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Classical Maya Lintel - 3D View

Classical Maya Lintel - 3D View


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3D Image

Scanned at the British Museum. Plaque Reads:

“On the second lintel from Structure 23 at Yaxchilan, the sacrificial offering of blood conjures up a visionary manifestation of Yat-Balam, founding ancestor of the dynasty of Yaxchilan. In the guise of a warrior grasping a spear and shield, this ancestral spirit emerges from the gaping front jaws of a huge double-headed serpent rearing above Lady Xoc. She gazes upward at the apparition she has brought forth. In her left hand she bears a blood-letting bowl containing instruments of sacrifice, a sting-ray spine and an obsidian lancet.”

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Classical Maya Lintel - 3D View - History

The Mayan are a truly ancient people. Although it can be difficult to pinpoint exactly when a culture began and ended without absolute written proof, most historians believe that Mayan settlements can be traced to the period around 1800 BCE, reaching its peak, called the “classical period” sometime around 250-900 CE. An extensive network of cities, connected by roads, many still visible today, lay testament to the complexity of the culture and its social and political structure. Along with some of the skills modern man celebrates like their mathematical prowess and calendars, the culture and artistry is being preserved by recognizing its distinctive beauty.


Animation in the Ancient City of Yaxchila

The artist(s) who carved the two Yaxchilan lintels shown above incorporated the concept of animation into their artwork. The trick is to compare the two lintels to see what is different in their imagery. In the process, it becomes apparent that what is missing is important to understand their visual content. Maya artists most likely used templates they were able to modify to create the animations.

In this image, Lady Chak Chami is shown raising a low dish, filled with bloodletting paraphernalia, by extending her palm up towards her husband or consort Bird Jaguar IV, while both move bloodletting blades they hold in their right and left hands, respectively. In addition, an ancestral head or possibly their future son, Shield Jaguar IV, is emerging from the wide-open maws of a skeletal serpent / centipede beast, conjured into being through the bloodletting rite, raises his cupped hands towards Lady Chak Chami.

The key to understanding Maya animation is to compare the details. The animation has been extracted and adapted from Chinchilla Mazariegos. (Jenny and Alex John / The Maya Gods of Time )


Main Entrance, West Facade

The main entrance of the Supreme Court Building is on the west, facing the U.S. Capitol building. Sixteen marble Corinthian columns support the pediment. Along the architrave (the molding just above the columns) are the engraved words, "Equal Justice Under Law." John Donnelly, Jr. cast the bronze entrance doors.

Sculpture is part of the overall design. On either side of the main steps of the Supreme Court building are seated marble figures. These large statues are the work of sculptor James Earle Fraser. The Classical pediment is also an opportunity for symbolic statuary.


Current issues

Over the centuries the Taj Mahal has been subject to neglect and decay. A major restoration was carried out at the beginning of the 20th century under the direction of Lord Curzon, then the British viceroy of India. More recently, air pollution caused by emissions from foundries and other nearby factories and exhaust from motor vehicles has damaged the mausoleum, notably its marble facade. A number of measures have been taken to reduce the threat to the monument, among them the closing of some foundries and the installation of pollution-control equipment at others, the creation of a parkland buffer zone around the complex, and the banning of nearby vehicular traffic. A restoration and research program for the Taj Mahal was initiated in 1998. Progress in improving environmental conditions around the monument has been slow, however.

From time to time the Taj Mahal has been subject to India’s political dynamics. Night viewing was banned there between 1984 and 2004 because it was feared that the monument would be a target of Sikh militants. In addition, it increasingly has come to be seen as an Indian cultural symbol. Some Hindu nationalist groups have attempted to diminish the importance of the Muslim influence in accounting for the origins and design of the Taj Mahal.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.


Classical Maya Lintel - 3D View - History

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    Museum Level Investment Grade Art

    We dedicate our expertise to providing our clientele with exquisite collections of unique and the most impressive Pre-Columbian art available. Each piece presented is appreciated and respected for its time laden workmanship. One can only be humbled by the detail and precision, interpreting these creations as nothing less than ancient and cultural fine art.

