guidance Clinics. The first Child Guidance Clinic had been set up in East London in 1927 by Emanuel Miller on Bell Lane in Spitalfields, supported financially by the Jewish Health Organisation. (17) The clinic had close working links with the East or Inner London Juvenile Court, which was based a few streets away at the Toynbee Hall settlement, as well as with Sir Cyril Burt. Burt had been appointed as psychologist to the London County Council and came to be a pioneer in the field of educational and social psychology. In 1925, he published a book based on his work with young offenders, called The Young Delinquent . He argued that delinquency was caused by neglect and various forms of poor parenting, and again emphasised that the treatment of such children by the courts required careful investigation and an individualised approach. Burt also argued for the extensive use of child guidance clinics by all juvenile courts as a means of preventing future recidivism. (18)
Some juvenile court magistrates, such as Sir William Clarke Hall, Basil Henriques, Cynthia Colville and others, keenly embraced new thinking about the causes of juvenile delinquency and the ways in which children and young people could be rehabilitated. Yet not all magistrates were as interested in reclaiming young offenders. As Deborah Thom has pointed out, the pro-corporal punishment lobby remained a powerful one - the bill which became the 1933 Children and Young Persons Act was held up on its way through the Lords so that provision for beating could be reinstated. Until the 1948 Children Act banned the practice, males could still be sentenced to a birching. Regardless of psychological evidence to the contrary, corporal punishment was seen as an effective means of instilling character into a young man, and was widely used in schools, in the Forces and by families. (19) Corporal punishment on boys aged under 14 increased in the course of the Second World War. In 1938 and 1939 there were 48 and 58 cases of whippings respectively in England and Wales this rose to a high of 531 in 1941, gradually dropping to 165 by the end of 1943 before returning to pre-war levels in 1944 when 37 cases were handled in this way. (20) This rise has been attributed to the need to deal with increasing juvenile crime during the war in combination with retired magistrates being reinstated to cope with the dual pressures of an increasing caseload and younger magistrates serving on war duty. Therefore, attitudes to how children and young people should be treated varied from court to court, region to region, and even among members of the same bench of magistrates. Although the various Children's Acts set the pace, the magistracy did not always keep up and more authoritarian views remained in currency in some parts.
To conclude, the British juvenile justice system underwent significant philosophical changes in the first half of the 20th century. Although there were many who clung to older ideas about the benefits of corporal punishment, the view that children and young people who broke the law should be reclaimed and rehabilitated had become the orthodox view by the passing of the 1948 Children Act, which maintained the 1933 Act and expanded provision for those children looked after by the state. This approach drew upon the views of social workers in the slums of British and American cities, of researchers in the new social and medical sciences, and upon a view that social problems were best tackled 'scientifically' and 'methodically'. Delinquency was seen as part of a social matrix, as resulting from structural inequalities and deficient parenting styles. The solution to the problem of delinquency was seen as lying within the reformation of the structures which caused these inequities. For the more radical magistrates and Home Office advisers, the answer was not to overhaul society, but to reform the ways in which children and young people were treated by the courts. Thus the juvenile courts of the first half of the 20th century were concerned as much with social justice as they were with criminal.
The 1930’s was considered the Golden Age of Hollywood, with 65% of the US population attending the cinema on a weekly basis.
A new era in film history began in this decade with the industry-wide movement towards sound into film, creating new genres such as action, musicals, documentaries, social statement films, comedies, westerns, and horror movies, with stars such as Laurence Olivier, Shirley Temple, and director John Ford rising to rapid fame.
The use of audio tracks in motion pictures created a new viewer dynamic and also initiated Hollywood’s leverage in the upcoming World War II.
Major Research Projects
Dr. Shire's first book was published in.The Threshold of Manifest Destiny: Gender and National Expansion in Florida argues that American political leaders leveraged gender norms – not only masculinity but also femininity – in order to Americanize Florida, setting a precedent for U.S. policy in many subsequent frontier zones further West. They used white women’s presence in Florida to justify violence against Seminole peoples and to rationalize generous social policies for white settler families, many of them slaveholders. At the same time, they relied on white women’s material, domestic and reproductive labor to create homes and families there the building blocks of permanent colonial settlement. In short, white women were indispensable to the process of settling Florida for the U.S., a process that displaced both Indigenous people and enslaved people of African descent.
Prof. Shire’s next monograph will be titled The Women at㺬 Queen Street: Gender and Labor in Early Baltimore. This book will use the women who lived in the household of Mary Young Pickersgill (at 44 Queen Street in Baltimore, Maryland, from 1807-1857) as the subjects of a microhistory on women, race, class, and labour in the early 19thcentury American city. The women who lived in this household were responsible for one of the most famous pieces of material culture in U.S. history: the Star-Spangled Banner. Although the flag hangs in the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, very little is known about the women and girls who created it. This book will reveal the myriad ways in which women’s work – even in the age of “True Womanhood” – supported early U.S. capitalization and urbanization. It builds on my knowledge of gender and nationalist projects in the early 19thcentury United States, and on my longstanding love for Baltimore.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Puerto Rican and Chicana/o/x radicals from across the United States developed a sophisticated theory of fascism as part of a broader effort to defend themselves against government repression and apply the lessons of the rightward trajectories of many Latin American countries. In the process, they built panethnic alliances that helped spur the emergence of Latina/o/x identity as it is commonly understood in the twenty-first century. This article uses the Movimiento de Liberación Nacional (National Liberation Movement, or MLN) as a case study of this broader process because of its binational character and its persistent willingness to grapple with both the theory and practice of fascism and anti-fascism in the United States and in Latin America. While the MLN abandoned its own panethnic structure in the early 1980s, its legacy of Latina/o/x struggle against far right and white nationalist forces persists into the present moment.
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Guide to House Records: Chapter 11
Committees discussed in this chapter:
- (1814-1880) (1816-1927) (1816-1927) (1816-1927) (1816-1927) (1816-1927) (1816-1927) (1860-1927) (1874-1927) (1889-1927) (1905-1913) (1913-1927) (1913-1927) (1927-1952) (1952-1968)
11.1 Article I, section 9 of the Constitution provides that "No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time." From the founding of our Government it has been the right of Congress, the legislative branch, to appropriate funds for the executive branch and to specify, except in extreme cases, where the funds should be spent. This chapter includes descriptions of the records of the Committee on Government Operations and numerous other standing committees, subcommittees, and special subcommittees of the House that have been created specifically to oversee the expenditure of funds by the executive agencies of the Government.
History and Jurisdiction
11.2 Initially, the House appointed special committees to monitor the use of public moneys. In 1802, the Committee of Ways and Means was empowered to review expenditures and to report such provisions and arrangements "as may be necessary to add to the economy of the departments, and the accountability of their officers."1 On February 26, 1814, Congress divided the duties of the Committee of Ways and Means and transferred that part relating to the examination of past expenditures to a standing Committee on Public Expenditures.2
11.3 The Committee on Public Expenditures was to "examine into the state of the several public departments, and particularly into the laws making appropriations of moneys and to report whether the moneys had been disbursed conformably with such laws." It was also to report measures to increase the economy of the Departments and the accountability of officers.3
11.4 In 1816 the House initiated an organizational change that provided a means of continuously and consistently following the operations of the various Departments and scrutinizing their expenditures. Henry St. George Tucker of Virginia proposed the appointment of six standing committees to examine the accounts and expenditures of the State, Treasury, War, Navy, and Post Office Departments, and those related to the construction and maintenance of public buildings.
