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Contains photographs of the muncie Railroad station - History

Contains photographs of the muncie Railroad station - History


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Muncie


Rifle from James Gang Shootout

A member of the James gang stared down the barrel of this gun, and died.

The notorious Jesse James gang terrorized much of the Midwest in the years following the Civil War. The outlaws thought nothing of committing holdups in Kansas. Based in western Missouri, the gang found it easy to hit sites across the border. In early December of 1874, five of them rode to Muncie, a small town 12 miles west of Kansas City. Their target was a Kansas Pacific train carrying a Wells Fargo safe.

Train Robbery

At Muncie, the gang ordered railroad workers to pile wooden ties across the tracks. They took prisoner the owner of a nearby general store and, as the train approached, ordered him to flag it down. The gang then entered the baggage car and forced the company messenger to open the safe, removing from it $18,000 in currency, $5,000 in gold, and assorted packages of money and jewelry. A gold watch belonging to the messenger was returned to him with the explanation that it was personal property. The gang rode away with a wave and a shout: "Good-bye, boys, no hard feelings. We have taken nothing from you."

The messenger may not have taken the robbery personally, but Wells Fargo did. The State of Kansas and the Kansas Pacific Railroad joined Wells Fargo in offering rewards. The State of Missouri cooperated in trying to track down the robbers. But it was only by accident that one actually was arrested.

William "Bud" McDaniel (a.k.a. "McDaniels") was the son of a Kansas City saloonkeeper, and had a brother who also rode with the James Gang. Just days after the robbery he was stopped by a police officer for "rowdy behavior and public drunkenness." McDaniel was found to be harboring four revolvers, six dozen cartridges, over $1,000, and some jewelry from the Wells Fargo safe. He was sent to Kansas to stand trial. This was not completely welcome news in Kansas City, where officials were intimidated by the James gang and generally willing to look the other way. In fact, McDaniel had been seen drinking with the Chief of Police on the day of his arrest!

McDaniel was jailed in Lawrence, Kansas, enough distance from the Missouri border to be considered safe. But on June 27, 1875, he escaped from the Douglas County jail with three other men, arms, ammunition, and horses. The Deputy Sheriff quickly assembled a posse and, by the following day, McDaniel and another prisoner had been tracked to the Lakeview area, seven miles west of Lawrence. Louis Beurman, a local farmer known as a good shot, described what transpired for the Lawrence Republican-Journal:

According to newspaper reports, the shot took "effect in the lower bowels." McDaniel managed to get to a house where the residents sent for the sheriff. He was returned to jail, where a doctor proclaimed his wounds fatal. The outlaw died within hours, remaining silent to the end about the identities of his accomplices in the Muncie train robbery.

The old "squirrel gun" that killed McDaniel--actually a German Schuetzen rifle--remained in the Beurman family until 1958 when Louis' nephew donated it to the Kansas Historical Society. It is in the collections of the Society's Kansas Museum of History.

Listen to the James Gang Shootout podcast on your computer!

Entry: Rifle from James Gang Shootout

Author: Kansas Historical Society

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Date Created: July 2009

Date Modified: December 2014

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Christian R. Holmes Collection

Christian R. Holmes, M.D. was born in the village of Engom, Denmark, in 1857 and travelled to the U.S. with his family at the age of 15. After a brief stay in Canada, the Holmes family settled in Syracuse, New York. A natural talent for drawing landed the young Holmes in the railroad shop drafting rooms. This proficiency brought him to Seymore, Indiana, to work for the LaFayette, Bloomington, and Muncie Railroad. An illness brought him to Cincinnati seeking the medical attention of Dr Elkanah Williams, also a professor at the Miami Medical College. Over successive visits, Williams saw incredible potential in Holmes as a practicer of medicine and encouraged him to apply to the Miami Medical College. Holmes earned his medical degree from the school in 1886 and soon became an eye, ear, nose, and throat specialist. He also became an instructor at the college and practiced at the Cincinnati Hospital. He married Bette Fleishmann, daughter of Chalres Fleishmann, in 1892.

Subscribing to Daniel Drakes's conception of medical school and hospital being synonomous, Holmes soon became frustrated with the Cincinnati Hospital's ability to train future medical professionals, and began laying the groundwork for a future city hospital that would combine medical college and clinical practive in one. He became the dean of the recently combined Ohio-Miami Medical College at the University of Cincinnati in 1914 and remained in that position until his death in 1920. As early as 1895, Holmes's idea for the new city hospital was already at work. After years of political wrangling, fundraising, and public opinion swaying, Holmes saw to the completion of the new Cincinnati General Hospital in 1915. Built in the pavilion style it was lauded as an architectural feat at the time. Upon accepting deanship of the the Ohio-Miami Medical College, Holmes was adamant that a new medical college building also be buit along with the hospital. In October, 1914, builders laid the cornerstone and finished the new college building in 1917.

As World War I loomed, Dr. Holmes entered the US Army as a major in the medical reserve corps. He was charged with oversight of the medical facilities at Camp Sherman in Chillicothe, Ohio. Holmes was released from duty in 1918 and shorltly after his discharge became ill. He passed away in January, 1920. Just a few years after his death, the Christian R. Holmes Hospital was erected in his honor to provide hospital facilities for full-time clinical medical faculty at the University of Cincinnati.

Extent

Additional Description

Abstract

Statement of Arrangement

Series I: Medical Colleges Subseries IA: Medical College of Ohio Subseries IB: Miami Medical College Subseries IC: Ohio-Miami Medical College Subseries ID: University of Cincinnati College of Medicine


Towns of Allen County, Indiana

Mentioned on page 11 in the St. Peter's Catholic Church, Diamond Jubilee, 1872-1947, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana at The Genealogy Center as the extreme southeast area of Fort Wayne in 1871. A more specific location is the Lafayette and Buchanan Streets area. Identified in the January 25, 1909 obituary of Mary Lenore Sallot Albert obituary. Born in 1842 France, Mary arrived with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. James F. Sallot in Fort Wayne in 1846 by way of the port of New Orleans then the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and canals. When the Sallot's bought land at the corner of Lafayette and Buchanan Streets their home become the social center for local French residents who began to refer to the locality as Frenchtown as it was still known in 1909 when the obituary was published. Discussed April 17, 2018 on You are positively from Fort Wayne, if you remember. Closed group on Facebook .

According to literature available at the Historic Fort Wayne, in 1816 an area outside the fort was known as Frenchtown consisting of some French traders, Native Americans and a few women, down from the several thousand who populated the town in the 1790s. Copied from Old Fort celebrates state's Bicentennial by Jamie Duffy published June 12, 2016 in The Journal Gazette newspaper .