    Every item offered by Galeria Con-Tici is subjected to microscopic analysis and is unconditionally guaranteed to be of the culture and age described.

    We are happy and proud to present our extensive on-line collection for your viewing pleasure and consideration.

    All artifacts acquired by Galeria Con-Tici have been legally obtained. Galeria Con-Tici abides by all state and local laws as per articles “The Antiquities Act of 1906, UNESCO 1972 and UNIDROIT 1995".

    Proud Member of the AACA - Abiding Strict Rules of Conduct

    A handsome and superb pair of Mayan stone daggers. Bi-facially knapped with thin handles with ridged sharp blades. Each of different colored chert. Blades are very symmetric and in choice condition. Belize region 200 BC - 500 AD. Measures 9"/22,86 cm and 7"/17,78 cm. Each on custom stand.

    These discs are from the offerings found in El Castillo at Chichen Itza on the Yucatan.

    An anthropomorphic turtle ceramic from the Mayan Late Postclassic Period

    A ceramic pitcher from the Mayan Late Postclassic Period

    Stucco Heads of the Funeral crypt. From Pakal the Great Mortuary Crypt.

    Stucco Heads of the Funeral crypt. From Pakal the Great Mortuary Crypt.

    National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology in Guatemala City.

    I've been in this room many times, but it appears some sprucing up has been done. Also, this new camera seems to capture the colors and details much better.

    I visited the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City. Chac-Mool means Red Claw and is a Mayan artifact from the ruins of Chichen Itza in the Yucatan. Chac-Mool is a messenger between man and the gods. He was charged with bringing offerings to the gods that were placed in his abdominal cavity.

    There used to be an Aztec exhibit at LACMA, but apparently it was just for a short while. Nevertheless, there were some similarities between the Aztecs and the Mayans. Their jewelry, their artifacts, vases, their codex, and even their penchant for human sacrifice were similar. The Mayans stayed on the Yucatan Peninsula, close to the Gulf of Mexico, while the Aztecs stayed in the center, with their ancient city eventually becoming the modern Mexico City.

    This artifact represents the Mayan ritual of cheek piercing, where three people have their cheeks pierced and a small rod placed through it. The description didn't say if this was for prisoners (which are usually sacrificed anyway) or some religious custom.

    My translation of the sign reads:

    "This magnificent piece shows an elderly person emerging from a flower Jaina au the freshness basis figures represent real people and not deities, in this case exists in parallel with location in myth that tells that the gods are born from flowers."

    I'm sure the sign very clearly says "flowers" and I'm pretty positive that this is the sign that went with this picture. but that sure looks a conch shell to me, not a flower.

    Heart-shaped bone mask with excellent front and back surface patina. Front surface has sgraffito lines cut through to a gray surface. Checkerboard design headdress. Black eyeband and nose with rectangular slits for eyes. Slit downmouth, two chevron marks at the chin. Drilled for suspension. Bone probably from skull.

    Reassembled from four pieces with no restoration. Rich dark patina. Appraised 35 years ago (1982) by the late Lowell Collins (The Lowell Collins Gallery, Houston, Texas). 300 B.C. -300 A.D. Mexico. Measures 2.75"/6.98 cm.

    My rough translation of the sign reads:

    "This is decorated with a symbolic scene with two people of fantastic aspect. The principal figure and of larger size represents a skeleton figure. whose vertebral column is carved in an exaggerated fashion. With exception of the head, the feet and the hands, all of the rest of the body is represented without flesh. The head is wearing a partial jaguar mask. On the interior of the thorax is thick band extending vertically toward the other person. The smaller figure is subject to the extreme of the band at the upper left of the monument and gives the impression of floating or elevation. The scene has been described as " a figure ascending from the umbilical cord of the Skeleton God of Death."

    My translation of the sign reads:

    "This magnificent piece shows an elderly person emerging from a flower Jaina au the freshness basis figures represent real people and not deities, in this case exists in parallel with location in myth that tells that the gods are born from flowers."

    I'm sure the sign very clearly says "flowers" and I'm pretty positive that this is the sign that went with this picture. but that sure looks a conch shell to me, not a flower.

