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Chinese May Have Loved Cats before Ancient Egyptians

Chinese May Have Loved Cats before Ancient Egyptians


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The Egyptians are well known for their love of cats . Not only were they praised for controlling vermin and snakes, but the cat was a symbol of grace and poise. The goddess Mafdet, the deification of justice and execution, was a lion-headed goddess. The cat goddess Bast (also known as Bastet) eventually replaced the cult of Mafdet. As cats were sacred , the practice of mummification was extended to them, and the respect that cats received after death mirrored the respect with which they were treated in everyday life. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that when a cat died, the household would go into mourning as if for a human relative, and would often shave their eyebrows to signify their loss. Such was the strength of feeling towards cats that killing one, even accidentally, incurred the death penalty.

There is no common agreement among researchers and archaeologists as to just where and when the domesticated cat originated. However, a new study has revealed that humans were connected with cats at least 5,300 years in China.

Archaeologists found that the village of Quanhucun, an ancient Neolithic agricultural village in Shaanxi Province, was a source of food for the cats 5,300 years ago, probably rodents that feasted on the grains grown, stored and eaten by the ancient Chinese farmers.

“The relationship between humans and cats was commensal, or advantageous for the cats,” said the study’s co-author Fiona Marshall, a professor of archaeology at Washington University in St. Louis. “Even if these cats were not yet domesticated, our evidence confirms that they lived in close proximity to farmers, and that the relationship had mutual benefits.”

One of the cats found during their archaeological dig was old when it died, which indicated that it lived well and flourished while living in the village. The researchers also said that the remains of the ancient cats they studied showed signs that they didn’t eat too many animals and ate more millet than was expected. This suggested to the researchers that the cats either scavenged for human food or were fed by their human neighbours.

The Near Eastern Wildcat, native to Western Asia and Africa, is believed to be the primary ancestor of all domestic cats now living around the globe. “We do not yet know whether these cats came to China from the Near East, whether they interbred with Chinese wild-cat species, or even whether cats from China played a previously unsuspected role in domestication,” Marshall said.

Scientists have long thought cats were first domesticated in ancient Egypt around 4,000 years ago. However, the close relationship between cats and humans may have taken root much earlier. In 2004, scientists discovered a wild cat had been buried with a human nearly 9,500 years ago in Cyprus. Other evidence suggests that cats were domesticated in Mesopotamia as early as 12,500 BC, about the same time as dogs, sheep, and goats.

Cats have endeared themselves to many cultures for their helpful mouse-hunting skills, cleanliness, attitude, and beauty. As an inscription in the Valley of the Kings states;

"You are the Great Cat, the avenger of the gods, and the judge of words, and the president of the sovereign chiefs and the governor of the holy Circle; you are indeed the Great Cat."


    11 Things You May Not Know About Ancient Egypt

    Along with King Tut, perhaps no figure is more famously associated with ancient Egypt than Cleopatra VII. But while she was born in Alexandria, Cleopatra was actually part of a long line of Greek Macedonians originally descended from Ptolemy I, one of Alexander the Great’s most trusted lieutenants. The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt from 323 to 30 B.C., and most of its leaders remained largely Greek in their culture and sensibilities. In fact, Cleopatra was famous for being one of the first members of the Ptolemaic dynasty to actually speak the Egyptian language.


    Egypt

    Cats’ popularity and appeal to humans goes back thousands of years. The first civilization to elevate their status to icon level was ancient Egypt which worshiped many deities consisting of household cats as well as some of their other feline relatives.

    Altogether, ancient Egypt worshiped a total of nineteen feline-like deities. These included Mafdet, the original cat-deity who was depicted in the form of a woman-cat as well as other feline species such as cheetahs, lynxes, lions, and house-cats. It was revered as a goddess that protected the home by killing poisonous snakes and scorpions, as well as the kingdom by killing the serpent Apophis.

    The other eighteen gods and goddesses included Bastet, a warfare goddess associated with fertility Hetmet “the Destroyer,” a lion-headed goddess Nefertum, a god who is sometimes shown in lion form Tefenet, a lioness-headed or sometimes lioness-bodied, goddess of the air.

    Additionally, our feline seducers appeared all throughout Egyptian culture in the form of earrings, pendants, necklaces, bracelets, amulets of all sorts and statuettes. Cat eyes were often painted or carved onto human figures and especially the faces on sarcophagi. They were also the subject of superstitions that always led to positive outcomes dreaming of a cat meant a good harvest.