Stephen Emenhiser platted the village of Hoagland upon land belonging to himself, adjacent to the right of way of the Grand Rapids and Indiana Raidroad. Joseph Harrod at the same time gave to the railroad a plot of ground for the depot, stipulating that the new town should be called "Harrodsburg." The gift was accepted, but the agreement was not carried out, the name of Hoagland being substituted, in honor of Pliny Hoagland, of Fort Wayne, who was a director of the railroad. The post office in Hoagland was established on March 7, 1872 with James English appointed the first postmaster. From History of Hoagland from "The Hoagland Centennial, 1872-1972, Author - Hoagland Area Advancement Assoc. Inc. Five old school and building photos were posted December 10, 2017 on You are positively from Fort Wayne, if you remember. Closed group on Facebook .

Shortly after Wabash and Erie Canal opened to traffic town came into being. Located at “Gundy’s Deadening”, eight miles east of Fort Wayne, hoped to profit from movement on canal. Town platted by Eben & Henry Burgess. Incorporated in 1866. Eban Burgess sold eight acres to son Henry in 1836 for $1,600, the younger Burgess platted the area and named the fledgling settlement New Haven after the family's hometown in Connecticut.

  1. New Haven Centennial, Allen County, Indiana and New Haven Canal Days, 1991, Allen County, Indiana at The Genealogy Center
  2. New Haven offering 150 good reasons to celebrate all year long by Kevin Leininger published June 21, 2016 in The News-Sentinel newspaper .
  3. New Haven Petition for Incorporation, 1866 and New Haven Local Census, 1866 on ACGSI.org .
  4. Get a modern look at An Afternoon in New Haven, Indiana! by Emma C. posted on August 07, 2017 by Visit Fort Wayne . This corporation is formed for the purpose of promotion, preservation, research, study, and appreciation of the historical heritage of the Greater New Haven, Indiana area and for any other lawful purpose under the laws of the State of Indiana.

In August 1855 the Wabash and Saint Louis Railroad completed the construction of the section of railroad from the Indiana and Ohio state line to Fort Wayne. The town was known as Phelps Station, when it was nothing more than a station on the railroad. In 1865 Joseph K. Edgerton and Joseph Smith platted the town of Woodburn. In 1895 William Gernhardt platted an addition to the town and called it Shirley City, which was the name also used to incorporate the town. In February 1956 a special meeting was called, and the official name of Shirley City was changed to Woodburn. The town was slow to develop, probably because of the swampy condition of the land. When the railroad cut through this woodland, it opened the way for men like Joseph K. Edgerton, who at one time owned more than one half of the land in Maumee Township to found the town at this location were there was plenty of timber, fertile soil, the railroad and the river. The town has continued to grow and improve with the years. See Woodburn on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia and Woodburn, Indiana WikiVisually.

    appliance company was formed here in 1914.
  1. Local resident Lloy Ball was on the winning 2008 USA Men's Olympic Volleyball Team in Beijing, China.
  2. Woodburn Celebrating 150th Birthday video by Eric Olson uploaded May 5, 2015 on WPTA21 ABC TV station

Page updated: January 25, 2020

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Allen County Genealogical Society of Indiana, ACGSI, is web host for Allen INGenWeb.
Allen INGenWeb content, design, and ACGSI social media by Stanley J. Follis.


Contents

Early settlement Edit

The area was first settled in the 1790s by the Lenape (Delaware) people, who migrated west from their tribal lands in the Mid-Atlantic region (all of New Jersey, southeastern New York, eastern Pennsylvania, and northern Delaware) to new lands in present-day Ohio and eastern Indiana. The Lenape founded several towns along the White River, including Munsee Town, [13] near the site of present-day Muncie.

Contrary to popular legend, the city's early name of Munsee Town is derived from the "Munsee" clan of Lenape people, the white settlers' name for a group of Native Americans whose village was once situated along the White River. There is no evidence that a mythological Chief Munsee ever existed. [14] ("Munsee" means a member of or one of their languages. [ citation needed ] )

In 1818 the area's native tribes ceded their lands to the federal government under the terms of the Treaty of St. Mary's and agreed to move farther west by 1821. New settlers began to arrive in what became Delaware County, Indiana, about 1820, shortly before the area's public lands were formally opened for purchase. The small trading village of Munsee Town, renamed Muncietown, was selected as the Delaware County seat and platted in 1827. [15] On January 13, 1845, Indiana's governor signed legislation passed by the Indiana General Assembly to shorten the town's name to Muncie. Soon, a network of roads connected Muncie to nearby towns, adjacent counties, and to other parts of Indiana. The Indianapolis and Bellefontaine Railroad, the first to arrive in Muncie in 1852, provided the town and the surrounding area with access to larger markets for its agricultural production, as well as a faster means of transporting people and goods into and out of the area. [16] [17]

Muncie incorporated as a town on December 6, 1854, and became an incorporated city in 1865. [18] [19] John Brady was elected as the city's first mayor. Muncie's early utility companies also date to the mid-1860s, including the city's waterworks, which was established in 1865. [20]

After the American Civil War, two factors helped Muncie attract new commercial and industrial development: the arrival of additional railroads from the late 1890s to the early 1900s and the discovery of abundant supplies of natural gas in the area. [21] Prior to the discovery of nearby natural-gas wells and the beginning of the gas boom in Muncie in 1886, the region was primarily an agricultural area, with Muncie serving as the commercial trading center for local farmers. [22]

Industrial and civic development Edit

The Indiana gas boom of the 1880s ushered in a new era of prosperity to Muncie. Abundant supplies of natural gas attracted new businesses, industries, and additional residents to the city. [24] [25] Although agriculture continued to be an economic factor in the region, industry dominated the city's development for the next 100 years. [21] One of the major manufacturers that arrived early in the city's gas-boom period was the Ball Brothers Glass Manufacturing Company, which was renamed the Ball Corporation in 1969. The Ball brothers, who were searching for a new site for their glass manufacturing business that was closer to an abundant natural-gas supply, built a new glass-making foundry from in Muncie, beginning its glass production on March 1, 1888. In 1889 the company relocated its metal manufacturing operations to Muncie. [26] [27]

In addition to several other glass factories, Muncie attracted iron and steel mills, including the Republic Iron and Steel Company and the Midland Steel Company. (Midland became Inland Steel Company and later moved to Gary, Indiana.) Indiana Bridge Company was also a major employer. [28] By the time the natural gas supply from the Trenton Gas Field had significantly declined and the gas boom ended in Indiana around 1910, Muncie was well established as an industrial town and a commercial center for east-central Indiana, especially with several railroad lines connecting it to larger cities and the arrival of automobile industry manufacturing after 1900. [29] [30]

Numerous civic developments also occurred as a result of the city's growth during the 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s, when Muncie citizens built a new city hall, a new public library, and a new high school. The city's gasworks also began operations in the late 1870s. [21] The Muncie Star was founded in 1899 and the Muncie Evening Press was founded in 1905. [15] [31] A new public library, which was a Carnegie library project, was dedicated on January 1, 1904, and served as the main branch of the city's public library system. [32]

