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Upshur DD- 144 - History

Upshur DD- 144 - History

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(Destroyer No. 144: dp. 1,247; 1. 314'4"; b. 30'111/4";dr. 9'1" (mean); s. 34.61 k., cpl. 113; a. 4 4", 2.30-car. mg., 12 21" tt.; cl. Wickes)

Upshur (Destroyer No. 144) was laid down on 19 February 1918 at Philadelphia, Pa., by William Cramp and Sons' shipyards; launched on 4 July 1918; sponsored by Mrs. Alexander Gustavus Brown, the granddaughter of Rear Admiral Upshur, and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 23 December 1918, Comdr. William V. Tomb in command.

Following shakedown and fitting out, Upshur departed Newport, R.I., on 20 May 1919, bound via the Azores for north European waters. She arrived at Devonport, England, on 16 June and shifted to Harwich two days later before subsequently calling at Heligoland, Germany; Copenhagen, Denmark, and the free city of Danzig. She eventually returned, via Harwich and Ponta Delgada, to the United States, arriving at New York City on 22 July.

Assigned to the Pacific Fleet soon thereafter, Upshur transited the Panama Canal, bound for San Diego, her base of operations until the spring of the following year. During her time at San Diego the ship conducted gunnery and torpedo training and local coastal operations. In April 1920, Upshur got underway and proceeded via Honolulu, Pearl Harbor, Midway, and Guam to the Far East, arriving at Cavite, in the Philippines, on 20 May. She soon sailed for duty on the lower Yangtze River.

At Yochow on 16 June, troops of warlord Chang Ching-yao murdered American missionary, William A. Reimert. At Hankow when the incident occurred, Upshur, acting under urgent orders, got underway for the trouble spot on the 22d-departing with such great haste that four of her complement (one officer and three enlisted men) were left behind. Arriving at Yochow on the 23d, Upshur sent ashore a landing party of one officer and 40 men at 1805 on 25 June to protect the American mission. Two days later-when local tensions had eased-they were reembarked.

The Standard Oil Company's steamer Mei Foo arrived at Yochow on the 28th and delivered 100 bags of rice for refugees in the vicinity. Over the ensuing days, Upshur delivered that food staple to the American mission. In the meantime, the Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet, Admiral Albert Gleaves, arrived at Yochow in E:lliott (Destroyer No. 146) to observe the local situation. Eventually, the offending Chinese official in charge, Chang Ching-yao, was removed, and the Chinese foreign office, while investigating the incident, expressed its profound regrets.

Upshur remained on the Yangtze until 9 July, when she resumed routine operations-target practices and torpedo drills. For her tour on the river, the destroyer received commendation in the Secretary of the Navy's annual report, noted as being "especially serviceable in establishing radio communication along the river."

Upshur conducted exercises in the Philippine Islands in the winter and in Chinese waters, off Chefoo, in the summer, with more training and "showing the flag" cruises in between. During her tour in the Asiatic Fleet, Upshur was reclassified DD-144 on 17 July 1920. After completing her assignment in the Far East early in 1922, the destroyer arrived back on the west coast in the spring and was decommissioned at San Diego on 15 May 1922 and placed in reserve.

Recommissioned on 2 June 1930, Lt. Comdr. Morton L. Deyo in command, Upshur operated with the Battle Fleet and Scouting Force, first on the west coast and later on the east, until decommissioned on 22 December 1936 at Philadelphia. She was berthed in the Philadelphia Navy Yard until the autumn of 1939.

Soon after the outbreak of war in Poland in September 1939, President Roosevelt declared the neutrality of the United States and ordered the establishment of a Neutrality Patrol off the eastern seaboard and gulf coast on 5 September. To augment the ships first assigned to this duty, the Navy began reactivation of 77 light minelayers and destroyers. Accordingly, Upshur went back into commission at Philadelphia on 4 October a little over a month after Germany invaded Poland. Attached to the Atlantic Squadron of the United States Fleet, Upshur interspersed her routine training evolutions-battle practices, torpedo exercises, and tactical maneuvers-with patrols safeguarding America's neutral shores along the Atlantic and gulf coasts.

Upshur's routine was broken briefly in December 1939. On the 13th, the North German Lloyd Line steamship Columbus slipped out of Vera Cruz, Mexico, in an attempt to reach Germany and slip through the British blockade. She had not reckoned with the Neutrality Patrol, however, that persistently shadowed the liner from the moment she stood out of the Mexican port. Upshur participated in the tracking and reporting of the steamer, the 13th largest merchant steamship in the world. Columbus ultimately met her doom on 19 December; she scuttled when confronted by the British destroyer HMS Hyperion. American cruiser Tuscaloosa (CA-37), standing nearby, rescued Columbus' crew.

The rapid fall of France in the spring of 1940 caused alarm in the western hemisphere that French possessions in the West Indies might fall into German hands. American planners quickly drew up contingency plans to take these isles by force if necessary. In the event of such an invasion, Upshur and her sisters in Destroyer Squadron 30 were slated to screen the counter battery and gunfire support group built around Texas (BB-35), Vincennes (CA-44), and Chester (CA-27). Fortunately for France and the United States, skillful diplomacy obviated such flexing of America's naval muscles; and the crisis abated by the autumn of 1940.

In between the routine neutrality patrol assignments and training, Upshur was called upon to perform a special escort mission. On 23 December 1940, the heavy cruiser Tuscaloosa departed Norfolk with William D. Leahy, Ambassador to Vichy France, and his wife, embarked, bound for Lisbon, Portugal. Upshur and the new destroyer Madison (DD-425) escorted the heavy cruiser, until they were detached on Christmas Day to return to Norfolk while the cruiser proceeded on, unescorted, on her diplomatic mission.