11.5 The committees were created on March 30, 1816,4 and committees for the Departments of Interior, Justice, Agriculture, Commerce and Labor (later split into two committees), were established between 1860 and 1913. The jurisdiction of these new committees included the following subjects:
- The examination of the accounts and expenditures of the several Departments of the Government and the manner of keeping the same the economy, justness, and correctness of such expenditures their conformity with appropriation laws the proper application of public moneys the security of the Government against unjust and extravagant demands retrenchment the enforcement of the payment of moneys due to the United States the economy and accountability of public officers the abolishment of useless offices [and] the reduction or increase of the pay of officers.5
11.6 Until January 28, 1878, each committee generally consisted of three to five members. After that date, the number was fixed at seven. Frequently, first-term members of Congress were assigned to these committees. Abraham Lincoln, for example, served as a member of the Committee on Expenditures in the War Department during the 30th Congress, his only term in Congress.
11.7 From 1816 to 1927 the committees on expenditures reviewed the financial accountability of the Departments and infrequently followed the reviews with investigations. Although they usually had relatively little to do, at times the committees attained considerable importance and prominence. Faced with a substantive war debt during their first decade, most of the committees actively monitored their respective Departments and recommended ways to effect economies in departmental operations. The committees usually were busy and effective during periods of financial crisis, but their activities generally were curtailed when the United States was at war.
11.8 The committees could conduct investigations with or without specific direction from the House. Authority for compelling testimony, however, had to be obtained from the House, except during the 44th and 45th Congresses. Because of this limitation, investigations made under authority of the rules were merely inquiries undertaken with the cooperation or acquiescence of the officers of the Departments involved. Investigations were also made at the request of Congress, but many investigations that the committees could have handled were conducted by special committees created specifically for the purpose.
11.9 By 1879 the usefulness of the Committee on Public Expenditures was being questioned by the Committee on Rules which argued that the mission of the Committee on Public Expenditures essentially duplicated on a broad scale the work of the committees on expenditures of the individual Departments. The Committee on Rules maintained that one committee could not examine the financial management of the several Departments as thoroughly as committees whose sole purpose was to examine the accounts and expenditures of a single Department. Effective March 8, 1880, the Committee on Public Expenditures ceased to exist although Congress had stipulated that no standing committee should be abolished before March 3, 1881, the end of the 46th Congress. The Committee on Public Expenditures was revived as a select committee during the 47th Congress.
11.10 The fate of the House committees on departmental expenditures was directly influenced by organizational changes in the Treasury Department. From 1817 to 1921 the Treasury Department employed six accounting officers called Auditors who examined accounts involving the collection or disbursement of public funds and decided which accounts were to be admitted or rejected. The seventh "Auditor" was the Comptroller of the Treasury whose principal duty was to construe the laws governing the disbursement and application of public moneys but who also occasionally reviewed accounts previously examined by the Auditors. The work of the Auditors was not performed for Congress, and the audited accounts were not submitted to Congress.
11.11 By the end of World War I Congress realized the limitations of its control over expenditures and its inability to monitor effectively the use of funds by the executive departments. In practice the executive branch audited its own accounts through the Treasury Department with relatively little congressional supervision. Consequently, as a measure designed to increase congressional control over expenditures as well as over matters of economy and efficiency in governmental operations, Congress passed the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921.
11.12 The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 (Public Law 67-13) combined the six auditing offices of the Treasury Department with the Office of the Comptroller of the Treasury to form the General Accounting Office (GAO). The GAO was separated from the Treasury Department and established as an independent office responsible to Congress. The Act also created the Office of the Comptroller General and ordered that official to investigate "all matters relating to the receipt, disbursement, and applications of public funds" and to make reports to Congress on his work and recommendations and to "make such investigations and reports as shall be ordered by either House. or by any committee. having jurisdiction over revenue appropriations, or expenditures."
11.13 When Alvan T. Fuller of Massachusetts resigned from the Committee on Expenditures in the Interior Department in 1918, he said that the committee was "wasting the taxpayers' money" and was "the most inefficient and expensive barnacle that ever attached itself to a ship of state."6 Following World War I most of the committees on expenditures continued to be relatively inactive, a situation that was aggravated after the General Account Office was created in 1921 because many committee members believed that the GAO was looking out for the interests of Congress. Because the committees were accomplishing so little, Congress, on the first day of the 70th Congress, December 5, 1927, abolished the 11 committees on expenditures and replaced them with a single committee, the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments.7
11.14 The Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments consisted of 21 members. Initially its jurisdiction was the same as that of the departmental committees. In 1928 its jurisdiction was expanded to cover independent establishments and commissions. In time the committee acquired jurisdiction over a wide variety of activities. For example, it came to be responsible for facilitating the conservation of public lands and other natural resources by coordinating the conservation functions of executive agencies. It also became involved with recordkeeping requirements for various governmental agencies.
11.15 During its early years the committee addressed a few select issues, such as the public works function in Government, the consolidation of veterans' affairs, and a retirement system for Federal employees. However, the Great Depression made monitoring economy and efficiency in the Government an urgent issue, and the committee's activities greatly increased under John J. Cochran of Missouri who chaired the committee from 1932 to 1940. America's entry into World War II, and the subsequent slowing down of New Deal activities led to a relatively inactive period for the committee.
11.16 With the end of the war and passage of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 (Public Law 79-601), the committee once again became active. This act charged the committee with receiving and examining the reports of the Comptroller General and of reporting on them to the House studying the operation of government activities at all levels to determine their economy and efficiency evaluating the effects of laws enacted to reorganize the legislative and executive branches of the government and studying intergovernmental relationships.
11.17 Much of the post-war committee work had to do with government reorganizations. In 1939 Congress authorized the President to formulate plans for abolishing, consolidating, or regrouping agencies of the executive department in the interest of efficiency and economy and to transmit the plans to Congress where they were reviewed by the Committee. If the plans were not disapproved by the Committee and Congress did not reject them within 60 days they would automatically take effect. Beginning in 1949, the Committee also reviewed the recommendations of the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government (the Hoover Commission) and the reorganization plans subsequently submitted under the general Reorganization Act of 1949. This Act ratified the Hoover Commission's recommendations in principle and authorized the President to draw up specific reorganization plans. However, the legislators reserved to themselves the right to veto any plan by adverse vote of either House within 60 days of its submission. Subsequent legislation made similar provisions about reorganization plans. Between 1949 and 1973, 19 of the 93 reorganization plans submitted by the President were rejected.
11.18 Much of the work of the committee and its successor, the Committee on Government Operations, related to the work of the General Accounting Office. In 1946 the committee was charged in the Legislative Reorganization Act with responsibility for reviewing the audit reports of the General Accounting Office. These reports grew in number and scope after 1945 when Public Law 79-248 authorized the GAO to conduct audits of Government-owned agencies and again after 1949, when GAO began "comprehensive audits" of all Departments and agencies.