The forerunner to Ball State University also arrived in the early twentieth century. Eastern Indiana Normal School opened 1899, but it closed after two years. Several subsequent efforts to establish a private college in Muncie during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries also failed, but one proved to be very successful. After the Ball brothers bought the school property and its vacant buildings and donated them to the State of Indiana, the Indiana State Normal School, Eastern Division, the forerunner to Ball State University, opened in 1918. It was named Ball Teachers College in 1922, Ball State Teachers College in 1929, and Ball State University in 1965. [30] [33] [34]

Beginning in the late nineteenth century, in tandem with the gas boom, Muncie developed an active cultural arts community, which included music and art clubs, women's clubs, self-improvements clubs, and other social clubs. Hoosier artist J. Ottis Adams, who came to Muncie in 1876, later formed an art school in the city with fellow artist, William Forsyth. Although their school closed with a year or two, other art groups were established, most notably the Art Students' League (1892) and the Muncie Art Association (1905). [35]

By the early twentieth century several railroads served Muncie, which helped to establish the city as a transportation hub. The Cincinnati, Richmond and Muncie Railroad (later known as the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway) reached Muncie in 1903. The Chicago, Indiana, and Eastern Railroad (acquired by a subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Railroad system) and the Chicago and Southeastern (sometimes called the Central Indiana Railroad) also served the city. In addition to the railroads, Muncie's roads connected to nearby towns and an electric interurban system, which arrived in the early 1900s, linked it to smaller towns and larger cities, including Indianapolis and Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Dayton, Ohio. [36]

With the arrival of the auto manufacturing and the related auto parts industry after the turn of the twentieth century, Muncie's industrial and commercial development increased, along with its population growth. During World War I local manufacturers joined others around the county in converting their factories to production of war material. [37] In the 1920s Muncie continued its rise as an automobile-manufacturing center, primarily due to its heavy industry and skilled labor force. During this time, the community also became a center of Ku Klux Klan activity. Muncie's Klan membership was estimated at 3,500 in the early 1920s. Scandals within the Klan's leadership, divisions among its members, and some violent confrontations with their opponents damaged the organization's reputation. Increasing hostility toward the Klan's political activities, beliefs, and values also divided the Muncie community, before its popularity and membership significantly declined by the end of the decade. [38]

Muncie residents also made it through the challenges of the Great Depression, with the Ball brothers continuing their role as major benefactors to the community by donating funds for construction of new facilities at Ball State and Ball Memorial Hospital. [39] (The hospital, which opened in 1929, later affiliated with Indiana University Health. [40] ) The Works Progress Administration (WPA) also provided jobs such as road grading, city sewer improvements, and bridge construction. [39]

Middletown studies Edit

In the 1920s, Robert and Helen Lynd led a team of sociologists in a study of a typical middle-American community. The Lynds chose Muncie as the locale for their field research, although they never specifically identified it as "Middletown" the fictional name of the town in their study. Muncie received national attention after the publication of their book, Middletown: A Study in Contemporary American Culture (1929). The Lynds returned to Muncie to re-observe the community during the Depression, which resulted in a sequel, Middletown in Transition: A Study in Cultural Conflicts (1937). [41] The Lynds' Middletown study, which was funded by the Rockefeller Institute of Social and Religious Research, was intended to study "the interwoven trends that are the life of a small American city." [42]

The Lynds were only the first to conduct a series of studies in Muncie. The National Science Foundation funded a third major study that resulted in two books by Theodore Caplow, Middletown Families (1982) and All Faithful People (1983). Caplow returned to Muncie in 1998 to begin another study, Middletown IV, which became part of a Public Broadcasting Service documentary titled "The First Measured Century", released in December 2000. The Ball State Center for Middletown Studies continues to survey and analyze social change in Muncie. [43] A database of Middletown surveys conducted between 1978 and 1997 is available online from the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA). [44] Due to the extensive information collected from the Middletown studies during the twentieth century, Muncie is said to be one of the most studied cities of its size in the United States. [45]

In addition to being called a "typical American city", as the result of the Middletown studies, Muncie is known as Magic City or Magic Muncie, as well as the Friendly City. [46]

World War II to the present Edit

During World War II the city's manufacturers once again turned their efforts to wartime production. Ball State and Muncie's airport also trained pilots for the U.S. Navy. [39] The postwar era was another period of expansion for Muncie, with continued growth and development of industries, construction of new homes, schools, and businesses. A population boom brought further development, especially from 1946 to 1965. [15]

Since the 1950s and 1960s Muncie has continued as an education center in the state and emerged as a regional health center. As enrollment at Ball State increased, new buildings were erected on the college's campus. Ball Memorial Hospital also expanded its facilities. [47] However, by the 1960s, industrial trends had shifted. Beginning in the 1970s several manufacturing plants closed or moved elsewhere, while others adapted to industrial changes and remained in Muncie. Ball Corporation, for example, closed its Muncie glass manufacturing facilities in 1962 and its corporate headquarters relocated to Broomfield, Colorado in 1998. [48] [49] Muncie was also home to other manufacturing operations, including Warner Gear (a division of BorgWarner), Delco Remy, General Motors, Ontario Corporation, A. E. Boyce Company, and Westinghouse Electric, among others. [50]

In 2017, the Muncie Community Schools system was declared a "distressed political subdivision", and put in direct control of the state government. In 2018, the school district was reformed and a new board was appointed by Ball State's Board of Trustees. [51]


The view from Middletown: a typical US city that never did exist

In the early 1920s husband-and-wife sociologists Robert Staughton Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd scoured America in search of a city “as representative as possible of contemporary American life”. They found Muncie, Indiana. “A typical city, strictly speaking, does not exist,” they conceded in the first paragraph. “But the city was selected as having many features common to a wide group of communities.” They didn’t tell anyone it was Muncie. They just called it Middletown.

They published their findings in 1929 with a detailed portrayal of a town becoming less devout and less deferent, more educated and more automated, where women were less likely to bake their own bread and more likely to work outside the home, young people lead more independent lives, where public speeches were getting shorter and schoolgirls preferred cotton to silk stockings.

Derisive of politicians (“Our politics smell to heaven,” said one business leader) Muncie residents were also fiercely loyal to the two main parties in ways that still ring true. “A man is a Republican or he is not,” argued one local editorial. “A Democrat or he is not, and the test of his partisanship is the support he gives his party.”

Amid these shifts in gender, generation and religion, the central focus was on class. This was their central aim, to challenge the myth of meritocracy and social fluidity, and show how much the America one was born into shaped your life chances. Surveying the streets in the early winter’s morning, for example, they explained that it is in the working class part of town where lights go on at 6am so labourers can make the early shift while the well-to-do areas remained in darkness. “[The] division into working class and business class constitutes the outstanding cleavage in Middletown,” they wrote. “The mere fact of being born upon one or the other side of the watershed roughly formed by these two groups is the most significant single cultural factor tending to influence what one does all day long throughout one’s life.”