In March 1941, the Support Force was established for the United States Fleet, under the command of Rear Admiral Arthur LeRoy Bristol. Based at Narragansett Bay, this group prepared for assignment to "distant seas" and was formed around the nucleaus of Denebola (AD-12), Albemarle (AV-5), Belknap (AVD8), and George E. Badger (AVD-3). Four patrol plane squadrons and three destroyer squadrons-the last including Upshur-rounded out the Support Force.

Over the ensuing months, Upshur operated alternately out of Argentia; Newport, R.I.; Philadelphia; Narragansett Bay, Boston, and Reykjavik, Iceland, after its occupation by the United States that summer. On 11 September, the destroyer departed Argentia, bound for a rendezvous with an outward-bound convoy headed for the British Isles.

Five days later, a convoy of 60 merchantmen of British and Allied nationalities-classified as HX-150 —put to sea from Halifax Nova Scotia, escorted locally by Canadian units. On li September, about 150 miles out of Argentia, the American escort group under Capt. Deyo, which included Upshur, met up with the British convoy. The ensuing days witnessed the five American destroyers shepherding the convoy towards the "Mid-Ocean Meeting Point" (MOMP). Upshur steamed on the port side of the convoy, 500 to 2,000 yards out, searching with her sound equipment on a 30-degree sector during the day, and patrolling 500 to 1,000 yards out at night. The Americans brought the convoy safely to the MOMP, where British ships— two destroyers and four corvettes-picked up the England-bound ships. The five American destroyers then convoyed the Iceland-bound section of the convoy to Reykjavik. This convoy was the first one assisted by the United States Navy in the Battle of the Atlantic.

This mission proved to be only the beginning of American escort operations prior to the formal entry of the United States into World War II, as ships of the Support Force escorted 14 convoys between 16 September and 30 October. As the months wore on, clashes of American warships with German submarines grew in frequency and intensity. Kearny (DD-432) was damaged by a German torpedo on 17 October, and Salinas (AO-19) suffered a similar fate on the 30th. The next day, Reuben James (DD-145) was sunk by U-55. Over the ensuing period from 1 November to 7 December 1941, Support Force destroyers conducted seven round-trip convoy missions in shepherding 14 convoys consisting of some 550 ships across the North Atlantic.

Besides the ever-present danger from lurking U-boats during these missions, there always existed the difficulties posed by the weather of the North Atlantic. Biting cold winds and raging seas combined to make life miserable on board the older destroyers like Upshur. Storm damage often forced ships back into port for repairs, and heavy concentrations of ice formed by the heavy spray and cold temperatures often dangerously increased a ship's top-hamper. Damages inflicted by Neptune often changed the schedules for the escorting destroyers, giving some very little time to rest and refit in port before having to go out on another arduous convoy mission.

On the other hand, the weather could also be an effective ally in that convoys were sometimes given the advantage of fogs which blotted out their presence from the prying eyes of U-boat periscopes. While sometimes giving the friendly forces more than a few anxious moments the weather also gave the enemy just as difficult a time. In the period following full-scale American entry into the war with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 and until the middle of February 1942, Support Force destroyers escorted a dozen convoys in each direction across the Atlantic—750 ships-in comparative safety.

On the night of 4 February 1942, Upshur departed Londonderry, Northern Ireland, in company with Gleaves (DD-423), Dallas (DD-199), Roper (DD1-47), and the "Secretary"-class Coast Guard cutter Bingham. Throughout the day on the 5th, the ships hunted a U-boat whose intentions seemed to be to follow the Americans to their outbound convoy assignment. Seven times the destroyers and the Coast Guard cutter attacked the submarine, dropping 30 depth charges, but could not "kill" the elusive submersible.

After rendezvousing with Convoy ON-63 on the morning of 7 February, the escorts shaped a course southwest with the 30 merchant vessels, shepherding them along in the wintry seas. Upshur's lookouts spotted a U-boat running on the surface two miles away and gave chase, but the German lookouts were alert, and the submarine submerged before Upshur could attack.

For two hours, Upshur and Bingham scoured the area, dropping 15 depth charges before they returned to their stations. Upshur had no sooner returned to station when she again spotted the U-boat,1000 yards away. Accelerating to flank speed, the flush-decker headed towards the enemy, only to have the U-boat submerge out of sight once more. Upshur fired two rounds from her forward 3 inch gun-both shells splashing around the enemy's disappearing conning tower. Gleaves soon arrived on the scene and assisted Upshur in searching for the U boat. Neither ship was able to make contact with the enemy that day nor the next, but they succeeded in preventing the German submersible from making contact with the convoy and managed to bring all of their charges safely into port.

Over the ensuing two years, Upshur operated on convoy escort missions with the Atlantic Fleet. Her duties took her from the eastern seaboard of the United States to the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea, from the inhospitable climes of the North Atlantic to the tropical Caribbean. As the Allies slowly gained the upper hand in the Battle of the Atlantic, newer and more modern destroyers replaced the aging flush-deckers as front line convoy escorts. Throughout 1944, Upshur operated between Norfolk, Va., and Quonset Point, R.I., serving as plane guard and target vessel during qualification trials for aircraft carriers. During this period, she worked successively with Kasaan Bag (CVE-69) Ranger (CV-4),Mission Bay (CVE-69),Tulagi (CVE72), Tripoli (CVE-64), Wake Island (CVE-65), Prince William (CVE-31), and Solomons (CVE-67). Reclassified as a miscellaneous auxiliary, AG-103, on 3 June 1945, Upshur was plane-guarding for the new Essexclass carrier Lake Champlain (CV-39) when Japan capitulated on 15 August, ending the war in the Pacific.

Decommissioned at Norfolk, Va., on 2 November 1946, Upshur was struck from the Navy list on 11 November; was sold to the Northern Metals Co. of Philadelphia on 26 September 1947; and was scrapped by April 1948.

Upshur được đặt lườn vào ngày 19 tháng 2, 1918 tại xưởng tàu của hãng William Cramp & Sons ở Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 4 tháng 7, 1918, được đỡ đầu bởi bà Alexander Gustavus Brown, cháu Chuẩn đô đốc Upshur, và được đưa ra hoạt động tại Xưởng hải quân Philadelphia vào ngày 23 tháng 12, 1918 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Trung tá Hải quân William V. Tomb.