11.19 On July 3, 1952, the Committee was renamed the Committee on Government Operations.8 The jurisdiction of the Committee on Government Operations pursuant to the rules of the 90th Congress included:
- A. Budget and accounting measures, other than appropriations B. Reorganizations in the executive branch of the Government C.(1). receiving and examining reports of the Comptroller General of the United States and of submitting such recommendations to the House as it deems necessary or desirable in connection with the subject matter of such reports (2). studying the operation of Government activities at all levels with a view to determining its economy and efficiency (3). evaluating the effects of laws enacted to reorganize the legislative and executive branches of the Government (4). studying intergovernmental relationships between the United States and States and municipalities, and between the United States and international organizations of which the United States is a member.9
11.20 For the purpose of performing its duties, the committee, or any of its subcommittees when authorized by the committee, was authorized to hold hearings and act at any time and place within the United States. It was also authorized to require by subpoena or otherwise the attendance of witnesses and the production of papers, documents, and books, and to take such testimony as it deemed necessary.
11.21 The Committee's jurisdiction with respect to oversight responsibilities overlapped with that of most other standing committees. Such overlapping jurisdiction necessarily arose from the broad oversight functions assigned to the committee by the House rules.
11.22 The work of the committee has increased with almost every Congress during the past four decades. The same has been true of the oversight activities of the other House committees, as a result, in part, to the directive in Section 136 of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 that "each standing committee. shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution. of any laws" by the administrative agencies within their jurisdiction, and by the requirement of the Reorganization Act of 1970, that the committees report annually on their oversight activities.
11.23 Two series of records that document the administrative operation of the committees are common to most of the committees on expenditures for the period 1814-1927. Minute books contain information about committee membership and attendance at meetings, the appointment of clerks, topics discussed during the meetings, and lists of witnesses who appeared before the committees. The docket books contain information about the status of bills, correspondence, and actions of committee interest. Because the contents of the minute and docket books are basically the same for each committee, only those volumes that contain unusual information are mentioned specifically in the discussion of the records of each committee.
11.24 Two other series that are found for most of the committees are petitions and memorials and committee papers. Relatively few petitions and memorials were referred to the committees and for most committees the footage for this series is negligible. Committee papers form the bulk of the records for most of the committees. These papers generally consist of financial statements and other fiscal records providing information about specific and contingent expenditures. Often detailed information is given about the expenses, salaries, and promotions of individual employees of the Government. Many of the records concern studies on the adjustment of pay and allowances for governmental workers. The volume of committee papers increases significantly with the 80th Congress (1947-49).
11.25 The bill files, are found in great volume after the 80th Congress. They are arranged by Congress and thereunder by bill type: House bills, House resolutions, House joint resolutions, House concurrent resolutions, Senate bills, Senate joint resolutions, and Senate concurrent resolutions, and thereunder by bill or resolution number.
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures (1814-1880)
11.26 There are records for this committee for the entire period of its existence.
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures, 13th-46th Congresses (1814-1880)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books||2 volumes||1865-71 (39th-41st), 1877-80 (45th-46th)|
|Docket Books||3 volumes||1861-79 (37th-45th)|
|Petitions and Memorials||2 inches||1815-17 (14th), 1839-43 (26th-27th), 1847-49 (30th)|
|Committee Papers||3 feet||1814-17 (13th-14th, 1819-23 (16th-17th), 1827-33 (20th-22nd), 1839-45 (26th-28th), 1847-49 (30th), 1959-61 (36th), 1863-65 (38th), 1871-73 (42d), 1875-77 (44th)|
|Total volume||3 feet and 5 volumes|
11.27 Docket books show the status of legislation and topics of committee interest. Occasionally, remarks are noted, which, in some instances, actually are minutes of meetings.
11.28 Petitions and memorials are sparse. Calls in 1842 for "retrenchment and reform" in Congress and in the executive departments comprise most of the petitions and memorials (27A-G19.1).
11.29 Committee papers indicate the wide variety of activities that the committee reviewed or investigated to see if they were being conducted in an economical and efficient manner. For example, in 1822 and 1828 the committee conducted surveys to determine whether governmental departments were structured in a manner that facilitated reviews for accountability (17A-C22.1, 20A-D19.1). In 1841, the committee reviewed contract procedures to determine what benefits, if any, executive departments derived from the requirement that they accept the lowest bids for printing services and stationery supplies (26A-D22.1).
11.30 Many matters relating to military procurement practices came within the committee's purview. Among the committee papers are records relating to an 1816 inquiry into the procurement practices of General William Henry Harrison in 1813-14 (14A-C13.1) an 1817 review of expenditures, including wartime contracts (14A-C13.2) and an 1844 inquiry into financial mismanagement by the commanding officer of the Florida Squadron during 1841-42 (28A-D24.1). Also included are records of three investigations of the financial affairs of military officers in 1842 (27A-D18.1, 27A-D18.2, 27A-D18.3).
11.31 Committee papers concerning activities of civil agencies include records relating to an investigation of contracts for mailbags (27A-D18.5) a review of the expenditures on repairs, alterations, and improvement of the White House in 1842 (27A-D18.6) reports in 1848 on the Secretary of Treasury's annual report (30A-D19.1) and in 1860 on public printing (36A-D20.1) and a review of the operations of the New York Customhouse (38A-E18.1).
11.32 The committee papers also include records created in 1831 and 1832 when the committee attempted to develop a better system for estimating the distance Members traveled to Congress (21A-D20.1, 22A-D20.1).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Navy Department (1816-1927)
11.33 The earliest records of this committee are from the 16th Congress (1819-1821).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Navy Department, 14th-69th Congresses (1816-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books||3 volumes||1891-93 (52nd), 1907-11 (60th-61st)|
|Docket Books||1 volume||1907-09 (60th)|
|Petitions and Memorials||1 inch||1865-67 (39th)|
|Committee Papers||1 foot||1819-21 (16th), 1829-35 (21st-23d), 1943-45 (28th), 1959-61 (36th), 1875-77 (44th), 1887-89 (50th), 1893-95 (53rd), 1907-09 (60th), 1919-21 (66th)|
|Total volume||1 foot and 4 volumes (4 in.)|
11.34 Few petitions and memorials exist for this committee. One that has been preserved is a January 1867 petition by employees of the Washington Navy Yard requesting an increase their pay (39A-H9.1).
11.35 Most of the committee papers concern accounting for the contingency expenditures in the Navy Department investigating contracting practices (28A-D8.1, 36A-D7.1, 44A-F11.1) and reviewing pay and allowances (16A-D7.1, 66A-F12.2). Records relating to President Theodore Roosevelt's communication to Congress of February 25, 1909, concerning the needs of the Navy are included in this series (60A-F16.1).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Post Office (1816-1927)
11.36 The earliest records of this committee date from the 17th Congress (1821-1823).
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures in the Post Office, 14th-69th Congresses (1816-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books||3 volumes||1889-91 (51st), 1907-09 (60th), 1911-13 (62d)|
|Docket Books||1 volume||1889-91 (51st), 1907-09 (60th), 1911-13 (62d)|
|Petitions and Memorials||1 inch||1911-13 (62d)|
|Committee Papers||1 foot||1821-23 (17th), 1829-31 (21st), 1843-45 (28th), 1891-97 (52d-54th), 1905-09 (59th-60th), 1911-15 (62d-63d), 1917=19 (65th)|
|Total volume||12 feet and 7 volumes (6 in.)|
11.37 The minutes of the meetings held during the 1911-13 period, document the committee's efforts to review economy and efficiency of the Post Office Department's operations, conflicts of interest by postmasters, and the political involvement of postal employees (62A-F11.2).