Norman Birnbaum, a longtime Guardian reader and retired academic who contacted me on reading of this project, knew the Lynds in the late 1940s and early 1950s. “Bob was the prototypical midwestern New Dealer and progressivist,” he said. “They were very proud of Middletown because they thought it brought into sharp profile some key problems.”

The book was released to rave reviews and enduring success. HL Mencken declared: “It reveals, in cold-blooded, scientific terms, the sort of lives millions of Americans are leading.” Stuart Chase at the Nation magazine wrote: “Whoever touches the book touches the heart of America.”

And so it is that Middletown, and therefore Muncie, became a proxy for the quintessential America. “The Lynds tried to have it both ways,” says James Connolly, director of the Center for Middletown Studies at Ball State University in Muncie. “They called it Middletown. They clearly wanted it to represent more than just this one community. But on the other hand they suggest that you shouldn’t generalise too quickly from it. But the reaction was: ‘This is the real America.’ And that conceit, however well you think it holds up, and it doesn’t hold up that well demographically, carries this whole enterprise forward. It’s the reason I have a job. It’s the reason why you’re here.”

And from there began what Sarah Igo, in The Averaged American, describes as “the strange slippage between the typical and the good, the average and the ideal”.

In 1935 Robert Lynd, under pressure from his publishers, came back to do a follow-up, Middletown in Transition, which examined the effects of the Great Depression on Muncie.

When the book came out in 1937 Muncie’s mayor said: “We think we are a typical city of typical Americans. We do not mind being in the spotlight.” None of that, it turned out, was remotely true.

Emerson School group, 1923 Emerson School now Emerson dog park

Whether Muncie liked being in the spotlight or not depended heavily on what that light exposed. “Muncie has always had a mixed response to the attention it has received since Middletown,” says Connolly. “On the one hand they really like this idea that this is quintessential America. They are the ur-Americans. They are the ground zero of American life. And that’s an attractive idea for them and for outside observers. On the other hand they would bridle at some of the ways that they were portrayed.”

When the acclaimed photographer Margaret Bourke-White took a series of photographs for Life magazine that showed the deep economic inequalities following the Depression, the town was in uproar. In 1982, as one of our readers noted, PBS released a six-part documentary on Muncie called Middletown. One episode, set in Southside High School, which has since closed, depicted casual drug use, profanity and sexual banter while focusing considerable attention on an teenage interracial relationship. After tense discussions between local leaders, PBS and the film-makers, the episode was withdrawn and the series sponsor, Xerox, withdrew its sponsorship – but not its funding – from that particular program, which has since been released on DVD. One person involved in the talks at the time told the New York Times that the decision was made to protect the children. ‘’It’s a very difficult issue of freedom of speech versus what these kids might have been doing to themselves. There’s a possibility that they really could be destroying their lives in saying some of the things they said in the film. In a way, you have to protect them – they’re minors, after all – from themselves.’’

And like a fairground mirror, Middletown gave America an image of itself that was both familiar and woefully distorted – an image that the American commentariat preferred to reality. For when the Lynds selected a city they settled on three key characteristics: that it be between 25,000 and 50,000 people, that it was “self-contained” (not a “satellite” or suburb) and finally, that it should “have a small Negro and foreign-born population”. Muncie did not actually fit the bill for the final point. At 5% its black population was proportionally higher at the time than New York, Chicago and Detroit . It did have a small foreign-born population because the local business class imported workers from Tennessee and Kentucky. “There was a conscious attempt to keep foreign workers out,” says Connolly. “Because they wanted people to go home during slack times and they were worried foreigners would bring in dangerous ideas.” But once again, this made it atypical compared with other towns of its size.

The Lynds did this consciously because they wanted to concentrate on class and therefore avoid dealing with “two major variables” and deal instead with a “homogeonous, native-born population”. “They understood that they were doing that and they justified it in a social-scientific sense,” says Igo, an associate professor at Vanderbilt University. “They try to unmask this myth about class. But what it did was create this other myth about a representative America – a nostalgic, white nativist America.” That myth, says Igo, is enduring. It can be found in Sarah Palin’s praise of the “real America” in 2008 or Ronald Reagan’s ad “It’s morning again in America” in 1984 or even Donald Trump’s “Make America great again”. “Every country has a mythical sense of what it is, so it’s not unique to America,” says Igo.

Nor is it limited to Republicans. In the runup to the 2008 primaries Hillary Clinton’s chief strategist, Mark Penn, laid out a plan of attack against Barack Obama. “His roots to basic American values and culture are at best limited. I cannot imagine America electing a president during a time of war who is not at his centre fundamentally American in his thinking and in his values . Every speech should contain the line you were born in the middle of America to the middle class in the middle of the last century . Let’s explicitly own ‘American’ in our programmes, the speeches and the values. He doesn’t . Let’s use our logo to make some flags we can give out. Let’s add flag symbols to the backgrounds.”

During a drive around town, Yvonne Thompson, the African American director of Muncie’s Human Rights Office, says the town’s black population (now 12%, roughly the same proportion as the nation at large) which lives on the east side of the railroad tracks remains largely forgotten. For a long time there was no fire station and there is still no supermarket there, she explains, and if a train is on the line and the roads are blocked it can slow down the response time for ambulances. “We have to remind people that we’re here,” she says. “And that we’re not going away, so don’t forget about us.”

We pull up at Shaffer chapel and she shows me a plaque. On 7 August 1930 a white mob in Marion, Indiana, some 40 miles away, broke into the local jail with sledgehammers, dragged three black teenagers out of their cell, beat them and then hung two of them from a tree by their necks (the third managed to get away). The night before, they had been arrested and charged with robbing and murdering a white factory worker, Claude Deeter, and raping his white girlfriend, Mary Ball. (Ball later testified she had not been raped.) Lawrence Beitler took pictures of the crowd, including children, that had come to watch the bodies swing. Over the next 10 days he would sell thousands in what became the inspiration for Billie Holiday’s Strange Fruit and is now an iconic image.

The bodies were left to hang overnight and were cut down in the morning. By that time news reached Reverend JE Johnson, a pastor and mortician 30 or so miles away in Muncie. Knowing that Marion had no black undertakers, he braved the trip to Marion that morning to pick up their bodies and prepare them for a Christian burial. When rumours spread that a white mob was coming to take the bodies back, Muncie’s black community armed themselves in preparation and the town’s white sheriff, Fred Puckett, stood with them. The next day Puckett and a posse from Muncie’s black community escorted Johnson to the county line from where he continued to Marion to deliver them for burial.

This took place just one year after Middletown was published. But the experiences of people like Johnson and many of those who stood with him that day, are omitted from the “typical” American story of Middletown.

“How are you going to have a thorough study of this town and leave us out?” asks Thompson, who’s wearing a black T-shirt stating: “It Matters.” “And then tell everybody it’s the ‘real America’.”