    They became part of people’s daily life to the point that a large array of paintings illustrate cats interacting with humans in all aspects of society. Even to the point of being mummified after death, with provisions like milk and mice placed inside their graves. These were meant as gifts in order to repay the feline friends for all the favors they did for their owners.

    Romans too, loved their cats. They admired their vermin-catching abilities and adored their sleek exotic look. Cats reigned supreme in the Eternal City and were viewed not only as pets but also as sacred creatures. Allowed to roam freely around their temples, cats represented liberty and divinity. Even Libertas, the goddess of liberty, was often depicted with a cat at her feet

    The Roman goddess Diana, the Queen of the Hunt was often associated with the Egyptian Goddess Bast, a feline goddess who was often seen as the guardian of the home and family. In fact, the Romans considered that their cats represented the warmth and safety of home. One story tells of how Diana escaped an evil creature named Typhon by transforming herself into a cat.

    The modern city of Rome continues to be a cat haven. It is estimated that some 300,000 feral cats make the monuments and ancient buildings of the city that once idolized Spartacus, Julius Caesar and Marc Antony, their home. These same four-legged purring machines are even protected by a 2001 law that endows them with being part of Rome’s “bio-heritage.” In essence
    ‘i felini intoccabili’ — the untouchable felines.

    Fed daily by the women known as “gattara” (cat women), they catnap during the day and flounce through the shadows of the city lights at night. Could it be the gattara’s of Rome have also been infected by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite?

    But even the soldiers of ancient Rome kept cats around their camps as not only traveling companions and mascots but also as mousers who would keep the vermin population from their grain stores. Since rats also like to chew on wood and leather, Roman soldiers feared their armor and equipment could be damaged by them, hence, the cats were also great contributors to the war effort.


    When was the first domesticated cat?

    One of the first domestic cats in Cyprus grave circa 9,500 ago. This picture (words added) is in the public domain.

    The first domesticated cat walked the planet thousands of years before the Ancient Egyptians domesticated cats. This needs to be said because a lot of websites state that the Ancient Egyptians were the first to domesticate the cat (the North African wildcat to be specific). In fact Google places first a National Geographic article which is misleading.

    The civilisation that is called Ancient Egypt started (‘coalesced’) about 5,000 years ago in 3100 BC. At that time the wild cat had been domesticated elsewhere in some areas for about 5,000 years well before Ancient Egypt.

    “As the Cyprus cats attest, there must have been tamed cats in other parts of the Middle East for thousands of years before the Egyptians began to transform them into domesticated animals.”

    Dr Bradshaw in Cat Sense

    “The most likely scenario, then, is that the earliest settlers of Cyprus brought with them wildcats that they had captured and tamed on the mainland.”

    Dr Bradshaw

    On Cyprus, in a Neolithic grave, archeologists dug up a skeleton of a person and next to the person was the skeleton of a cat. Because the person had asked that he be buried next to his cat it is believed, quite reasonably, that the cat was a companion of the person and domesticated. The cat had been killed to be with their owner after death. The grave was dated at about 9,500 years ago.

    “On Cyprus, the earliest remains of cats coincide with and are found within the first permanent settlements, about 7500 BCE, making it highly likely that they were transported there.”

    Dr Bradshaw

    7500 BCE is 7500 years before Christ and 9,500 years ago.

    There is also evidence of ‘prehistoric importations’ of tamed cats to other Mediterranean islands such as Corsica, Sardinia and Mallorca.

    It is argued that tamed or semi-domesticated would have been deliberately transported to these islands on boats because the boats were too small for a stowaway wild cat to hide and why would they do it anyway.

    So there you have it. To the best of our current knowledge, the first domesticated cat existed around 9,500 years ago on Cyprus and other Mediterranean islands and were transported to them from the mainland on boats well before Ancient Egypt (as we describe it) existed.


    Times of the Egyptian Calendar

    The Egyptian calendar was broken down as follows:

    • One week was ten days.
    • Three weeks was one month.
    • Four months was one season.
    • Three seasons and five holy days was one year.

    Depiction of an Egyptian hieroglyphic calendar

    The first season - was called Akhet, which means flood or inundation. It included the months of Tekh, Menhet, Hwt-Hrw, and Ka-Hr-Ka.

    The second season - was called Proyet, which means emergence. Its months were Sf-Bdt, Redh Wer, Redh Neds, and Renwet.