11.38 Only a few petitions and memorials exist for this committee. Most are from various groups calling for an investigation of the Post Office Department's actions against a socialist weekly, The Appeal to Reason (62A-H8.1), or protesting the Post Office Department's actions against certain publications, including the Woman's National Daily (62A-H8.2).
11.39 Over 90 percent of the committee papers consists of listings of bidders for contracts for mail delivery routes during the years 1891-95 (52A-F15.1, 53A-F13.1). Most of the remaining records relate to reports of and examinations of Post Office Department contingent expenses. Among the most interesting of the committee papers are those of a subcommittee appointed during the 59th Congress to determine whether the Post Office Department was harassing E. G. Lewis, publisher of The Woman's Magazine and Woman's Farm Journal (59A-F13.1, 59A-F13.2, 62A-F11.1).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Treasury Department (1816-1927)
11.40 The earliest records available for this committee are from the 21st Congress (1829-1831).
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures in the Treasury Department, 14th-69th Congresses (1816-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books||4 volumes||1891-95 (52d-53d), 1907-09 (60th), 1915-17 (64th)|
|Docket Books||7 volumes||1859-61 (36th), 1879-81 (46th), 1889-95 (51st-53d), 1907-90 (60th), 1915-17 (64th)|
|Petitions and Memorials||1 inch||1839-41 (36th), 1893-95 (53d), 1907-11 (60th-61st)|
|Committee Papers||2 feet||1829-31 (21st), 1859-61 (36th), 1865-67 (39th), 1875-83 (44th-47th), 1887-89 (50th), 1891-93 (52d), 1895-97 (54th), 1909-27 (61st-69th)|
|Bill Files||5 inches||1907-09 (60th), 1913-19 (63d-65th), 1923-25 (68th)|
|Total volume||3 feet and 11 volumes (9 in.)|
11.41 Petitions and memorials for this committee are sparse. Most of them either oppose closing certain customs offices in 1894 (53A-H10.1) or support legislation in 1908 relating to the appointment of pharmacists in the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service (60A-H10.1).
11.42 The committee papers contain records relating to numerous investigations. They include inquiries into the way the fund for the relief of sick and disabled seamen was expended (36A-D8.1) the sale of captured and abandoned cotton and other property from 1865 to 1867 (44A-F14.1) the water-proofing process employed in the manufacture of fractional currency (44A-F14.2) the effectiveness of the Secret Service and fraud in the Customs Service in New York City (61A-F18.1) and the management of St. Elizabeths Hospital (68A-F14.1) and the War Risk Insurance Bureau (66A-F14.1, 66A-F14.2). Also included are records created when the committee attempted from 1909 to 1912 to make the Treasury Department more efficient (61A-F18.1, 62A-F13.2, 62A-F13.3).
11.43 Additional information about efforts in 1908 to regulate the appointment of pharmacists in the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service (60A-D7) is found in the bill files. Also included are records concerning efforts in 1918 to determine money due the Government from the States (65A-D5) and attempts in 1924 to determine Government indebtedness and to review income tax returns of Harry F. Sinclair and other associates of his oil company (68A-D9). There are also records relating to hearings held in 1916 to determine how effectively income taxes were being collected (64A-D5).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the State Department (1816-1927)
11.44 The earliest records for this committee date from the 17th Congress (1821-1823).
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures in the State Department, 14th-69th Congresses (1816-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books||3 volumes||1879-81 (46th), 1907-09 (60th), 1911-15 (62d-63d)|
|Docket Books||4 volumes||1877-81 (45th-46th), 1885-87 (49th), 1907-09 (60th), 1911-13 (62d)|
|Bound Reports||1 volume||1827-39 (20th-25th)|
|Committee Papers||2 feet||1821-25 (17th-18th), 1827-33 (20th-22d), 1835-39 (23d-25th), 1843-45 (28th), 1875-81 (44th-46th), 1909-13 (61st-62d), 1919-27 (66th-69th)|
|Total volume||2 feet amd 7 volumes (7 in.)|
11.45 The committee papers include one volume of committee reports covering the period April 5, 1828 to May 26, 1838.
11.46 The committee infrequently conducted investigations of financial irregularities by Department personnel. Among the committee papers are records concerning several investigations undertaken during the 1876-79 period on financial dealings of American diplomatic personnel and fiscal operations in American diplomatic and consular offices (44A-F13.1, 44A-F13.2, 46A-F12.1, 46A-F12.2, 46A-F12.3, 46A-F12.4).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the War Department (1816-1927)
11.47 The earliest records are from the 16th Congress (1819-1821).
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures in the War Department, 14th-69th Congresses (1816-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books and Unbound Minutes||1 volume and 1 inch||1839-41 (26th), 1881-83 (47th) 1885-87 (49th) 1925-27 (69th)|
|Docket Books||2 volumes||1885-87 (49th), 1907-09 (60th)|
|Petitions and Memorials||1 inch||1863-65 (38th), 1887-89 (50th)|
|Committee Papers||25 feet||1819-23 (16th-17th), 1831-33 (22d), 1837-43 (25th-27th), 1859-61 (36th), 1875-81 (44th-46th), 1885-87 (49th), 1895-1903 (54th-57th), 1907-99 (60th-61st), 1913-1915 (63rd), 1919-27 (66th-69th)|
|Total volume||25 ft. and 3 vols. (2 in.)|
11.48 In addition to the minute book some unbound minutes are among the committee papers. These cover committee meetings held during January and February 1840 (26A-D8.1), February through June 1882 (47A-F11.3) and, on May 10, 1926 (69A-F17.2).
11.49 Only a few petitions and memorials exist for this committee. Among them is a 1864 petition from a Washington, DC, resident complaining about mismanagement of the Military Storekeeping Department in the District (38A-G6.1) and several 1888 petitions regarding the establishment of a National Bureau of Harbors and Water Works under the War Department (50A-H9.1).
11.50 Forms used to certify the inspection of money accounts of Army disbursing officers, for 1877-1914 (with a few gaps) and 1921-1924 constitute the majority of the committee papers they provide detailed accountings of Army expenses. However, a sizable portion of the committee papers concerns examinations of specific and contingent War Department expenditures, and a substantial quantity of the material documents various financial activities of the War Department. Included are records concerning outstanding checks issued by Army disbursing officers during the years 1892 to 1899 abstracts of articles and services purchased for the Army, 1886-1894 and lists of contracts made by the War Department and its bureaus, 1886-1894.