    My rough translation of this sign reads:

    "In this disc appears the figure of a ball player, in the act of scoring a point with the ball in the large court."

    The Deer Dance ritual symbolized the important relationship between humans and the balance of nature. This depiction is of a priest or medicine man (culandero) preparing a participant (un iluminador) for the customary dance. Jaina's sculptor captures beautiful details in this duet. The short stature of this noble has immediate attraction to his detailed upper extremity. The characteristics and detailing of the oblique eyes, hooked nose and receding hairline with his intentionally deformed skull made the forehead seem to join and follow the same line as his nose (oblique tabular deformation). Hair pulled back and made into a traditional twisted hairdo with serpent head finials on both sides. Wears customary ear, collar and shoulder ornamentations. The dancer's cheeked face with eyes lowered is being fitted with an elaborate costume dear head as the headdress. Traces of Maya blue pigment are still visible. He also wears a sumptuous necklace and larger ear flares. A few chips and reattached pieces. Otherwise in excellent condition.

    The Deer Dance ritual symbolized the important relationship between humans and the balance of nature. This depiction is of a priest or medicine man (culandero) preparing a participant (un iluminador) for the customary dance. Jaina's sculptor captures beautiful details in this duet. The short stature of this noble has immediate attraction to his detailed upper extremity. The characteristics and detailing of the oblique eyes, hooked nose and receding hairline with his intentionally deformed skull made the forehead seem to join and follow the same line as his nose (oblique tabular deformation). Hair pulled back and made into a traditional twisted hairdo with serpent head finials on both sides. Wears customary ear, collar and shoulder ornamentations. The dancer's cheeked face with eyes lowered is being fitted with an elaborate costume dear head as the headdress. Traces of Maya blue pigment are still visible. He also wears a sumptuous necklace and larger ear flares. A few chips and reattached pieces. Otherwise in excellent condition.

    "Although little is known of the Mayan concept of the shape of the Earth, it seems that they shred with the Aztecs the belief that it was the back of a giant crocodile-like reptile and that it was an object of worship."


    Renaissance Architecture in Rome

    Rome, the second Renaissance capital after Florence, was one of the most important architectural and cultural centers during this period.

    Learning Objectives

    Identify features and the most important examples of Roman Renaissance architecture

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • Roman Renaissance architects derived their main designs and inspirations from Roman and Greek classical models.
    • Donato Bramante (1444–1514) was a key figure in Roman architecture during the High Renaissance .
    • The Palazzo Farnese, one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome , is a primary example of Renaissance Roman architecture.

    Key Terms

    • Rome: A city, the capital of the province of Latium and the seat of the Holy See during the Renaissance.

    Rome is widely regarded by scholars as the second Renaissance capital of Italy, after Florence, and was one of the most important architectural and cultural centers during this period. Roman Renaissance architects derived their main designs and inspirations from classical models. The style of Roman Renaissance architecture does not greatly differ from what may be observed in Florence Renaissance architecture. However, patrons in Rome tended to be important officials of the Catholic Church, and buildings are generally religious or palatial in function.

    Donato Bramante (1444—1514) was a key figure in Roman architecture during the High Renaissance. Bramante was born in Urbino and first came to prominence as an architect in Milan before traveling to Rome. In Rome, Bramante was commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella to design the Tempietto, a temple that marks what was believed to be the exact spot where Saint Peter was martyred. The temple is circular, similar to early Christian martyriums, and much of the design is inspired by the remains of the ancient Temple Vesta. The Tempietto is considered by many scholars to be the premier example of High Renaissance architecture. With its perfect proportions, harmony of parts, and direct references to ancient architecture, the Tempietto embodies the Renaissance. This structure has been described as Bramante’s “calling card” to Pope Julius II, the important Renaissance patron of the arts who would then employ Bramante in the historic design of the new St. Peter’s Basilica .

    The Tempietto, c. 1502, Rome, Italy. : Designed by Donato Bramante, the Tempietto is considered the premier example of High Renaissance architecture.