1919-1922 Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất việc chạy thử máy và trang bị, Upshur rời Newport, Rhode Island vào ngày 20 tháng 5, 1919, hướng sang Châu Âu ngang qua quần đảo Azores. Nó đi đến Devonport, Anh Quốc vào ngày 16 tháng 6, và chuyển đến Harwich hai ngày sau đó trước khi thực hiện chuyến đi viếng thăm Heligoland, Đức Copenhagen, Đan Mạch và thành phố Danzig. Nó quay trở về Hoa Kỳ ngang qua Harwich và Ponta Delgada, và về đến Thành phố New York vào ngày 22 tháng 7.

Được phân về Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương không lâu sau đó, Upshur vượt qua kênh đào Panama để đi San Diego, cảng nhà mới cho các hoạt động cho đến mùa Xuân năm sau. Con tàu tiến hành các hoạt động huấn luyện tác xạ và ngư lôi cùng các hoạt động duyên hải tại chỗ. Vào tháng 4, 1920, Upshur khởi hành đi Viễn Đông ngang qua Honolulu, Trân Châu Cảng, Midway và Guam, đi đến Cavite thuộc quần đảo Philippines vào ngày 20 tháng 5. Nó lên đường không lâu sau đó để hoạt động tại khu vực hạ lưu sông Dương Tử trong thành phần Lực lượng Tuần tra sông Dương Tử.

Tại Nhạc Dương vào ngày 16 tháng 6, binh lính của quan chức Trung Quốc địa phương đã hành quyết một nhà truyền đạo Hoa Kỳ, William A. Reimert. Có mặt tại Hán Khẩu khi sự kiện xảy ra và do mệnh lệnh khẩn cấp, Upshur vội vã khởi hành vào ngày 22 tháng 6 đi đến nơi biến loạn, một hoạt động hấp tấp đến mức đã bỏ rơi lại trên bờ một sĩ quan và ba thủy thủ. Đi đến Nhạc Dương vào ngày 23 tháng 6, Upshur cho đổ bộ lên bờ một phân đội gồm một sĩ quan và 40 người lúc 18 giờ 05 phút ngày 25 tháng 6 để bảo vệ các nhà truyền đạo Hoa Kỳ. Hai ngày sau, khi sự căng thẳng được giải tỏa, đội đổ bộ quay trở về tàu.

Chiếc tàu hơi nước Mei Foo của hãng Standard Oil Company đã đi đến Nhạc Dương vào ngày 28 tháng 6 chở theo 100 bao gạo cứu trợ cho những người tị nạn tại vùng lân cận. Trong những ngày tiếp theo, Upshur chuyển tiếp thực phẩm cho các nhà truyền giáo. Cùng thời gian đó, Tổng tư lệnh Hạm đội Á Châu, Đô đốc Albert Cleaves, đi đến Nhạc Dương trên chiếc tàu chị em Elliot để thị sát tình hình tại chỗ. Cuối cùng khi những quan chức có lỗi bị cách chức, phía Trung Hoa đưa ra lời xin lỗi vì những sự kiện này.

Upshur tiếp tục ở lại khu vực sông Dương Tử cho đến ngày 9 tháng 7, khi nó quay lại các hoạt động thực hành tác xạ và ngư lôi thường lệ. Nó tiến hành tập trận tại khu vực quần đảo Philippine trong mùa Đông, và tại vùng biển Trung Hoa ngoài khơi Yên Đài vào mùa Hè, xen kẻ với những chuyến đi huấn luyện và biểu dương lực lượng. Trong khi phục vụ cùng Hạm đội Á Châu, Upshur được mang ký hiệu lườn tàu DD-144 vào ngày 17 tháng 7, 1920 và sau khi kết thúc lượt phục vụ tại Viễn Đông vào đầu năm 1922, chiếc tàu khu trục quay trở về khu vực bờ Tây Hoa Kỳ vào mùa Xuân năm đó, được cho xuất biên chế tại San Diego vào ngày 15 tháng 5, 1922 và đưa về lực lượng dự bị.

1930–1941 Sửa đổi

Được cho nhập biên chế trở lại vào ngày 2 tháng 6, 1930 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân Morton L. Deyo, Upshur hoạt động cùng với Hạm đội Chiến trận và Lực lượng Tuần tiễu, thoạt tiên là tại vùng bờ Tây, và sau đó là tại vùng bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ, cho đến khi lại được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 22 tháng 12, 1936 tại Philadelphia. Nó neo đậu tại Xưởng hải quân Philadelphia cho đến mùa Thu năm 1939.

Khi Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai nổ ra do Đức Quốc Xã tấn công Ba Lan vào tháng 9, 1939, Tổng thống Roosevelt công bố chính sách trung lập của Hoa Kỳ và ra lệnh thành lập lực lượng Tuần tra Trung lập vào ngày 5 tháng 9 để giám sát vùng biển dọc bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ và vùng vịnh Mexico. Để tăng cường cho lực lượng này, Hải quân huy động 77 tàu khu trục và tàu rải mìn hạng nhẹ đang nằm trong lực lượng dự bị. Vì vậy, Upshur lại được cho nhập biên chế trở lại tại Philadelphia vào ngày 4 tháng 10, hơn một tháng sau khi cuộc xung đột bùng nổ. Được phân về Hải đội Đại Tây Dương thuộc Hạm đội Hoa Kỳ, nó xen kẻ các hoạt động huấn luyện thường lệ bao gồm tập trận, thực hành ngư lôi và cơ động chiến thuật, với các cuộc tuần tra bảo vệ bờ biển trung lập dọc Đại Tây Dương và vùng vịnh Mexico.