Railroads of Indiana, 1850

One of the beautiful things of the internet, one of the things that make doing something like the Indiana Transportation History blog so easy, is the access to a world of information. Yes, some is accurate, and some isn’t. But my favorite resources, as I have shown over the past almost two years, is maps. While maps can be wrong at times, or more to the point, based on “future” information that doesn’t come to be, they are still a great resource if you can figure where they went wrong.

Today, I found another map that grabbed my interest. Looking at a map of railroads in Indiana, even today, there are railroads all over the state. A railroad map from the turn of the 20th Century is a spider web of routes crossing the state in all kinds of directions. But the map that I found today is one of Indiana in 1850. It is an interesting look what was, and how many changes have come about in the 170 years since it was printed.

When railroads started being built in the state, just like everywhere else, it was a jumble of little companies, usually with destination cities in the company title. There were 15 railroads on the map at the time, with some that were proposed. One of them was in Ohio, but would later be part of an Indiana system when it was completed. The map that I found showed the railroad routes as straight lines, not the actual routes themselves. I am going to cover them in the order the map numbered them.

Number 1: Madison and Indianapolis Railroad. I have covered this railroad many times, as it was the first long distance railroad built in Indiana. The engineering of this route, which included the steepest railroad tracks in the nation, was top notch at the time. Although it was originally been on the cheap, using iron strapped rails instead of the “T” rail that would become standard (and much safer) later. In the end, it would become part of the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Number 2: Shelbyville Lateral Branch. This line was built as a feeder road to the Madison & Indianapolis. Its history isn’t terribly long. It connected the Madison & Indianapolis at Edinburgh to Shelbyville, opening up farm produce from Shelby County to the world at large. The railroad, depending on what history you read because it is very spotty, would last around five years before it was abandoned.

Number 3: Shelbyville & Rushville Railroad. Shelbyville was a “rail center” for a little while in the 1850’s and 1860’s. This route connected the two title towns, opening Rush County to the markets available on the Madison & Indianapolis.

Number 4: Shelbyville & Knightstown Railroad. Another short lived railroad, that would open southern Henry County to the same markets served by the above three. This company would last less than a decade, according to the source. Again, the history is spotty about this road at best. Later, part of route would become part of a railroad again, but instead of connecting Knightstown to Shelbyville, it would connect to Rushville.

Number 5: Columbus, Nashville & Bloomington. Trying to find any history on this road is difficult at best. I am not even sure if it existed at all. This will require more research.

Number 6: Martinsville Branch Railroad. Another road, like the one above. History is hard to find like the one above. It connected the Madison & Indianapolis to Martinsville. Later, the same connection would be made, in 1853, from the M&I at Franklin to Martinsville. That railroad would would be the Fairland, Franklin & Martinsville.

Number 7: Indianapolis & Bellefontaine Railroad. This route connected Indianapolis to Pendleton, Anderson, Muncie and Winchester to ultimately Bellefontaine, Ohio. Down the road, this would be one of the founding parts of the Big Four Railroad. It is still in use today as part of CSX.

Number 8: Indianapolis & Peru Railroad. Today, this is mostly known as the Nickel Plate connecting Indianapolis, Noblesville, Tipton, Kokomo and Peru. Or at least what’s left of it. At one point, for about nine months, it was consolidated with the Madison & Indianapolis creating a route from Madison to Peru under one umbrella. Shareholders, and the courts, put an end to that marriage, creating two separate companies again.

Number 9: Indianapolis & Lafayette Railroad. Another constituent part of what would become the Big Four Railroad. At one point, at the Indianapolis end, the line came down alongside the Central Canal. It would be also be the scene of a large train wreck that would kill members of the Purdue University football team (Part 1 and Part 2).

Number 10: Lafayette & Crawfordsville Railroad. This railroad would later become part of the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, later known as the Monon. At the end of this article, I will show the only proposed railroad that in included on this map, which would be a connecting route from Crawfordsville to Bedford, thus creating the remaining part of the Monon mainline through western Indiana.

Number 11: Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Richmond Railroad. The original plan for this railroad was to connect the entire state, east to west, following roughly the National Road corridor. It would never be built past Indianapolis. Over the years, it would become part of the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Number 12: New Albany & Salem Railroad. This would be the southern end of what would become the Monon. There were several companies between the New Albany & Salem and the Monon. I covered the history of the Monon in two parts, part 1 and part 2.

Number 13: Jeffersonville & Columbus Railroad. Most references to this road refer to it as the Jeffersonville, or “J.” The plan was to build the line all the way to Indianapolis. The problem came with the management of the Madison & Indianapolis. As the first railroad, the M&I assumed the attitude that they were the kings of the state’s railroads and others, especially direct competitors like the “J,” should just be good little kids and do what they are told.

There is a story about the M&I not wanting to help another railroad, because they weren’t in business to provide charity to other companies. The company they turned down would be the THI&R, which would be far more successful than the M&I in the end.

The M&I refused to cooperate with the J. So, ultimately, the J not only invested in feeder lines, taking traffic from the M&I, they started building a parallel track to the M&I. Ultimately, the J would end up buying the struggling M&I. And, like the M&I, would become part of the Pennsylvania system.

Number 14: Lawrenceburg & Greensburg Railroad. This road was built to connect the markets of Decatur and Ripley Counties to the markets at Cincinnati. Ultimately, the plan was to build the road all the way to Indianapolis, allowing a more direct route from the Hoosier capital to the Queen City of the Ohio. Traffic would be barged from Lawrenceburg to Cincinnati, which was faster than the already in place barged traffic from Madison to Cincinnati.

Number 15: Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad. The only reason that I am mentioning this is because it would be the foundation of what would ultimately become the Baltimore & Ohio connecting Indianapolis to Cincinnati directly.

As mentioned above, the only proposed railroad on this map is the future Monon route connecting Bedford to Crawfordsville. Several towns along the proposed route would not be serviced by any other railroad company for years. And today, most of this route no longer exists, having been given back to the locals when the bigger companies were created, and the route became excessively redundant.

There is one more transportation facility included on this map. The Wabash & Erie Canal from Evansville to Fort Wayne and beyond is marked on it.

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Contents

This area had been occupied for thousands of years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples. The first European settlement of the western area of Indiana along the Wabash River was by French-Canadian colonists, who founded Vincennes in 1703.

After the Seven Years' War, France ceded its territory in North America to Great Britain. In turn, after the American Revolutionary War, the Crown ceded this territory east of the Mississippi River to the new United States, including land it did not control, which was occupied by Native American nations.