    Another primary example of Renaissance Roman architecture includes the Palazzo Farnese, one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome. First designed in 1517 for the Farnese family, the building expanded in size and conception from designs by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger when Alessandro Farnese became Pope Paul III in 1534. Its building history involved some of the most prominent Italian architects of the 16th century, including Michelangelo, Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola, and Giacomo della Porta. Key Renaissance architectural features of the main facade include the alternating triangular and segmental pediments that cap the windows of the piano nobile, the central rusticated portal, and Michelangelo’s projecting cornice , which throws a deep shadow on the top of the facade. Michelangelo revised the central window in 1541, adding an architrave to give a central focus to the facade, above which is the largest papal stemma, or coat-of-arms with papal tiara, Rome had ever seen.

    Palazzo Farnese: The Palazzo Farnese in Rome demonstrates the Renaissance window’s particular use of square lintels and triangular and segmental pediments used alternatively.

    The Palazzo Farnese courtyard, initially open arcades , is ringed by classically inspired columns (characteristic of Italian Renaissance architecture), in ascending orders (Doric, Corinthian, and Ionic). The piano nobile entablature was given a frieze with garlands, added by Michelangelo. On the garden side of the palace, which faced the River Tiber, Michelangelo proposed the innovatory design of a bridge which, if completed, would have linked the palace with the gardens of the Vigna Farnese. While the practicalities of achieving this bridge remained dubious, the idea was a bold and expansive one. During the 16th century, two large granite basins from the Baths of Caracalla were adapted as fountains in the Piazza Farnese, the urban face of the palace. The palazzo was completed for the second Cardinal Alessandro Farnese by Giacomo della Porta’s porticoed facade towards the Tiber (finished in 1589). Following the death of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese in 1626, the palazzo stood virtually uninhabited for 20 years.


    Velázquez – Las Meninas (c 1656)

    Velazquez's Las Meninas. Photograph: The Gallery Collection/Corbis

    The king and queen stand where you are standing, in front of a gathering of courtiers. Velazquez looks from the portrait he is painting of the royal couple. The infanta and her retinue of maids (meninas) and dwarf entertainers are gathered before the monarch. In the distance, a minister or messenger is at the door. In a bright mirror, the royal reflection glows. This painting is a many-layered model of the world's strangeness.
    Prado, Madrid


    Jean-Antoine Houdon, George Washington

    After the successful conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, many state governments turned to public art to commemorate the occasion. Given his critical role in both Virginia and the colonial cause, it is unsurprising that the Virginia General Assembly desired a statue of George Washington for display in a public space.

    And so, in 1784, the Governor of Virginia asked Thomas Jefferson (another Virginian who was then in Paris as the American Minister to France) to select an appropriate artist to sculpt Washington. Seeking a European sculptor—and for Jefferson, whose Francophile sympathies were clear, preferably one who was French—was a logical decision given the lack of artistic talent then available in the United States. Through basic necessity, this portrait of an American hero needed to be made by a foreigner.

    Jefferson knew just the artist for this task: Jean-Antoine Houdon. Trained at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture and winner of the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1761 when only twenty years of age, Houdon was, by the middle of the 1780s, the most famous and accomplished Neoclassical sculptor in France.

    Jefferson commissioned Houdon to complete a monumental statue of Washington. Given Houdon’s skill and ambition, the sculptor likely hoped to cast a larger-than-life-sized bronze statue of General Washington on horseback, a format appropriate for a victorious field commander. However, the final product, delivered more than a decade later, was a comparatively simple standing marble.

    Evidence suggests that Houdon was supposed to remain in Paris and sculpt Washington from a drawing by Charles Willson Peale. Uncomfortable with carving in three dimensions what Peale had rendered in only two, Houdon made plans to visit Washington in person. Houdon departed for the United States in July 1785 and was joined by Benjamin Franklin—who he had sculpted in 1778—and two assistants. The group sailed into Philadelphia about seven weeks later and Houdon and his assistants arrived at Mount Vernon (Washington’s home in Virginia) by early October. There they took detailed measurements of Washington’s body and sculpted a life mask of the future president’s face.