Hoạt động thường lệ của Upshur bị xáo trộn một lúc ngắn vào tháng 12, 1939. Vào ngày 13 tháng 12, chiếc tàu biển chở hành khách Columbus thuộc hãng tàu Bắc Đức Lloyd Line xuất hiện ngoài khơi Veracruz, Mexico, trong một ý định muốn vượt qua sự phong tỏa của Anh để quay trở về Đức. Dù sao, nó không trực tiếp đối đầu với việc Tuần tra Trung lập, vốn liên tục theo dõi nó từ lúc nó rời cảng Mexico. Upshur tham gia vào việc theo dõi và báo cáo về chiếc tàu biển, vốn là con tàu buôn lớn thứ 13 trên thế giới vào lúc đó. Columbus cuối cùng đối diện với số phận vào ngày 19 tháng 12, khi nó tự đánh đắm sau khi đối đầu với tàu khu trục Anh Hyperion. Tàu tuần dương hạng nặng Hoa Kỳ Tuscaloosa túc trực gần đó đã cứu vớt thủy thủ đoàn của Columbus.

Sự kiện Pháp thất thủ nhanh chóng vào mùa Xuân năm 1940 gây nên báo động tại vùng Tây bán cầu nơi các lãnh thổ thuộc địa của Pháp tại Tây Ấn có thể rơi vào tay Đức. Những nhà hoạch định chiến lược Mỹ thảo ra kế hoạch chiếm lấy quần đảo này bằng vũ lực nếu cần thiết. Trong trường hợp xảy ra cuộc chiếm đóng, Upshur và các tàu chị em thuộc Hải đội Khu trục 30 được điều đi bảo vệ cho đội hỗ trợ hỏa lực và phản pháo hình thành chung quanh thiết giáp hạm Texas và các tàu tuần dương VincennesChester. Mối nguy cơ trở nên lắng dịu vào mùa Thu 1940.

Giữa các hoạt động tuần tra và huấn luyện thường lệ, Upshur được điều động thực hiện một nhiệm vụ đặc biệt. Vào ngày 23 tháng 12, 1940, tàu tuần dương hạng nặng Tuscaloosa khởi hành từ Norfolk với William D. Leahy, Đại sứ Hoa Kỳ cạnh chính phủ Vichy Pháp, và phu nhân trên tàu, hướng sang Lisbon, Bồ Đào Nha. UpshurMadison đã hộ tống chiếc tàu tuần dương cho đến khi chúng tách ra vào ngày Giáng Sinh để quay về Norfolk trong khi chiếc tàu tuần dương tiếp tục làm nhiệm vụ ngoại giao một mình.

Vào tháng 3, 1941, Hạm đội Hoa Kỳ thành lập Lực lượng Hỗ trợ dưới quyền chỉ huy của Chuẩn đô đốc Arthur LeRoy Bristol. Đặt căn cứ tại vịnh Narragansett, nhóm này chuẩn bị để được bố trí tại các “vùng biển xa” và được xây dựng quanh Denebola, Albemarle, BelknapGeorge E. Badger. Bốn phi đội máy bay tuần tra và ba hải đội tàu khu trục, nhóm sau này bao gồm Upshur, được phối thuộc cùng Lực lượng Hỗ trợ. Trong những tháng tiếp theo, Upshur luân phiên hoạt động ngoài khơi Argentia, Newfoundland Newport, Rhode Island Philadelphia vịnh Narragansett Boston và Reykjavík, Iceland, sau khi nơi này bị Hoa Kỳ chiếm đóng vào mùa Hè năm đó.

Vào ngày 11 tháng 9, chiếc tàu khu trục rời Argentia để gặp gỡ một đoàn tàu vận tải hướng sang quần đảo Anh. Năm ngày sau, một đoàn tàu vận tải bao gồm 50 tàu buôn quốc tịch Anh và Đồng Minh, mang mật danh HX-150, khởi hành ra khơi từ Halifax, Nova Scotia, được hộ tống tại chỗ bởi các đơn vị Hải quân Hoàng gia Canada. Vào ngày 17 tháng 9, ở vị trí khoảng 150 dặm (240 km) ngoài khơi Argentia, đội hộ tống Hoa Kỳ dưới quyền Đại tá Hải quân Morton L. Deyo vốn bao gồn Upshur, gặp gỡ đoàn tàu vận tải Anh. Trong những ngày tiếp theo, năm tàu khu trục Mỹ hộ tống đoàn tàu vận tải đến "Điểm hẹn gặp giữa đại dương" (MOMP: Mid-Ocean Meeting Point). Upshur di chuyển bên mạn trái của đoàn tàu vận tải ở khoảng cách 500–2.000 thước Anh (460–1.830 m), rà tìm với thiết bị định vị âm thanh ở một góc 30 vào ban ngày, và tuần tra ở khoảng cách 500–1.000 thước Anh (460–910 m) vào ban đêm. Các tàu chiến Mỹ đã đưa đoàn tàu đến điểm hẹn MOMP an toàn, nơi lực lượng Hải quân Hoàng gia Anh, gồm hai tàu khu trục và bốn tàu corvette, tiếp nhận đoàn tàu hướng sang Anh. Năm tàu khu trục Mỹ sau đó tiếp nhận đoàn tàu đi theo hướng ngược lại đến Iceland, và hộ tống chúng đến Reykjavík an toàn. Đoàn tàu vận tải này là chuyến đầu tiên được Hải quân Hoa Kỳ trợ giúp trong Trận Đại Tây Dương.