11.51 Records relating to investigations are also contained in the committee papers. Typical are documents concerning an 1860 investigation to determine why an 1852 contract for marble columns for the Capitol extension had not been completed (36A-D9.1), an 1876 inquiry into the payments for publishing The Official Records of the War of the Rebellion. (44A-F15.1), and an 1878 investigation into the financial activities of the chief inspector of clothing at the quartermaster's depot in Philadelphia (45A-F14.1). Also included in the committee papers are records relating to efforts in 1878 to reduce the clerical force in the War Department (46A-F14.1) and an 1842 printed report on extra pay to compensate Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott for services rendered in the 1838 Cherokee removal (27A-D7.1).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures on the Public Buildings (1816-1927)
11.52 Records for this committee are sparse, particularly after the 44th Congress (1875-1877).
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures in the Public Buildings, 14th-69th Congresses (1816-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books||1 volume||1889-91 (51st)|
|Docket Books||1 volume||1815-41 (14th-26th)|
|Petitions and Memorials||1 inch||1825-27 (19th)|
|Committee Papers||1 foot||1815-23 (14th-17th), 1825-29 (19th-20th), 1835-41 (24th-26th), 1843-47 (28th-29th), 1853-55 (33d), 1875-77 (44th), 1907-09 (60th)|
|Total volume||1 ft. and 2 vols. (5 in.)|
11.53 Petitions and memorials are virtually non-existent for this committee. The one petition in the records was submitted in 1826 by William J. Chaffee regarding his design for "ornamenting the pediment of the Capitol" (19A-G6.1).
11.54 About half of the committee papers are reports of the Commissioner of Public Buildings regarding expenditures between 1816 and 1846 on public buildings, primarily in Washington, DC. Included are reports relating to an 1817 plan for "warming" the public buildings (14A-C12.2) and the status of fire fighting equipment in Washington, DC in 1826 (19A-D7.3). A number of detailed reports and other records concern the White House and its furnishings between 1816 and 1840 (14A-C12.1, 15A-D13.1, 19A-D7.2, 26A-D7.1) and work done on the Capitol between 1816 and 1827 (14A-C12.1, 15A-D13.1, 17A-C8.1, 19A-D7.1).
11.55 A few committee papers relate to public buildings outside Washington, DC. Among these are an 1840 report on the branch mint at Charlotte, NC (26A-D7.2) and records from 1876 relating to the contract for the construction of the New York Post Office (44A-F12.1).
11.56 A bound volume of committee reports covers the period from February 18, 1817 to July 21, 1840.
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Interior Department (1860-1927)
11.57 The Committee on Expenditures in the Interior Department was created on March 16, 1860. The earliest records for this committee are from the 44th Congress (1875-1877).
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures in the Interior Department, 36th-69th Congresses (1860-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books||6 volumes||1875-77 (44th), 1891-93 (52d), 1907-13 (60th-62d), 1919-21 (66th)|
|Docket Books||3 volumes||1907-13 (60th-62d)|
|Petitions and Memorials||8 inches||1907-13 (60th-62d)|
|Committee Papers||1 foot||1875-81 (44th-46th), 1895-97 (54th), 1907-11 (60th-61st), 1919-27 (66th-69th)|
|Bill Files||2 inches||1907-09 (60th), 1919-21 (66th)|
|Total volume||2 feet and 9 vols. (7 inches)|
11.58 The minute book for the 44th Congress contains information about the committee's actions in investigating alleged abuses and irregularities at the Government Hospital for the Insane (St. Elizabeths Hospital) and alleged frauds involving the issuance of Chippewa and Sioux "Half-Breed" script, land surveys in Washington Territory, the patent of the "Flag-Staff" Mining Company of Utah, and the employees of the Patent Office.
11.59 Most of the petitions and memorials relate to efforts in 1910 and 1911 to establish a national health bureau (61A-H8.2, 62A-H7.1) and to efforts in 1909 and 1910 to establish a children's bureau in the Interior Department (60A-H9.1, 61A-H8.1).
11.60 The committee papers provide information on a 1910 investigation of misuse of funds in the General Land Office (61A-F15.1) efforts in 1908-09 to establish a children's bureau (60A-F14.1, 61A-F15.2) and reviews of the contingent and other expenditures in the Department, including those for St. Elizabeths Hospital and the Freedman's Hospital, conducted between 1896 and 1926. A 91-page volume contains a detailed listing of contingent expenses in the Patent Office during the 1875-78 period (46A-F11.1).
11.61 The bill files contain information on efforts in 1908 to establish a children's bureau in the Interior Department (60A-D5) and in 1919 to create a department of public works (66A-D7).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Justice Department (1874-1927)
11.62 The Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Justice was created on January 16, 1874. The earliest records for this committee date from the 44th Congress (1875-1876).
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures in the Justice Department, 43rd-69th Congresses (1874-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books||6 volumes||1883-89 (48th-50th), 1897-99 (55th), 1907-09 (60th)|
|Docket Books||4 volumes||1875-77 (44th), 1885-87 (49th), 1891-93 (52d), 1907-09 (60th)|
|Committee Papers||1 foot||1883-87 (48th-49th), 1907-09 (60th), 1921-23 (67th)|
|Bill Files||1 inch||1907-09 (60th)|
|Total volume||1 foot and 10 volumes (9 in.)|
11.63 One of the docket books contains a memorandum listing correspondence for the period February-April 1876 for B. G. Caulfield, a member of both the Judiciary Committee and the Committee on Expenditures in the Justice Department. Most of the letters involve requests to the Attorney General for information and records.
11.64 Most of the committee papers date from the years 1884-86 and concern investigations into financial and political irregularities by U.S. Marshals, U.S. District Attorneys, and other officers appointed by or connected with the Department of Justice (48A-F11.1, 48A-F11.2, 48A-F11.3, 49A-F12.1) and into alleged fraud in the "Star Route" mail service (48A-F11.4). They also contain information about irregularities in accounts of the Pension Office (49A-F12.1) and the Department of Justice (48-F.11.2).
11.65 The bill files consist only of copies of 1908 bills relating to the collection of fees associated with naturalization laws (60A-D6).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Agriculture Department (1889-1927)
11.66 The Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Agriculture was created on December 20, 1889. The earliest records are from the 52d Congress.
Records of the Committee on Public Expenditures in the Agriculture Department, 51st-69th Congresses (1874-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Minute Books||4 volumes||1891-93 (52d), 1905-11 (59th-61st)|
|Docket Books||1 volume||1891-93 (52d)|
|Committee Papers||3 feet||1891-93 (52d), 1905-11 (59th-61st), 1925-27 (69th)|
|Total volume||3 feet and 5 volumes (4 in.)|
11.67 Statements of expenditures of the Department of Agriculture for the years 1891-92 and 1907-10 constitute most of the committee papers papers. There are also records related to a 1909 North American Conservation Conference (60A-F13.3).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Commerce and Labor Departments (1905-1913)
11.68 The Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Commerce and Labor was created on December 11, 1905. It was terminated in 1913 and was succeeded by the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Commerce and the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Labor. There are virtually no records for this committee.