    Contemporary clothing (and not a toga)

    While in Virginia, Houdon created a slightly idealized and classicized bust portrait of the future first president. But Washington disliked this classicized aesthetic and insisted on being shown wearing contemporary attire rather than the garments of a hero from ancient Greece or Rome. With clear instructions from the sitter to be depicted in contemporary dress, Houdon returned to Paris in December 1785 and set to work on a standing full-length statue carved from Carrara marble . Although Houdon dated the statue 1788, he did not finish it until about four years later. The statue was delivered to the State of Virginia in May of 1796, when the Rotunda of the Virginia State Capitol was finally completed.

    “Nothing in bronze or stone could be a more perfect image…”

    In time, this statue of George Washington has become one of the most recognized and copied of images of the first president of the United States. Houdon did not just perfectly capture Washington’s likeness (John Marshal, the second Chief Justice of the Supreme Court later wrote, “Nothing in bronze or stone could be a more perfect image than this statue of the living Washington”). Houdon also captured the essential duality of Washington: the private citizen and the public solider.

    Washington looking to his left in his military uniform (detail), Jean-Antoine Houdon, George Washington, 1788-92, marble, 6′ 2″ high, State Capitol, Richmond, Virginia, (photo: Holley St. Germain, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

    Washington stands and looks slightly to his left his facial expression could best be described as fatherly. He wears not a toga or other classically inspired garment, but his military uniform. His stance mimics that of the contrapposto seen in Polykleitos’s classical sculpture of Doryphoros. Washington’s left leg is slightly bent and positioned half a stride forward, while his right leg is weight bearing. His right arm hangs by his side and rests atop a gentleman’s walking stick.

    His left arm—bent at the elbow—rests atop a fasces: a bundle of thirteen rods that symbolize not only the power of a ruler but also the strength found through unity. This visually represents the concept of E Pluribus Unum—”Out of Many, One”—a congressionally approved motto of the United States from 1782 until 1956.

    Washington’s officer’s sword, a symbol of military might and authority, benignly hangs on the outside of the fasces, just beyond his immediate grasp. This surrendering of military power is further reinforced by the presence of the plow behind him. This refers to the story of Cincinnatus, a Roman dictator who resigned his absolute power when his leadership was no longer needed so that he could return to his farm. Like this Roman, Washington resigned his power and returned to his farm to live a peaceful, civilian life.

    Washington as soldier and private citizen

    The statue, still on view in the Rotunda of the Virginia State Capitol, is a near perfect representation of the first president of the United States of America. In it, Houdon captured not only what George Washington looked like, but more importantly, who Washington was, both as a soldier and as a private citizen.

    The enormously talented Houdon wisely accepted Washington’s advice. Indeed, Washington knew it was better to be subtly compared to Cincinnatus than to be overtly linked to Caesar, another Roman who, unlike Cincinnatus, did not surrender his power.

    Horatio Greenough, George Washington, 1840, marble, 136 x 102 inches, National Museum of American History (photo: Steve Fernie, CC BY-NC 2.0)

    To compare Houdon’s statue to Horatio Greenough’s 1840 statue of Washington only makes this salient point more clear. With the sitter’s urging, Houdon opted for subtlety, whereas Greenough decided two generations later to fully embrace a neoclassical aesthetic. As a result, Houdon’s statue celebrates Washington the man, whereas Greenough deified Washington as a god.


    30 of the world’s most impressive ancient ruins

    While modern structures can be more than impressive in their own right with respect to architecture, technological advancement, and beauty, there’s something to be said about structures from the past.

    Ruins around the world have withstood the test of time and remain standing for travelers to marvel at. (Well, they haven’t completely withstood the test of time, or else they wouldn’t be called ruins.) Many of the methods used to create these ancient cities, temples, and monuments remain rather mysterious, as building them in this day and age would still be considered an impressive feat.

    Check out these 30 awesome ancient ruins around the globe and see for yourself, and read about the new 7 Wonder of the World here.


    Watch the video: 30 Εκπληκτικά Φιλοσοφικά Λόγια και Αποφθέγματα του Πυθαγόρα 580-490. που πρέπει να γνωρίζεις! (May 2022).