In 1811 the Shawnee chief Tecumseh rallied several tribes to try to expel the European-American settlers from the area. When General William Henry Harrison took an army from Vincennes to the Battle of Tippecanoe in late 1811 to fight with the Indians, Zachariah Cicott served as a scout. Cicott had traded with Indians up and down the Wabash River, starting around 1801. The trail taken by Harrison's army, on its way to and from the battle site in Tippecanoe County, passed through the area that later became Parke County. The settlement of Armiesburg in Wabash Township was so named because Harrison and his army crossed the Raccoon Creek and camped near there on their way to the battle. [9]

Formed on January 9, 1821, from a portion of Vigo County, [2] Parke County was formed by an act approved by the state legislature. It was named for Captain Benjamin Parke, who commanded a troop of light Dragoons at the Battle of Tippecanoe. [10] Parke was elected as a delegate of Indiana Territory to the U.S. Congress. In 1821, he was appointed as U.S. District Judge for Indiana.

First located at Roseville, the county seat was relocated to Armiesburg. In 1822, the county settled on Rockville as the permanent location. The state act had called for construction of county buildings to start within one year of the county's formation but in the event, it did not start until 1824. The first courthouse was completed on the Rockville town square in 1826. The log structure doubled as a church. [11]

In 1832 the log building was replaced by a brick structure, which served for more than 40 years until 1879, when it was demolished for replacement by a new stone courthouse. The architects for this building were Thomas J. Tolan and his son Brentwood of Fort Wayne they designed seven Indiana courthouses, as well as two in Ohio, and one each in Iowa and Illinois. (The firm also designed the Rockville sheriff's resident and jail, as well as others in Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa and Tennessee).

Construction of the courthouse at Rockville was completed in 1882 at a cost of about $79,000. [n 1] [13] Items deposited in the cornerstone included documents of the town's history, postage stamps, several varieties of grain grown in the county, coins, and photographs. A dedication ceremony took place on February 22, 1882, the anniversary of George Washington's birthday. The clock and bell were added later at a cost of about $1,500. [14]

The Wabash and Erie Canal was completed through the area around 1850 and ran through Parke County on the east side of the Wabash River. It served several communities along the banks of the river until it was discontinued in the 1870s. [15]

Parke County lies in western Indiana about halfway between the state's north and south borders. It is bordered by Fountain County to the north Montgomery County to the northeast Putnam County to the east Clay County to the south and Vigo County to the southwest. The county's western border is defined by the Wabash River on the west side of the river lies Vermillion County, beyond which is the state of Illinois, less than 5 miles (8.0 km) from Parke County's northwestern corner. The state capital of Indianapolis lies about 60 miles (97 km) to the east. [16]

The entire county is within the drainage area of the Wabash River. North of Rockville, the gently undulating land is glacial till resulting from Wisconsinan glaciation. The Shelbyville moraine divides this from the nearly level Illinoisan till plain in the south part of the county. [17]

Turkey Run State Park is located in northern Parke County. It was set aside as one of Indiana's first state parks and consists of 2,382 acres (964 ha) of land. [18] The county also contains a portion of Shades State Park, a 3,082-acre (1,247 ha) park about 5 miles (8.0 km) northeast of Turkey Run the majority of Shades is located in Montgomery County. [19]

According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 449.98 square miles (1,165.4 km 2 ), of which 444.66 square miles (1,151.7 km 2 ) (or 98.82%) is land and 5.32 square miles (13.8 km 2 ) (or 1.18%) is water. [3]

Cities and towns Edit

Parke County contains six incorporated settlements. The largest is Rockville with a population of about 2,600 located near the center of the county at the intersections of U.S. Routes 36 and 41, it is also the county seat. Bloomingdale is about 5 miles (8.0 km) to the north-northwest of Rockville and has a population of 335. To the north-northeast of Rockville lies Marshall, on Indiana State Road 236 its population is 324. To the southwest of Rockville, Mecca has a population of 335. Montezuma is at the far western edge of the county on U.S. Route 36 its population is 1,022. Finally, Rosedale is near the southern border of the county and has a population of 725.

Townships Edit

Unincorporated towns Edit

Ghost town Edit

Two United States highways pass through the county. U.S. Route 36 passes east–west through the middle of the county, entering from Putnam County to the east, through Rockville and Montezuma, then into Vermillion County to the west. [20] U.S. Route 41 enters from Fountain County to the north and intersects U.S. Route 36 in Rockville it goes southwest toward Clinton before continuing south to Vigo County and Terre Haute, Indiana. [21]

Indiana State Road 47 begins at U.S. Route 41 in the northern part of the county and goes east into Montgomery County, veering north to Crawfordsville. [22] Indiana State Road 59 enters from Clay County to the south and runs north through the eastern part of the county until it terminates at Indiana State Road 236, which runs east from U.S. Route 41. [23] [24] Indiana State Road 163 runs for less than a mile in Parke County, crossing the river at Clinton and terminating at U.S. Route 41 in the far southwest corner of the county. [25] In the far northwestern corner, Indiana State Road 234 enters from Cayuga and runs for less than a mile to Lodi before going north and leaving the county. [26]

A small portion of a major CSX Transportation railroad line passes through the southwest corner of the county, entering from Clinton to the west, then going south toward Terre Haute. Another CSX line enters the far southeastern corner of the county on its way from Terre Haute to Indianapolis. [7]

Historically a rural county with extensive agriculture, today Parke County's economy is supported by a labor force of approximately 8,050 workers. The unemployment rate in November 2011 was 9.6%. [27]

In recent years, average temperatures in Rockville have ranged from a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) in January to a high of 87 °F (31 °C) in July, although a record low of −25 °F (−32 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 109 °F (43 °C) was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.25 inches (57 mm) in February to 4.89 inches (124 mm) in July. [28] From 1950 through 2009, eight tornadoes were reported in Parke County none resulted in any deaths or injuries, but the total estimated property damage was over $280,000. [29]

Warder Clyde Allee was born in Bloomingdale in 1885. He attended Earlham College and the University of Chicago, studying zoology and ecology and receiving his Ph.D. in 1912. He taught, conducted research, and wrote a number of books among other accomplishments, he identified what became known as the Allee effect. He died in Gainesville, Florida, in 1955 at age 69. [30]

Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma in 1897 when he was six years old, his family moved to Ohio. He attended Harvard University and received a Ph.D. in psychology in 1922 his focus was on personality traits. He began teaching at Harvard in 1924, and published a number of works in the following years. He died in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1967 at the age of 69. [31]

William Henry Harrison Beadle was born in a log cabin in Parke County in 1838. His father offered him a farm, but he accepted $1,000 for an education instead and studied civil engineering at the University of Michigan. He fought in the Civil War on the side of the Union and became a brigadier general. After the war, he was named surveyor-general of the Dakota Territory. Later he became president of the Madison State Normal School (now Dakota State University), then taught geography there after his presidency. He died in 1915 at the age of 77. [32]

Baseball great Mordecai Brown was born in the unincorporated town of Nyesville in Parke County on October 19, 1876. He lost parts of two fingers on his right hand in a farm machinery accident, hence his later nickname "Three Finger". He was also called "Miner" because he had worked in coal mines in western Indiana before his baseball career. He began in the minor leagues in Terre Haute in 1901 and joined the major leagues in 1903, retiring in 1916. He died in Terre Haute in 1948 at age 71. [33]

Grover Jones was born in Rosedale in 1893 and grew up in the Terre Haute area. He became a short story writer, screenwriter, and film director, writing for over 100 films. He died in Hollywood, California, in 1940 at age 46. [34]

Knute Cauldwell was born in Parke County and played in the early years of the National Football League.