    The third season - was called Shomu, which means low water. The names of its months were Hnsw, Hnt-Htj, Ipt-Hmt, and Wep-Renpet.

    Each month consisted of three ten-day periods called decades or decans. Although the months were individually named, they were commonly referred to by the name of the festivals they represented. The last two days of each decade were considered holidays and the Egyptians didn't work.

    A month was 30 days long on the Egyptian solar calendar. Since this didn't account for all the days in the year, the Egyptians added an intercalary month that occurred outside of the regular calendar year.

    The intercalary month was five days long, which meant that the Egyptian solar calendar lost about one-fourth of a day every year relative to the actual solar year. The five intercalary days were used to celebrate the gods' birthdays and the Egyptians weren't expected to work during this time.

    © Robert Young - Calendar at Kom Ombo

    Decans are groups of stars in ancient Egyptian astronomy that were used to tell time at night. The rising of each group indicated a new sidereal day. There were 36 groups, or decans, of stars. Each decan consisted of ten days, which yielded a 360-day year.

    Names of the decans are known but their locations and their relationship to modern constellations are unknown. A sidereal day is defined as the time taken for one rotation of the earth relative to the stars. It's approximately four minutes shorter than a solar day.

    The Canopus Decree, issued by Ptolemy III, provided for a sixth epagomenal day every fourth year in order to correct this discrepancy. However, the priests and the population in general resisted this change and it was eventually abandoned until Augustus established the Coptic calendar in 25 BC.

    © globetrotter_rodrigo - Egyptian Calendar

    Dates for common people were written with the number of the month in the season first. Next would be the name of the season, then the number of the day relative to the month, and then the year and the ruler. The ascension of a new ruler restarted the year count.

    Occasionally, the year count began with the first full year of the new ruler but would include the time before that with a note to differentiate between the two time periods.

    It was important to maintain accuracy between the solar calendar year and the actual solar year so that the heliacal rising of Sirius would occur properly. The heliacal rising would occur when Sirius was briefly visible on the horizon immediately before sunrise.

    Before the introduction of astrology, ancient Egyptians used the solar calendar exclusively, marking their days and years by stellar events. The heliacal rising of Sirius for example, was the start of the Nile flooding, which occurred every year at Cairo. After the introduction of astrology, the rise of the decans and the stellar occurrences indicated the onset of diseases and the timing for their cures.

    Sirius (bottom) as viewed from the Hubble telescope


    Egyptian writing

    The earliest inscriptions date back about 5,200 years and were written in a hieroglyphic script.

    "Ancient Egyptian was a living oral language and most hieroglyphs represent the sounds of consonants and certain emphatically expressed vowels," wrote Barry Kemp, a professor at the University of Cambridge, in his book "100 Hieroglyphs: Think Like an Egyptian" (Granta Books, 2005). Kemp notes that the ancient Egyptians also developed "an abbreviated 'long hand' form of writing which we call 'hieratic.'" During the first millennium A.D. this abbreviated hieratic script was supplanted by a new form of short-form writing called "Demotic."

    Egyptian language changed over the millennia, with scholars often sub-dividing the surviving writings into categories such as "Old Egyptian," "Middle Egyptian" and "Late Egyptian."


    2 Answers 2

    Many historians go so far as to equate the term "Civilization" with writing. So let's look at that.

    Egypt and Sumer (in Modern-day Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) both founded literate civilizations around 3000 BC. There appears to be an ongoing debate over which was first. Its tough to know for sure, just because reconciling ancient civilizations' ruler-based chronologies with modern calendars (or worse yet, each other's chronologies) is a difficult challenge that occupies many a career.

    When I was coming up most Historians said Sumer was first, but before I was born most Historians assumed it was Egypt. So it isn't hard to find older histories that state categorically it was one or the other. So I can see where you might get a confused picture from your reading.

    The Indus Valley Civilization was probably 3rd, starting around 2600 BC. China started writing at roughly 1500 BC, and the Olmec Civilization in Central America also goes back to roughly that date. The first evidence of Andean Civilizations using their unique form of writing is from around 1000 BC.


    Data Shows Universe Could Collapse Any Minute

    Our universe is at even greater risk of collapse than has been previously thought, according physicists in Denmark.

    Not only are the scientists predicting the end of the world&hellip but the end of the universe!

    The prediction that the universe will collapse and compress into a small hard ball isn&rsquot something new. Physicists have been predicting a calamity for a long time.