Nhiệm vụ này chỉ mới là sự khởi đầu cho các hoạt động hộ tống trước khi Hoa Kỳ chính thức can dự trong Thế Chiến II, khi các con tàu thuộc Lực lượng Hỗ trợ đã hộ tống cho 14 đoàn tàu vận tải từ ngày 16 tháng 9 đến ngày 30 tháng 10. Dần dần, đụng độ giữa tàu chiến Hoa Kỳ và tàu ngầm Đức ngày càng gia tăng về tần suất và mức độ căng thẳng. Tàu khu trục Kearny bị hư hại bởi một quả ngư lôi Đức vào ngày 17 tháng 10, và tàu chở dầu Salinas chịu đựng số phận tương tự vào ngày 30 tháng 10. Ngày hôm sau, tàu khu trục Reuben James bị tàu ngầm U-552 đánh chìm. Trong giai đoạn tiếp theo từ ngày 1 tháng 11 đến ngày 7 tháng 12, 1941, các tàu khu trục thuộc Lực lượng Hỗ trợ thực hiện bảy chuyến đi khứ hồi bảo vệ 14 đoàn tàu vận tải, bao gồm khoảng 550 tàu, vượt qua Bắc Đại Tây Dương.

Thế Chiến II Sửa đổi

Trong giai đoạn Hoa Kỳ bắt đầu dốc toàn lực vào cuộc chiến, sau khi Nhật Bản bất ngờ tấn công Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 7 tháng 12, 1941 và cho đến giữa tháng 2, 1942, các tàu khu trục thuộc Lực lượng Hỗ trợ đã hộ tống một tá đoàn tàu vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương trên mỗi hướng, với tổng cộng 750 tàu, tương đối an toàn.

Trong đêm 4 tháng 2, 1942, Upshur rời cảng Londonderry, Bắc Ireland cùng với các tàu khu trục Gleaves, DallasRoper cùng tàu cutter Ingham thuộc Secretary của lực lượng Tuần duyên Hoa Kỳ. Suốt ngày 5 tháng 2, các con tàu đã săn đuổi một tàu ngầm U-boat rõ ràng có dự định theo dõi các tàu chiến Mỹ đến điểm hẹn gặp đoàn tàu vận tải. Các tàu khu trục và chiếc cutter Tuần duyên đã bảy lần tấn công chiếc tàu ngầm, thả 30 quả mìn sâu, nhưng không thể tiêu diệt đối thủ đã lặn xuống để lẩn tránh.

Sau khi gặp gỡ Đoàn tàu ON-63 vào sáng ngày 7 tháng 2, các tàu hộ tống đổi hướng về phía Tây Nam cùng 30 tàu buôn, hộ tống chúng băng qua vùng đại dương bão tố của mùa Đông. Trinh sát viên trên Upshur phát hiện một tàu ngầm U-boat đi trên mặt biển ở cách 2 hải lý (3,7 km) và truy đuổi, nhưng chiếc tàu đối phương đã cảnh giác và lặn xuống trước khi chiếc tàu khu trục có thể tấn công. Trong hai giờ, và rà soát khắp khu vực, thả 15 quả mìn sâu trước khi quay trở lại vị trí cảnh giới. Upshur chỉ vừa mới quay lại đội hình không lâu khi nó lại nhìn thấy chiếc U-boat ở khoảng cách 8.000 yd (7,3 km). Tăng tốc độ, nó hướng về phía đối thủ, để chỉ thấy đối phương lặn xuống khỏi tầm nhìn một lần nữa. Upshur bắn hai loạt đạn pháo từ khẩu pháo 3 inch (76 mm) trước mũi nhưng chỉ làm tung nước chung quanh tháp chỉ huy đối phương đang biến mất. Gleaves nhanh chóng đi đến hiện trường và trợ giúp Upshur truy tìm chiếc tàu ngầm. Cả hai đã không thể bắt được tín hiệu đối phương trong ngày hôm đó và cả ngày hôm sau, nhưng chúng đã thành công trong việc ngăn cản chiếc U-boat tiếp cận đoàn tàu vận tải, và đưa chúng đến cảng an toàn.

Trong hai năm tiếp theo sau, Upshur thực hiện các nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải cùng Hạm đội Đại Tây Dương. Các hoạt động này trải rộng từ vùng bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ đến cửa ngõ Địa Trung Hải, thay đổi từ khí hậu khắc nghiệt của Bắc Đại Tây Dương đến vùng nắng ấm Caribe.

Khi phe Đồng Minh bắt đầu chiếm ưu thế trong trận Đại Tây Dương, các tàu khu trục mới và hiện đại dần dần thay thế cho các con tàu sàn phẳng cũ kỹ trong các nhiệm vụ hộ tống ở tuyến đầu. Suốt năm 1944, Upshur hoạt động giữa Norfolk, Virginia và Quonset Point, Rhode Island, phục vụ như tàu canh phòng máy bay và tàu canh phòng mục tiêu cho hoạt động huấn luyện chuẩn nhận đội bay của các tàu sân bay. Trong giai đoạn này, nó hoạt động thành công cùng các tàu sân bay Kasaan Bay, Ranger, Mission Bay, Tulagi, Tripoli, Wake Island, Prince WilliamSolomons. Được xếp lại lớp như một tàu phụ trợ với ký hiệu lườn mới AG-103 vào ngày 3 tháng 6, 1945, Upshur hoạt động như tàu canh phòng máy bay cho tàu sân bay Lake Champlain cho đến khi Nhật Bản đầu hàng vào ngày 15 tháng 8, kết thúc chiến tranh tại Thái Bình Dương. Được cho ngừng hoạt động tại Norfolk vào ngày 2 tháng 11, 1945, tên của Upshur được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 11 tháng 11, và lườn tàu bị bán cho hãng Northern Metals Company ở Philadelphia vào ngày 26 tháng 9, 1947 và bắt đầu bị tháo dỡ từ ngày tháng 4, 1948.


Ellis ' s first cruise, between 16 June 1919 and 15 August, was to the Black Sea, carrying United States Food Administration officials for famine relief work, and British and American military officers between Constantinople, Turkey Varna, Bulgaria and Batum, Georgia. She returned to a year of exercises on the east coast and in the Caribbean. From 29 September 1920 to 16 March 1921 she was in reserve at Charleston. She sailed north to fire test torpedoes off Newport, lay again at Charleston from October 1921 through February 1922. On 27 February she entered Philadelphia Navy Yard, where she was out of commission from 17 June 1922 to 1 May 1930.