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Commerce and Labor Department, 59th-63rd Congresses (1905-1913)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Committee Papers||1 inch||1909-11 (61st)|
|Total volume||1 inch|
11.69 Two printed House documents relating to efforts in 1910 to establish a children's bureau in the Department of Commerce and Labor and two pamphlets published by the National Child Labor Committee constitute the committee papers (61A-F14.1).
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Commerce Department (1913-1927)
11.70 The Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Commerce was created on May 27, 1913. The few records that exist for this committee are from the 67th Congress.
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Commerce Department, 63rd-69th Congresses (1913-1927)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Committee Papers||2 inches||1921-23 (67th Congress)|
|Total volume||2 inches|
11.71 Statements of disbursements, including individual pay and allowances, made within the Department of Commerce, comprise most of the committee papers.
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Labor Department (1913-1927)
11.72 The Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Labor was created on May 27, 1913. The National Archives holds no records for this committee.
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Department (1927-1952)
11.73 This committee was created on December 5, 1927, to replace the 11 expenditures committees that were terminated at that time.
Records of the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Department, 70th-82nd Congresses (1927-1952)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Petitions and Memorials||4 inches||1931-33 (72d), 1947-52 (80th-82d)|
|Committee Papers||125 feet||1927-52 (70th-82d)|
|Bill Files||9 feet||1927-49 (70th-80th), 1951-52 (82d)|
|Total volume||134 feet|
11.74 Most of the petitions and memorials are calls for additional benefits for disabled veterans (72A-H3.1) and the implementation of various recommendations of the Hoover Commission (81A-H4.1).
11.75 War Department accountability forms for 1931-38 and ledger-type reports for 1939-42, constitute most of the committee papers before the 80th Congress. Similar forms for earlier periods are found in the records of the Committee on Expenditures in the War Department (see para. 11.45). Most of the committee papers for the full committee for the 1927-52 period consist of mandatory agency reports, legislative recommendations and reports submitted by the Comptroller General, and original messages and executive orders from the President.
11.76 The committee papers also include unbound minutes of committee meetings held in 1941-42 (77A-F12.3), 1943 (78A-F14.4) 1945-46 (79A-F13.3), and 1947 (80A-F6.4).
11.77 Hearings and investigations are documented in the committee papers as well. There are records pertaining to hearings on St. Elizabeths Hospital in 1928 (70A-F12.1) hearings on the National Archives in 1936 (74A-F13.2) hearings on the Federal Trade Commission and the Social Security Board in 1943 (78A-F13.2) a 1937 investigation of executive agency expenditures on publicity, travel, and reproduction work (75A-F14.1) and an investigation in 1948 of the effectiveness of Civil Service Commission investigations (80A-F6.4).
11.78 The committee papers also contain information on efforts in 1937-38 to reorganize the government (75A-F14.4), the work of the Hoover Commission and reorganization plans for 1946-50 (79A-F13.2, 80A-F6.7, 81A-F6.3, 81A-F6.6), and reorganization of the Armed Forces under the National Security Act of 1947 (80A-F6.4).
11.79 Much of the work of the Committee was accomplished by its subcommittees. In most instances the subcommittee records (104 ft.) include correspondence, memoranda, transcripts of hearings, minutes of meetings, reports, bills and resolutions with accompanying papers and exhibits, general administrative records and reference materials, investigative files, and questionnaires and exhibits.
11.80 While most of the subcommittee records are filed separately, the committee papers contain records related to a 1935-36 effort by a subcommittee to investigate the organization of all agencies with a view to reducing expenditures and increasing efficiency through consolidation and coordination of governmental activities (74A-F13.4).
11.81 Information about various reorganization plans are provided in the records of the Subcommittee on Executive and Legislative Reorganization (81A-F6.7, 82A-F6.5, 6 in.).
11.82 The records of the Subcommittee on Extra Legal Activities (2 in.) provide information on investigations of irregularities in the National Labor Relations Board, the Federal Reserve Board, and other organizations (80A-F6.13).
11.83 The records of the Subcommittee on Federal Relations with International Organizations (3 ft.) relate to studies of international organizations and the cost of American participation in related programs, international narcotics control, inter-American cooperation, and efforts to create a department of peace (81A-F6.3, 81A-F6.7, 82A-F6.6).
11.84 The records of the Subcommittee on Government Operations (13 ft.) pertain to a wide range of investigations and studies, including those relating to the operations of the General Accounting Office, Government use of consultants and advisory committees, activities of the Tennessee Valley Authority and the War Housing Disposal Program (81A-F6.3, 81A-F6.7). Housing construction at Andrews Air Force Base, procurement practices, and the operations of various governmental housing programs and agencies were also monitored by the subcommittee (82A-F6.7).
11.85 The records of the Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations (13 ft.) involve several studies and investigations, including those related to military procurement, disposition of war surplus property, and the operations of the Bunker Hill School of Aeronautics. (81A-F6.3, 81A-F6.7, 82A-F6.1, 82A-F6.8)
11.86 The records of the Subcommittee on Paroles (1 ft.) were created in the course of a 1947 investigation to determine why four of Al Capone's friends received early paroles (80A-F6.12).
11.87 The records of the Subcommittee on Procurement and Public Buildings (20 ft.) document its investigations into waste and fraud, and its attempts to improve efficiency and economy in government procurement and building construction and related operations (80A-F6.5, 80A-F6.14).
11.88 The records of the Subcommittee on Surplus Property (28 ft.) concern efforts by the War Assets Administration and other agencies to dispose of surplus property during the 1946-48 period (80A-F6.9, 80A-F6.11). Some of the records were created during the 79th Congress as part of the Select Committee to Investigate Disposition of Surplus Property. For additional information on the Select Committee see Chapter 22, paras. 22.127-22.130.
11.89 The records of the Subcommittee on Public Accounts (1 in.) are primarily administrative and are part of a series of records on subcommittees kept by the committee chairman (81A-F6.7).
11.90 The records of the Subcommittee on Publicity and Propaganda (12 ft.) document investigations held to determine the degree to which civil servants, particularly those in the Agricultural Adjustment Agency, Bureau of Reclamation, and Federal Security Agency, were attempting to shape public opinion (80A-F6.6, 80A-F6.15).
11.91 Information pertaining to various studies and investigations of the efficiency and effectiveness of the operations of the State Department is found in the records of the Subcommittee on the State Department (80A-F6.8, 80A-F6.16, 7 in.).
11.92 There are records of several special subcommittees for the 82d Congress (1951-52). They include those of the Special Subcommittee Investigating the Home Loan Board (82A-F6.2, 10 ft.), the Special Subcommittee Investigating House Construction in Alaska (82A-F6.3, 10 in.), and the Special Subcommittee Investigating the Veterans Administration (82A-F6.4, 5 in.).
11.93 The bill files of the 1930's contain information about efforts to create a department of national defense (72A-D6, 73A-D8, 74A-D12, 75A-D11), the Public Works Administration (72A-D6), the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (72A-D6), and several other agencies. There is also information about a public works function in Government (70A-D8, 74A-D12), the organizational placement and coordination of veterans affairs (70A-D8, 71A-D8, 74A-D12), and the 1932 and 1945-46 governmental reorganization plans (72A-D6, 79A-D12).