    Does this mean we should immediately cancel any long-term plans? The Danish scientists really don&rsquot know when the universe will collapse. They say it could happen tomorrow&ndashor a billion years from now.

    Writing in the Journal of High Energy Physics, the University of Southern Denmark physicists said new calculations led them to speculate there will be a sudden and drastic change within the forces of the universe one day that will make every atom in the universe become enormously heavy.

    Everything, from the tiniest grain of soil to all of the planets within our solar system to every galaxy contained within the universe, will suddenly become billions and billions of times heavier than they are now.

    The Big Bang theory says the universe expanded from an extremely dense and hot state (bottom) and continues to expand today (top). (Wikimedia Commons)

    The theory holds that the sudden increase in weight will force all of the material within the universe to compress into a &ldquosmall, super-hot heavy ball&rdquo which will cause the end of the universe as we know it.

    The physicists call this powerful and destructive process &ldquophase transition,&rdquo and they compare it to what happens when water boils and becomes steam, or when a magnet, after heating up, loses its magnetization.

    This phase transition within the universe would take place if a bubble is formed where a Higgs-field, that&rsquos related to the Higgs-Boson, transforms into a different value than the rest of the universe.

    If this newly formed bubble is big enough, and the newly modified value produces lower energy, the bubble will then grow and expand in all directions at a pace the speed of light.

    This rapid expansion of the bubble will cause all of the fundamental particles within the bubble to reach a mass that is a lot heavier than if they were located outside the bubble.

    This increase of mass inside the bubble then will pull together and form what the physicists described as &ldquosupermassive centers&rdquo.

    In a simulated data model, a Higgs boson is produced which decays into two jets of hadrons and two electrons. (Photo: CERN)

    &ldquoMany theories and calculations predict such a phase transition, but there have been some uncertainties in the previous calculations,&rdquo said Jens Frederik Colding Krog of the University of Southern Denmark, who co-authored the paper. &ldquoNow we have performed more precise calculations, and we see two things: Yes, the universe will probably collapse, and: A collapse is even more likely than the old calculations predicted. &ldquo

    He said this phase transition could start at any spot in the universe and then spread out to the entire universe.

    &ldquoMaybe the collapse has already started somewhere in the universe and right now it is eating its way into the rest of the universe,&rdquo Krog said. &ldquoOr maybe it will start far away from here in a billion years. We do not know.&rdquo

    Along with &ldquophase transition,&rdquo another theory, &ldquoThe Big Crunch Theory,&rdquo could also spell the end of our universe. &ldquoThe Big Crunch&rdquo is based on and is the opposite of the &ldquoBig Bang&rdquo theory in creating the universe.

    Following that Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, material that made up galaxies, stars, and planets was expelled into a continually expanding universe from one small region.

    Animated illustration demonstrates the &ldquoBig Crunch Theory&rdquo (Wikimedia Commons)

    According to the &ldquoBig Crunch&rdquo, there will be a point and time when this expansion will cease and all of that material will attract each other and ultimately come together again in a small area.

    &ldquoThe latest research shows that the universe&rsquos expansion is accelerating, so there is no reason to expect a collapse from cosmological observations,&rdquo Krog said. &ldquoThus it will probably not be Big Crunch that causes the universe to collapse. &ldquoThe Danish physicists said that while their new calculations predict the collapse of the universe is now more likely than ever, they also said it&rsquos possible it won&rsquot happen at all.

    A requirement for the phase change to take place, according to the researchers, is that the universe contains all of the known fundamental particles, including the Higgs boson. But, if the universe also contains undiscovered particles, the entire idea for predicting the phase change vanishes.


    10. The Mayan Civilization

    Period: 2600 B.C. – 900 A.D.
    Original Location: Around present-day Yucatan
    Current Location: Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas in Mexico south through Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras
    Major Highlights: Complex understanding of astronomy

    The Mayan presence in Central America is thousands of years old, but archaeologists like to pin the culture’s real beginnings on the Preclassic period. Around the year 1800 B.C. marked the moment that hunters and gatherers decided to settle down and build permanent homes.

    The first villages were incredibly successful at farming and would go on to seed the Maya throughout their large territory.

    The ancient Mayan Empire was filled with wonders — tall temples that almost touched the sky an unusual calendar that counted millions of years incredible astronomical understanding extensive record keeping.