The county's first newspaper was called The Wabash Herald and was published beginning in 1829. After being sold and renamed several times, it was successively called The Rockville Intelligencer, The Olive Branch, The Parke County Whig and The Rockville Republican. Several other papers came and went as of 1912, several newspapers were published in the county: the Republican, the Tribune, the Montezuma Enterprise, and the Bloomingdale World, as well as papers printed in Rosedale and Marshall. [35] The original Wabash Herald continues and since 1977 has been called the Parke County Sentinel. [36]

The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code. The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes. [37] [38] In 2010, the county budgeted approximately $2.2 million for the district's schools and $2.8 million for other county operations and services, for a total annual budget of approximately $5 million. [39]

The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, and each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners, typically the most senior, serves as president. The commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue and managing day-to-day functions of the county government. [37] [38]

The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. [38]

The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor and circuit court clerk. Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and be residents of the county. [38]

Each of the townships has a trustee who administers rural fire protection and ambulance service, provides poor relief and manages cemetery care, among other duties. [5] The trustee is assisted in these duties by a three-member township board. The trustees and board members are elected to four-year terms. [40]

Parke County is a consistently Republican county in presidential elections, having voted for Democratic Party candidates only five times since 1888, and not at all since Lyndon B. Johnson's national landslide in 1964.

Presidential election results [43]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2020 77.0% 5,400 21.4% 1,503 1.6% 110
2016 73.3% 4,863 21.7% 1,441 5.0% 332
2012 64.9% 4,234 32.3% 2,110 2.8% 185
2008 55.9% 3,909 41.8% 2,924 2.3% 157
2004 65.3% 4,550 33.9% 2,362 0.9% 59
2000 59.6% 3,841 38.5% 2,481 1.9% 125
1996 47.6% 3,151 37.1% 2,453 15.3% 1,015
1992 41.6% 2,953 34.2% 2,429 24.2% 1,717
1988 63.2% 4,458 36.3% 2,563 0.5% 32
1984 69.3% 5,052 30.2% 2,205 0.5% 37
1980 62.8% 4,595 33.3% 2,432 3.9% 288
1976 55.0% 3,929 44.2% 3,158 0.8% 57
1972 69.2% 5,014 30.4% 2,207 0.4% 29
1968 52.5% 3,738 34.7% 2,472 12.8% 914
1964 46.8% 3,570 52.9% 4,034 0.2% 17
1960 57.9% 4,662 41.8% 3,361 0.3% 23
1956 59.0% 5,080 40.7% 3,502 0.3% 22
1952 58.3% 5,069 41.1% 3,574 0.5% 47
1948 53.3% 4,326 45.4% 3,681 1.3% 105
1944 59.0% 4,751 40.3% 3,241 0.7% 56
1940 54.1% 5,242 45.3% 4,384 0.6% 57
1936 48.9% 4,665 50.4% 4,811 0.7% 66
1932 44.3% 3,926 53.1% 4,703 2.7% 235
1928 59.3% 4,729 39.7% 3,165 1.1% 87
1924 59.1% 4,877 35.1% 2,898 5.8% 474
1920 56.1% 4,989 39.9% 3,543 4.0% 356
1916 48.5% 2,598 43.5% 2,329 8.0% 427
1912 36.3% 1,891 38.9% 2,031 24.8% 1,295
1908 48.4% 3,026 43.3% 2,707 8.4% 526
1904 55.5% 3,468 34.8% 2,176 9.7% 606
1900 51.6% 3,138 43.2% 2,630 5.2% 316
1896 49.7% 2,847 48.5% 2,777 1.8% 100
1892 61.7% 2,503 25.0% 1,013 13.4% 544
1888 53.3% 2,764 41.6% 2,159 5.1% 265
Historical population
Census Pop.
18307,535
184013,499 79.2%
185014,968 10.9%
186015,538 3.8%
187018,166 16.9%
188019,460 7.1%
189020,296 4.3%
190023,000 13.3%
191022,214 −3.4%
192018,875 −15.0%
193016,561 −12.3%
194017,358 4.8%
195015,674 −9.7%
196014,804 −5.6%
197014,600 −1.4%
198016,372 12.1%
199015,410 −5.9%
200017,241 11.9%
201017,339 0.6%
2018 (est.)16,927 [44] −2.4%
U.S. Decennial Census [45]
1790-1960 [46] 1900-1990 [47]
1990-2000 [48] 2010-2013 [1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 17,339 people, 6,222 households, and 4,389 families residing in the county. [49] The population density was 39.0 inhabitants per square mile (15.1/km 2 ). There were 8,085 housing units at an average density of 18.2 per square mile (7.0/km 2 ). [50] The racial makeup of the county was 96.1% white, 2.3% black or African American, 0.4% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 0.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. [49] In terms of ancestry, 27.7% were American, 23.7% were German, 10.7% were Irish, and 10.1% were English. [51]

Of the 6,222 households, 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families, and 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 41.3 years. [49]

The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $51,581. Males had a median income of $40,395 versus $27,618 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,494. About 8.8% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.9% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over. [52]


Preserved Locomotives At The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum

Baltimore & Ohio 0-4-0 #8, The John Hancock  ( Built by B&O shop forces in Mount Clare in 1836 )

Baltimore & Ohio 4-6-0 Davis Camel #305/#217 (Built by B&O shop forces in Mount Clare in 1869)

Baltimore & Ohio 4-6-0 #117, The Thatcher Perkins (Built by B&O shop forces in Mount Clare in 1863)

Baltimore & Ohio 4-4-0 #25, The William Mason (Built by Mason Machine Works in 1856)

Baltimore & Ohio Class E-8 2-8-0 #545, The A.J. Cromwell ( Built by B&O shop forces in Mount Clare in 1888 )

Baltimore & Ohio Class Q-3 2-8-2 "Mikado" #4500 ( Built by Baldwin in 1918 )

Baltimore & Ohio Class P-7 4-6-2 "Pacific" #5300, The President Washington ( Built by Baldwin in 1927 )

Camden & Amboy 0-4-0, Stourbridge Lion (Replica, on loan from Smithsonian)

Central Railroad Of New Jersey 4-4-2 "Atlantic Camelback" #592 (Built by the American Locomotive Company in 1901)

Chesapeake & Ohio Class K-4 2-8-4 "Kanawha" #2705 (Built by the American Locomotive Company in 1943)

Chesapeake & Ohio Class L-1 4-6-4 #490 (Originally built as a Class F-19 4-6-2 "Pacific" in 1926 by Alco.  Rebuilt as a 4-6-4, streamlined "Hudson" in 1946 for the all-new Chessie streamliner, a train never launched.  It is the only surviving example.)