11.94 For the 1930's the bill files contain information about the committee's efforts to get contractors to name their subcontractors on Government-sponsored projects (72A-D6, 74A-D12, 75A-D11) to provide military pensions and disability compensation for World War I veterans (74A-D12) and to require Government agencies to purchase American manufactured goods (72A-D6), to give preference to American citizens in hiring (75A-D11), and to provide night differential pay (75A-D11).
11.95 The committee's effort to improve the economy, efficiency, and the integrity of the Government is also documented in the bill files. Included is information about attempts to regulate government-related travel (71A-D8, 75A-D11), improve records disposition (76A-D12), reduce Federal and congressional wages (72A-D6), provide for uniform cost accounting and reporting systems for executive agencies (73A-D8, 74A-D12, 75A-D11), improve Government statistics (74A-D12, 75A-D11), reduce the number of reports the public is required to submit to the Government (77A-D11), restrict nepotism in governmental appointments (74A-D12), limit the employment of more than one family member in the Government (74A-D12), and improve the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 (78A-D9).
11.96 One of the largest collections of bill files is that dating from 1938 concerning H.R. 9848, which provided for the disposition of Army horses and mules. The legislation prompted a substantial number of letters from a wide variety of sources, including school children and Dale Carnegie (75A-D11).
Records of the Committee on Government Operations (1952-1968)
11.97 The name of the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments was changed to the Committee on Government Operations on July 3, 1952. The new name more clearly indicated the functions and duties of the committee.
Records of the Committee on Government Operations, 83rd-90th Congress (1952-1968)
|Record Type||Volume||Dates (Congresses)|
|Petitions and Memorials||1 foot||1953-68 (84th-90th)|
|Committee Papers||363 feet||1953-68 (83d-90th)|
|Bill Files||37 feet||1953-68 (83d-90th)|
|Total volume||401 feet|
11.98 Most of the petitions and memorials relate to the creation and termination of Federal agencies.
11.99 Included in the committee papers are calendars committee prints of house reports and documents transcripts of executive sessions prints and transcripts of hearings reference materials administrative records and minutes of meetings. There are also reports of negotiated sales and disposals of governmental property (5 ft.) and inventory reports from agencies providing information on their properties and assets (2 ft.). The committee papers also contain a series of chronological and alphabetical "reading" files for the 88th-90th Congresses (4 ft.) records kept by William L. Dawson on the work of the subcommittees and, for most Congresses, General Accounting Office audit reports, often arranged by the subcommittee to which they were referred.
11.100 The committee papers include 47 feet of executive communications, including reports, from agencies and a small quantity of records on reorganization plans submitted annually by the President and subsequent action, such as hearings held on the creation of a "Department of Urban Affairs and Housing" (87A-F6.2).
11.101 The committee papers for each Congress generally contain a distinct subject file providing information on the agencies and topics with which the committee dealt. There are also separate subject files on topics of interest, such as one on the implementation of the recommendations of the second Hoover Commission between 1955 and 1963 (88 GO.4).
11.102 While most of the investigatory material is contained in the records of the standing and special committees, the committee papers contain 10 feet of such files, including records relating to the Government's public information activities (83A-F7.1), ideological bias in the work of the Library of Congress (83A-F7.1), activities of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (84A-F7.3), and the effectiveness of agencies in publicizing and enforcing conflict of interest statutes (87A-F6.4).
11.103 The Committee utilized subcommittees and special subcommittees to accomplish much of its work.
11.104 Records of the subcommittees (244 ft.) include minutes, reports, correspondence, memoranda, General Accounting Office audit reports, bills and resolutions referred to subcommittee and accompanying papers, printed copies and transcripts of hearings, prints of committee and House reports, transcripts of executive sessions, and subject files on agencies. Not every type of record is available for each subcommittee.
11.105 The Subcommittee on Anti-Racketeering records (11 in.) were created during a 1954 investigation of racketeering in and around the Cleveland area and in the Washington, DC-Baltimore metropolitan area (83A-F7.14).
11.106 Most of the records of the Subcommittee on Executive and Legislative Reorganization (38 ft.) relate to reorganizations, including the establishment of departments, agencies, commissions, and assignments of governmental functions to agencies and departments (84A-D7, 84A-F7.17, 85A-D7, 85A-F7.5, 86A-F7, 86A-D5, 86A-F7.12, 87A-F6.9, 88 GO.13, 89 GO.5, 89 GO.7, 89 GO.17-19, 89 GO.25, 90 GO.11). The largest quantity of records (8 ft.) pertains to an 1960-66 investigation of the Foreign Agricultural Service (88 GO.13, 89 GO.16). Ten inches of subcommittee records from the 89th Congress relating to the creation of the Department of Transportation were retired with records of the Legislative and National Security Subcommittee of the Government Operations Committee for 92d Congress.
11.107 The records of the Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and Government Information (3 ft.) concern a variety of investigations and studies conducted during the mid-1960's, including the use of polygraphs as "lie detectors" by the Federal Government U.S. economic aid and military assistance programs in Vietnam U.S. aid operations in Latin America under the Alliance for Progress program, and issues related to access to governmental information (88 GO.15, 89 GO.5, 89 GO.7, 89 GO.25, 90 GO.11, 90 GO.12). Approximately 5 inches of records from this subcommittee for the 89th Congress are in the records of the Legislative and National Security Subcommittee for the 92th Congress. They provide information about trips to Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, to inspect various aid programs in 1966, 1967, and 1968, and trips to Brazil to inspect U.S. aid operations under the Alliance for Progress program.
11.108 The records of the Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and Monetary Affairs (8 ft.) were created during investigations of the administration of overseas personnel, U.S. technical assistance in Latin America, administrative management of the Department of State, and aid to Iran (84A-F7.4) U.S. aid operations in Laos, executive branch practices in withholding information from congressional committees, and the management of the Federal Reserve and the Export-Import Bank (86A-F7.13) U.S. aid operations in Peru and Cambodia (87A-F6.10) and contracting activities of the Agency for Intentional Development and International Cooperation Administration (87A-F6.10).
11.109 The records of the Subcommittee on Government Activities (24 ft.) provide information about the Government-owned nickel plant at Nicaro, Cuba (85A-F7.6, 87A-F6.11) the purchase and use of automated data processing equipment by the Federal Government (89 GO.5) data processing management in the Federal Government (90 GO.14) and the various agencies the committee had oversight responsibility for, including the General Services Administration.
11.110 The records of the Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations (20 ft.) pertain to a variety of investigations and studies, including those related to commercial and industrial-type activities in the Federal Government, such as box manufacturing, printing, commissaries, and the postal savings system (83A-F715) the donable surplus property program (83A-F715) the business operations of Billie Sol Estes with the Government (87A F6.12, 88 GO.16, 89 GO.7) export transactions and price support and storage activities favoritism and conflicts of interest in the Commodity Credit Corporation (86A F7.20) Federal grants-in-aid to State and local governmental programs (87A-F6.12) safety of new drugs (88 GO.16, 89 GO.5, 89 GO.7, 90 GO.12) and the control of marijuana (90 GO.12)
11.111 The records of the Subcommittee on International Operations (29 ft.) provide information on the Mutual Security Acts of 1951 and 1953 American activities in Korea, Japan, and Germany and the operations of the Foreign Operations Administration, Technical Cooperation Agency, International Cooperative Administration, United States Information Agency, and the Voice of America program: Other subjects covered are foreign aid construction programs, international education programs, and the personnel practices of the State Department (83A-F7.16, 85A-F7.18-22).