Ellis served with the Scouting Fleet along the east coast, off Panama and Cuba, and from March 1932 through October in exercises between San Diego and San Francisco. She was in rotating reserve at Norfolk and Boston in 1932 and 1933. In April 1933, she searched for Akron, and found wreckage off the New Jersey coast. Based on New York through the summer of 1933, she escorted the Presidential yacht along the New England coast to Campobello, Nova Scotia, where on 1 July she embarked President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his party, transferring them to Indianapolis. She escorted Indianapolis to Annapolis, where the President again visited Ellis on 4 July. She also trained members of the Naval Reserve before departing New York 8 September for Key West.

The next year, Ellis cruised to Cuba, again escorted the President, this time in a private yacht, and on 24 October 1934 passed through the Panama Canal to be based on San Diego. Training operations took her to Alaska and Hawaii during the next year and a half, and on 7 June 1936 she returned to Miami for east coast reserve training duty until decommissioned at Philadelphia 16 December 1936.

World War II [ edit | edit source ]

Ellis was recommissioned 16 October 1939, and from her bases at Charleston and Norfolk, patrolled the east coast concentrating on antisubmarine warfare. Between 22 June and 21 July 1941, she sailed from Newport to escort transports carrying the first Marines to the occupation of Iceland, and a month later sailed to base at NS Argentia, Newfoundland for escort duty to Iceland and to midocean rendezvous.

Returning at intervals to Boston for replenishment and repairs, she served thus until March 1942, when her operations were extended to the Virgin Islands. She escorted coastal convoys, on 15 July 1942 attacking a submarine off Cape Hatteras. From October 1942, she also guarded convoy routes between Trinidad and Brazil, and in March 1943 was assigned to transatlantic convoys.

On 12 October 1942, Ellis picked up the only German survivor of U-512, Matrosengefreiter Franz Machen who had been floating on a raft for ten days, and held him in captivity.

Between 20 March 1943 and 25 June, Ellis escorted two top priority tanker convoys with Aruba oil for North Africa, then troop transports to Derry. From August to November, she twice guarded escort carriers ferrying Army planes to Ireland and North Africa. Ellis escorted Abraham Lincoln to the Azores in January 1944, and while on patrol there rescued two downed British pilots. Returning to North African convoy duty, Ellis made two voyages from the east coast to Casablanca, Algiers, and Bizerte between February and June. On 11 May, off Bizerte, she was attacked by four bombers, three of which she had a hand in splashing, and drove the fourth away.

The remainder of the war, Ellis guarded carriers training pilots, experimented with torpedo aircraft, twice made escort voyages to Recife, Brazil. She was decommissioned at Norfolk 31 October 1945 and sold 20 June 1947.

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Product Description

USS Upshur DD 144

"Personalized" Canvas Ship Print

(Not just a photo or poster but a work of art!)

Every sailor loved his ship. It was his life. Where he had tremendous responsibility and lived with his closest shipmates. As one gets older his appreciation for the ship and the Navy experience gets stronger. A personalized print shows ownership, accomplishment and an emotion that never goes away. It helps to show your pride even if a loved one is no longer with you. Every time you walk by the print you will feel the person or the Navy experience in your heart (guaranteed).

The image is portrayed on the waters of the ocean or bay with a display of her crest if available. The ships name is printed on the bottom of the print. What a great canvas print to commemorate yourself or someone you know who may have served aboard her.

The printed picture is exactly as you see it. The canvas size is 8"x10" ready for framing as it is or you can add an additional matte of your own choosing. If you would like a larger picture size (11"x 14") on a 13" X 19" canvas simply purchase this print then prior to payment purchase additional services located in the store category (Home) to the left of this page. This option is an additional $12.00. The prints are made to order. They look awesome when matted and framed.

We PERSONALIZE the print with "Name, Rank and/or Years Served" or anything else you would like it to state (NO ADDITIONAL CHARGE). It is placed just above the ships photo. After purchasing the print simply email us or indicate in the notes section of your payment what you would like printed on it. A couple of Suggestions :

United States Navy Sailor
Proudly Served Sept 1963 - Sept 1967

This would make a nice gift and a great addition to any historic military collection. Would be fantastic for decorating the home or office wall.

The watermark "Great Naval Images" will NOT be on your print.

This photo is printed on Archival-Safe Acid-Free canvas using a high resolution printer and should last many years.

Because of its unique natural woven texture canvas offers a special and distinctive look that can only be captured on canvas. The canvas print does not need glass thereby enhancing the appearance of your print, eliminating glare and reducing your overall cost.

We guarantee you will not be disappointed with this item or your money back. In addition, We will replace the canvas print unconditionally for FREE if you damage your print. You would only be charged a nominal fee plus shipping and handling.


When you visit downtown Buckhannon, you’ll find locally owned restaurants, specialty shops & boutiques, West Virginia hospitality, and more. You’ll love strolling up & down the historic streets of Buckhannon.

A quick drive south, you’ll shift to the great outdoors with the WV Wildlife Center, pristine rivers and peaceful scenic views to create a laid-back trip to West Virginia.

Within 30 minutes, you’ll find a resort & spa, excursion train rides, and endless opportunities to create an adventure & lasting memories.


The Wildlife Center is a unique zoo experience where you’ll see wild animals interacting in their natural environment & habitat. &hellip

West Virginia Wildlife Center

The Wildlife Center is a unique zoo experience where you’ll see wild animals interacting in their natural environment & habitat. The area includes a 1.25 mile loop through the forest, allowing visitors to be immersed in the natural wonders of West Virginia. As you walk along the animal’s spaces, you’ll find interpretive signs to learn more about each animal – including whitetail deer, black bear, mountain lion, fox, river otter & more. Also on-site is a gift shop (seasonal) & snack station, picnic shelters and pond.