Chesapeake & Ohio Class H-8 2-6-6-6 "Allegheny" #1604 (Built in 1941 by the Lima Locomotive Works)

Clinchfield Railroad 4-6-0 #1, Nicknamed "One Spot" (Originally built in 1882 by the Columbus, Chicago, & Indiana Central Railway, a later Pennsylvania Railroad subsidiary.)

Greenbrier, Cheat & Elk Railroad 80-ton, three-truck Shay #1 (Built by Lima in 1905)

Potomac Electric Power 35-ton 0-4-0F (Fireless) Heisler #1 (Built by the Heisler Locomotive Works in 1938)

Reading Railroad Class T-1 4-8-4 #2101 (Built in 1923 by Baldwin as a 2-8-0, rebuilt by the Reading in 1945 as a 4-8-4)

St. Elizabeth Hospital 0-4-0T #4 (Operational. ਋uilt in 1950 by the H.K. Porter Company)

Following a 5-year project, this locomotive was unveiled to the public in January, 2021  to its as-delivered appearance from Electro-Motive. )

Baltimore & Ohio 70-ton switcher #50 (Built by General Electric in 1950)

Baltimore & Ohio Rail Diesel Car #9913 (Built by the Budd Company in 1953)

Baltimore & Ohio Rail Diesel Car #1961 (Built by the Budd Company in 1956)

Canton Railroad VO-1000 #30 (Built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1944)

Central Railroad Of New Jersey boxcab switcher #1000 (Built by the American Locomotive Company/Ingersoll-Rand in 1925)

MARC Train F7A (Cab-control car/non-powered) #7100 (Originally built as B&O F7A #293-A in 1951)

Octoraro Railway S2 #3 (Originally built by Alco for the B&O as #519 in 1948)

Pere Marquette SW1 #11 (Built by Electro-Motive in 1942)

Western Maryland RS3 #193 ( Built by Alco in 1953 )

Western Maryland BL2 #81 ( Built by Electro-Motive in 1948 )

Western Maryland slug #138-T ( Originally built by Alco as Western Maryland S1 #102. ਌onverted to a slug, mated with BL2 #81, in 1962. )

Baltimore & Ohio 0-4-0 Class CE-1 switcher #10 (Built by General Electric in 1909.)

Chesapeake & Ohio battery-powered yard switcher #X-5000 nicknamed Dinky (Built by General Electric in 1918.)

Pennsylvania Railroad Class GG-1 #4876 (Built by General Electric in 1940)

The museum also has a large amount of preserved equipment housed outdoors, which it is constantly attempting to raise money for both their restoration as well as protection from the elements.

Additionally, the museum features other important artifacts such as railroad tools, passenger train china, and the B&O’s ceremonial "First Stone" (laid on July 4, 1828). ਊgain, this is just a few of things you can see there. 

Today the museum is going as strong as ever and besides the historic equipment you can see which is located throughout the property there are train rides for the kids (it currently includes a small, operating steam locomotive and an early B&O diesel locomotive), facility rentals, and lots of gifts and memorabilia at their gift shop or online store.  

There are also a wide range of special events held throughout the year such as hosting a Day Out With ThomasChuggington, and other activities.  

Additionally, the B&O Museum owns the nearby, former B&O freight station in Ellicott City, the oldest surviving depot in the country.

Also available are memberships for you to not only help the museum with it many restoration projects but also to receive special perks and discounts.  

In closing, it is a shame that CSX Transportation, located next to and connects with the museum does not take a greater in interest in [its] rail heritage or allow excursions to be hosted on its property.  

If so, the two properties could offer some incredible rail experiences.  To learn more about the B&O Railroad Museum please visit their website.


Rifle from James Gang Shootout

A member of the James gang stared down the barrel of this gun, and died.

The notorious Jesse James gang terrorized much of the Midwest in the years following the Civil War. The outlaws thought nothing of committing holdups in Kansas. Based in western Missouri, the gang found it easy to hit sites across the border. In early December of 1874, five of them rode to Muncie, a small town 12 miles west of Kansas City. Their target was a Kansas Pacific train carrying a Wells Fargo safe.

Train Robbery

At Muncie, the gang ordered railroad workers to pile wooden ties across the tracks. They took prisoner the owner of a nearby general store and, as the train approached, ordered him to flag it down. The gang then entered the baggage car and forced the company messenger to open the safe, removing from it $18,000 in currency, $5,000 in gold, and assorted packages of money and jewelry. A gold watch belonging to the messenger was returned to him with the explanation that it was personal property. The gang rode away with a wave and a shout: "Good-bye, boys, no hard feelings. We have taken nothing from you."

The messenger may not have taken the robbery personally, but Wells Fargo did. The State of Kansas and the Kansas Pacific Railroad joined Wells Fargo in offering rewards. The State of Missouri cooperated in trying to track down the robbers. But it was only by accident that one actually was arrested.

William "Bud" McDaniel (a.k.a. "McDaniels") was the son of a Kansas City saloonkeeper, and had a brother who also rode with the James Gang. Just days after the robbery he was stopped by a police officer for "rowdy behavior and public drunkenness." McDaniel was found to be harboring four revolvers, six dozen cartridges, over $1,000, and some jewelry from the Wells Fargo safe. He was sent to Kansas to stand trial. This was not completely welcome news in Kansas City, where officials were intimidated by the James gang and generally willing to look the other way. In fact, McDaniel had been seen drinking with the Chief of Police on the day of his arrest!

McDaniel was jailed in Lawrence, Kansas, enough distance from the Missouri border to be considered safe. But on June 27, 1875, he escaped from the Douglas County jail with three other men, arms, ammunition, and horses. The Deputy Sheriff quickly assembled a posse and, by the following day, McDaniel and another prisoner had been tracked to the Lakeview area, seven miles west of Lawrence. Louis Beurman, a local farmer known as a good shot, described what transpired for the Lawrence Republican-Journal:

According to newspaper reports, the shot took "effect in the lower bowels." McDaniel managed to get to a house where the residents sent for the sheriff. He was returned to jail, where a doctor proclaimed his wounds fatal. The outlaw died within hours, remaining silent to the end about the identities of his accomplices in the Muncie train robbery.

The old "squirrel gun" that killed McDaniel--actually a German Schuetzen rifle--remained in the Beurman family until 1958 when Louis' nephew donated it to the Kansas Historical Society. It is in the collections of the Society's Kansas Museum of History.

Listen to the James Gang Shootout podcast on your computer!

Entry: Rifle from James Gang Shootout

Author: Kansas Historical Society

Author information: The Kansas Historical Society is a state agency charged with actively safeguarding and sharing the state's history.

Date Created: July 2009

Date Modified: December 2014

The author of this article is solely responsible for its content.

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Comments:

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  3. Shk?

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