11.112 The records of the Subcommittee on Legal and Monetary Affairs (18 ft.) provide information about a variety of subjects the committee studied or investigated. During the 84th and 85th Congresses the subcommittee undertook extensive investigations into several areas, including tax amortization, labor racketeering, charitable frauds, immigration and naturalization, and false and misleading advertising of health products. It also reviewed various activities of the Department of Commerce, the Post Office Department, Treasury Department, and the Federal Trade Commission. (84A-F17-19, 85A-F7.9-12). During the 88th-90th Congresses the subcommittee reviewed crime against banking institutions, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation activities, and the Department of Justice procedures for collecting fines (88 GO.17) the activities of the Federal Reserve Board (89 GO.5, 89 GO.27) and the Federal effort against organized crime (90 GO.11, 90 GO.12).
11.113 The records of the Subcommittee on Military Operations (30 ft.) provide information about a wide variety of topics, including the military property accounting systems procurement policies and practices organization and operation of the military supply management program disposition of military surplus property defense contracts civil defense management organization and management of the military missile programs management of nuclear submarine development Government use of satellite communication use of computers in information retrieval and unnecessary costs in various programs (83A-F7.17, 87A-F6.13, 86A-F7.21, 88 GO.18, 89 GO.5, 89 GO.28, 89 GO.7, 90 GO.11, 90 GO.17). There are 2 feet of subcommittee records for the 86th-90th Congresses that were retired by the Legislative and National Security Subcommittee of the Government Operations Committee. Included in these records is information about flight pay, chemical warfare, communication satellites, and military and civilian missile programs.
11.114 Information about problems with the Nation's water resources and water pollution control is found in the records of the Subcommittee on National Resources and Power (88 GO.19, 89 GO.5, 89 GO.29, 90 GO.11, 90 GO.12, 4 ft.).
11.115 Information about hearings on 1953 investigations of inefficiencies in the Post Office Department's delivery of the mail and of maritime mobilization capabilities are found in the records of the Subcommittee on Public Accounts (83A-F7.18, 2 in.).
11.116 The records of the Subcommittee on Public Works and Resources (16 ft.) consist primarily of investigations and studies of the Rural Electric Administration, rural electric cooperatives, powerline regulations, mining claims, Federal timber policy, utilities, and various government activities in the Virgin Islands and Alaska (84A-F7.5-11, 85A-F7.13-15).
11.117 The records of the Subcommittee on Research and Technical Programs (20 ft.) provide information on Federal research and development programs the use of social research in Federal domestic programs cuts in Federal expenditures for research and development activities abroad utilization of Federal laboratory resources management of research equipment procurement management of Federal medical research on aging Federal air pollution research and development activities and the "brain drain" of developing countries, whose scientists, engineers, and physicians moved to the United States. Records relating to investigations of various labs and projects are also included (89 GO.5, 89 GO.20A, 89 GO.21, 89 GO.22, 89 GO.23, 89.GO.24, 90 GO.11, 90 GO.12, 90 GO.20-24).
11.118 Most of the records of the Special Studies Subcommittee (12 ft.) relate to agency accounting systems, lab equipment procurement, recreational boating safety, consumer affairs related activities, and certain activities of the Geological Survey and the Foreign Agriculture Service (90 GO.11, 90 GO.12).
11.119 All of the records of the Subcommittee on Reorganization of the House and Senate Committees on Government Operations (2 in.) pertain to the creation of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (83A-F7.19).
11.120 The records of the Special Subcommittee on Government Information (7 ft.) primarily relate to various issues concerning the creation, maintenance, and use of and access to Government information (85A-F7.23, 86A-F7.9, 87A-F6.7).
11.121 Information pertaining to computers, the activities of commercial credit bureaus, the National Data Bank Concept, and privacy concerns are found in the records of the Special Subcommittee on the Invasion of Privacy (89 GO.5, 89 GO32, 90 GO.11, 90 GO.12, 11 in.).
11.122 The records of the Special Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations and the Committee on Education and Labor (7 in.) provide information on welfare funds and racketeering and Federal-State cooperation in the enforcement of anti-racketeering laws in the Detroit, MI and Kansas City, MO areas (83A-F7.13).
11.123 During the 83d Congress the committee appointed numerous special subcommittees, including those on Alaskan Housing (83A-F7.2, 1 in.) Amending the Corrupt Practices Act (83A-F7.3, 1 in.) Compliance [of agency personnel with laws, regulations, directives] (83A-F7.4, 2 in.) Disposal of Certain Industrial Properties (83A-F7.5, 1 in.) Fontana School of Aeronautics (83A-F7.6, 2 in.) German Consulate-American Housing Program (83A-F7.7, 2 in.) Government Contracts for Small Business (83A-F7.8, 1 in.) Housing Activities of the Government (83A-F7.9, 4 in.) Public Housing (83A-F7.10, 2 ft.) and several Special Subcommittees on Reorganization Plans (83A-F7.11 83A-F7.12, 1 in.).
11.124 During 86th and 87th Congresses there were several special subcommittees, including those on Donable Property (86A-F7.8, 87A-F6.6, 5 ft.) Assigned Power and Land Problems (86A-F7.7, 87A-F6.5, 3 ft.) Home Loan Bank Board (86A-F7.10, 87A-F6.8, 2 ft.) and Reno Interstate Highway (86A-F7.11, 10 in.).
11.125 The bill files contain records relating to a wide variety of subjects, many of which concern economy and efficiency of governmental operations. The researchers should be aware that records relating to specific legislation may be found in full committee bill files or in bill files generated by the subcommittee that reported the legislation. Occasionally bill files on a bill or resolution were kept at both the full committee and subcommittee levels.
1. Annals of the Congress of the United States, 7th Cong., 1st sess., Jan. 7, 1802, p. 412. [Back to text]
2. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 13th Cong., 2nd sess., Feb. 26, 1814, pp. 311, 314. [Back to text]
3. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 13th Cong., 2nd sess., Feb. 26, 1814, pp. 311, 314. [Back to text]
4. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 14th Cong., 1st sess., Mar. 30, 1816, p. 550. [Back to text]
5. Asher C. Hinds, Hinds' Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1907) vol. 4, p. 830, para. 4315. [Back to text]
6. George B. Galloway, Congress at the Crossroads (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1946), p. 263, n. 46. [Back to text]
7. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 70th Cong., 1st sess., Dec. 5, 1927, p. 8. [Back to text]
8. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 82nd Cong., 2nd sess., July 3, 1952, pp. 720-721. [Back to text]
9. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Rule XI, "Powers and Duties of Committees," p. 1315. [Back to text]
Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to the Records of the United States House of Representatives at the National Archives, 1789-1989: Bicentennial Edition (Doct. No. 100-245). By Charles E. Schamel, Mary Rephlo, Rodney Ross, David Kepley, Robert W. Coren, and James Gregory Bradsher. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1989.
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