Phone: 304.924.6211
163 Wildlife Road, French Creek WV 26218

Stay Over

Phone: 304.472.3000 A locally owned hotel conveniently located close to Main Street. Quaint and independent, we are reminiscent of how hospitality&hellip

Colonial Hotel-Motel

Phone: 304.472.3000

A locally owned hotel conveniently located close to Main Street. Quaint and independent, we are reminiscent of how hospitality used to be… a facility with all the modern conveniences, yet preserving the charm and decor of the early 1900s. The lobby speaks of this old-time charm with its wormy chestnut paneling, elegant oak fireplace, and the inviting fragrance of fresh-brewed coffee. The office is open round the clock and guests are encouraged to stop, have a cup of coffee and visit a while. Quiet, comfortable, convenient, and priced to fit your budget.

24 North Kanawha Street, Buckhannon WV


Phone: 304.439.2230 Baked Treats and Local Mountain Roaster’s Coffee! Swing by for a Cup of Good Coffee, Fresh Bread, and&hellip

Dough Re Mi

Phone: 304.439.2230

Baked Treats and Local Mountain Roaster’s Coffee! Swing by for a Cup of Good Coffee, Fresh Bread, and Local Eggs by the Dozen. Musicians’ Supplies too!


Phone: 304.460.2558 Highland Nursery is your destination for Trees, shrubs, bedding plants, vegetable plants, hanging baskets and more! 2915 Old&hellip

Highland Nursery

Phone: 304.460.2558

Highland Nursery is your destination for Trees, shrubs, bedding plants, vegetable plants, hanging baskets and more!


A portfolio of modern prints that include major works from influential 20th century artists.

20th Century Masters

Friday, June 25, 2021

The Colonial Arts Center’s next exhibition, 20th CENTURY MASTERS, will be held at the M.I.B. GALLERY in the Colonial Arts Center, with an opening reception from 4 to 8 p.m on Friday, June 12th.

This show will feature a portfolio of modern prints, on loan from West Virginia Wesleyan College, that include major works from influential 20th century artists: Stanley William Hayter, Jasper Johns, Ellsworth Kelly, Alexander Liberman, Roy Lichtenstein, Andre Masson, Robert Motherwell, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Saul Steinberg, Frank Stella, and even Andy Warhol.

For Martin Luther King Jr., Nonviolent Protest Never Meant ‘Wait and See’

On January 15, the United States celebrates Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, 50 years on from his assassination in 1968. The intention behind the holiday is to commemorate this great man’s life, and recommit to his call to fight for justice everywhere. Many will spend Monday as a day of service to others, staying true to his words that 𠇎verybody can be great�use anybody can serve.”

The words of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. are well-known and often quoted. Most remember the speech he gave at the March on Washington in 1963, when he uttered those iconic words of American aspiration: “I have a dream…”. He is also remembered for his urge to use nonviolence as the most effective form of protest (even when violence was threatened against him and his family), and his strong desire to bring about equality and civil rights for African Americans during the civil-rights movement.

However, less attention is paid to the words he spoke in the latter part of his life. In the year he died, he had just launched the Poor People’s Campaign, which appealed to impoverished people of all races, and sought to address the issues of unemployment, housing shortages and the impact of poverty on the lives of millions of Americans, white and Black. By then, King’s language had become stronger and more assertive, urging direct action to bring about change. For King had never meant nonviolent protest to mean “wait and see.” In fact, he made very clear that rebellions have their place in America. Just a few weeks before he died, in a packed high school gym just outside Detroit, constantly interrupted by a rowdy right-wing crowd picketing his appearance, King had these radical words to say:

“…it is not enough for me to stand before you tonight and condemn riots. It would be morally irresponsible for me to do that without, at the same time, condemning the contingent, intolerable conditions that exist in our society. These conditions are the things that cause individuals to feel that they have no other alternative than to engage in violent rebellions to get attention. And I must say tonight that a riot is the language of the unheard. And what is it America has failed to hear?…It has failed to hear that the promises of freedom and justice have not been met. And it has failed to hear that large segments of white society are more concerned about tranquility and the status quo than about justice and humanity.” (“The Other America,” 1968).

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. leading marchers as they begin the Selma to Montgomery civil rights march from Brown’s Chapel Church in Selma, Alabama, March 21, 1965.

Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

𠇊 riot is the language of the unheard.” This language remains as relevant today as it was when King uttered it 50 years ago. Consider how many schools are more segregated now than they were when Brown v. Board of Education was decided. How Muslims are being persecuted because of their faith. How supporters of the Confederacy and Nazi sympathizers are carrying torches and inciting violence, leading to the death of Heather Heyer in Charlottesville, Virginia. How immigrants who have lived in this country for years are being deported to countries to which they have no ties. How veterans returning home from armed conflicts are provided with little to no resources or support. How women are paid less than their male counterparts for the same work.

Let us remember not just King’s words, but also his actions. King was in his 20s when he helped coordinate the Montgomery bus boycott, which lasted more than a year and brought the city to its knees. Too often today, we hear that protests for justice and equality are being done “wrong.” They’re too intrusive they’re too loud. But one wonders how the country can laud King, whose efforts shut down public transportation in an entire city, but chastise Colin Kaepernick (also in his 20s) for his peaceful protest of taking a knee at a football game.

It was King’s desire that we each examine our role in the fight for civil liberties, justice and equality. It is not enough to consider ourselves simply 𠇊llies” in the fight. Instead, we must put our heads down, listen more, and do the work of improving the lives of a marginalized community to which we don’t belong. Then, and only then, might someone in that community determine that we are worthy of the term.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. being shoved back by Mississippi patrolmen during the 220 mile ‘March Against Fear’ from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi, June 8, 1966.

Underwood Archives/Getty Images

�omplice,” not 𠇊lly,” should be the goal. An ally is one who acknowledges there is a problem. An accomplice is one who acknowledges there is a problem and then commits to stand in the gap for those less fortunate than themselves, without hope or expectation of reward. An ally is passive an accomplice is active.

King spoke of this in his 1967 book, Where Do We Go from Here: “Why is equality so assiduously avoided? Why does white America delude itself, and how does it rationalize the evil it retains? The majority of white Americans consider themselves sincerely committed to justice for the Negro. They believe that American society is essentially hospitable to fair play and to steady growth toward a middle-class Utopia embodying racial harmony. But unfortunately this is a fantasy of self-deception and comfortable vanity.”

This statement was addressed to the white moderates and liberals of the 1960s, some of whom may have considered themselves allies to causes of equity and justice. As King said, “the ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.”

Time has a way of sanitizing history. When Muhammad Ali died in 2016, he was revered as if he had always been beloved. Yet Ali was vilified for refusing to fight in the Vietnam War. Similarly, many would have us believe that King was always held in the esteem that he is now. Yet William Sullivan, head of the FBI’s domestic intelligence division during the King surveillance program, said: “We must mark him now, if we have not done so before, as the most dangerous Negro of the future in this Nation from the standpoint of communism, the Negro and national security.”

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. being greeted on his return to the US after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize, October 31, 1964. 

Leonard Freed/Magnum Photos

Today we celebrate Black leaders of the past, yet few outside of the Black community extol the virtues of Rep. John Lewis or Harry Belafonte, two living legends who both participated in the civil-rights movement with King.

It is important to note King’s influence when he was assassinated. The Memphis sanitation strike was ongoing, protesting poor pay and dangerous working conditions following the death of Echol Cole and Robert Walker in garbage compactors. This strike was beginning to find supporters in non-Black communities and attracting the anxious eye of the FBI. It was a radical act. Like other Black leaders of his time, including Malcolm X and Fred Hampton, King was considered increasingly dangerous because his appeal spread beyond the Black community and non-Blacks began to embrace his message in greater numbers.

Despite his pleas for nonviolence, King was brutally gunned down on April 4, 1968. In the wake of his death, others were forced to take up his call for change.

Change is hard. It is uncomfortable. But it is necessary for progress. As we celebrate the life and legacy of King, we must ask ourselves how much change is being made. On MLK Day, and every day, we must recommit ourselves to the tenets that King espoused. The work is difficult and unforgiving. The issues affecting us will not be solved in a lifetime, and perhaps not even in a generation. As King said, “the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.” Unfortunately, we may not be as far along that arc as we might hope.

April Reign is the creator of the #OscarsSoWhite campaign and the Senior Director of Marketing for Fractured Atlas.

History Reads features the work of prominent authors and historians.

About the Early Years

The Vital Registration Office, codified initially as the Division of Vital Statistics and currently as the Section of Vital Statistics, was created as a division of the West Virginia Department of Health in 1917. Before 1917, county clerks served as the sole local registrars and custodians of birth, death, and marriage for those events that occurred in their respective counties. It is likely that the official reporting and recording of births, deaths, and marriages was mandated from the creation of the state in 1863, as it was the law in Virginia (from which West Virginia was created) beginning around 1852. However, due to the extreme rural nature of the population and the lack of coherent collection mechanisms, reporting was probably very "hit and miss" except around major cities. From 1917 until 1921 it was not mandatory that county clerks report births and deaths to the Vital Registration Office however most did Even though mandatory reporting by counties began in 1921, the reporting of births and deaths was still not considered adequate for inclusion in national health statistics until 1925.

Although in modern times it is extremely rare for a birth or death to go unreported, many births and deaths went unreported, although required by law, due to the lack of coherent collection mechanisms and what must have been a perceived lack of legal "utility". Many reports may have been more a matter of posterity than legal obligation. For example, there was no need for a birth certificate to prove age for Social Security purposes, because there was no Social Security. Most people did not have life insurance, so there was little need for a death certificate for that purpose. The biggest "push" for full reporting of births and deaths was due to the institution of sanitary reforms for the prevention of disease and the use of birth and death reporting in the census of the nation. The reporting of the health conditions surrounding birth and death played an important role in monitoring disease and the impact of the interventions. It was not until 1945 that as many births occurred in hospitals as occurred at home. The rise and proliferation of medical facilities, the increase in the number of trained physicians and other medical personnel, the professional training and licensing of funeral directors and embalmers and the need for legal proofs from birth certificates (name, age, citizenship, parentage), death certificates, and marriage certificates all contributed to nearly complete reporting of vital events nationwide.

Upshur DD- 144 - History

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    LiveKernelEvent Code 144 hardware error

    I am getting a hardware problem error with a problem event name "LiveKernelEvent" and a code of 144. Also on a daily basis I get a an event name of BEX64. Not sure if these are related.

    A problem with your hardware caused Windows to stop working correctly.

    Problem signature
    Problem Event Name: LiveKernelEvent
    Code: 144
    Parameter 1: 3003
    Parameter 2: ffff980a4c06d6c0
    Parameter 3: 40010000
    Parameter 4: 0
    OS version: 10_0_17763
    Service Pack: 0_0
    Product: 256_1
    OS Version: 10.0.17763.
    Locale ID: 1033

    Faulting Application Path: C:WindowsSystem32audiodg.exe

    Problem signature
    Problem Event Name: BEX64
    Application Name: AUDIODG.EXE
    Application Version: 10.0.17763.134
    Application Timestamp: 1cb1ad5b
    Fault Module Name: StackHash_ef15
    Fault Module Version:
    Fault Module Timestamp: 00000000
    Exception Offset: PCH_CB_FROM_ntdll+0x00000000000A01B4
    Exception Code: c0000005
    Exception Data: 0000000000000008
    OS Version: 10.0.17763.
    Locale ID: 1033
    Additional Information 1: ef15
    Additional Information 2: ef152224cfb056c292640ec09ea987fd
    Additional Information 3: ea91
    Additional Information 4: ea917d99455f0df512576d95997a6eef

    Extra information about the problem
    Bucket ID: f9f02bcd768aa7153e70c5e723738dd5 (2193470615052324309)

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