    Several cities had unique trademarks such as pyramids, grand tombs, and detailed hieroglyphs splashed over everything. The Maya reached artistic and intellectual heights never seen before in the New World, but despite these civilized achievements, the culture wasn’t all unicorns and rainbows — they loved the pass-time of human sacrifice, and unleashing warfare on their own people.

    Inner conflict, drought, and their conquest by the Spanish in the 16th century all conspired to boot this stunning civilization straight off a metaphorical cliff.

    The culture perished under the pressure to convert to Christianity and from the rampant spread of European diseases, but the Maya themselves never went completely extinct, as millions of their descendants exist across the world today and continue to speak several Mayan languages.


    Egypt : Gnosis - the ancient knowledge of the Egyptians/Khememu

    I've been asked on different occasions as to what I believe and so I thought it would be fair to give a basic understanding of what I believe the absolute creator to be. Yes I do believe in a creator but not one with such limits as a name or even 99 to a 1000 names. The creator is unlike anything we can image and thus it is without question that a moon or many moon couldn't justify the description.

    Gnosis - or Gnosticism is at the root of my belief having knowledge that it came from our people in not only in Km.t but all over Africa. Naturally some of the names have been changed and have Greek overviews but overstanding the text and have a clear knowledge of the Metu Netjer is the beginning of under-over- & inner-standing.

    The Apocryphon of John
    (The Secret Book of John - The Secret Revelation of John)

    He is the invisible Spirit, of whom it is not right to think of him as a god, or something similar. For he is more than a god, since there is nothing above him, for no one lords it over him. For he does not exist in something inferior to him, since everything exists in him. For it is he who establishes himself. He is eternal, since he does not need anything. For he is total perfection. He did not lack anything, that he might be completed by it rather he is always completely perfect in light. He is illimitable, since there is no one prior to him to set limits to him. He is unsearchable, since there exists no one prior to him to examine him. He is immeasurable, since there was no one prior to him to measure him. He is invisible, since no one saw him. He is eternal, since he exists eternally. He is ineffable, since no one was able to comprehend him to speak about him. He is unnameable, since there is no one prior to him to give him a name.

    "He is immeasurable light, which is pure, holy (and) immaculate. He is ineffable, being perfect in incorruptibility. (He is) not in perfection, nor in blessedness, nor in divinity, but he is far superior. He is not corporeal nor is he incorporeal. He is neither large nor is he small. There is no way to say, 'What is his quantity?' or, 'What is his quality?', for no one can know him. He is not someone among (other) beings, rather he is far superior. Not that he is (simply) superior, but his essence does not partake in the aeons nor in time. For he who partakes in an aeon was prepared beforehand. Time was not apportioned to him, since he does not receive anything from another, for it would be received on loan. For he who precedes someone does not lack, that he may receive from him. For rather, it is the latter that looks expectantly at him in his light.

    It is basic logical that what is first can not have something before it. Thus assigning a name to that which is first simply implies that is had something before it to give it name. That which is limitless cannot have the limits of a name. The absolute creator is without name or number and yet it is wrong to call him god with a small 'g' or big 'G'. Let go a little further because the feminine aspect must be in order for us to be in existence period. Unlike the 3 main religions - there must be a feminine energy the great power from which all things are brought into existence from the womb.

    It is from her that all things have come forth through the womb - and she came forth from the thought of the absolute creators thought. The mother principle is the principle that we as African understand and have always understood. The absolute doesn't get involved with our small affairs nor does the great mother who is the creators of all dimensions, realms, universes, aeons, which in turn created their creations and their creations created and so forth.

    So then what about this universe? Our Universe was created by Wisdom herself - as the Europeans call Sophia the Africans had several names for her with one being Muwa, Iusaas (sound familiar) and so forth.

    Nevertheless, to continue on - the reason for the creation of this universe was because she had a son without the consent of her father and mother alone with her counter partner.

    And the Sophia of the Epinoia, being an aeon, conceived a thought from herself and the conception of the invisible Spirit and foreknowledge. She wanted to bring forth a likeness out of herself without the consent of the Spirit, - he had not approved - and without her consort, and without his consideration. And though the person of her maleness had not approved, and she had not found her agreement, and she had thought without the consent of the Spirit and the knowledge of her agreement, (yet) she brought forth. And because of the invincible power which is in her, her thought did not remain idle, and something came out of her which was imperfect and different from her appearance, because she had created it without her consort. And it was dissimilar to the likeness of its mother, for it has another form.

    "And when she saw (the consequences of) her desire, it changed into a form of a lion-faced serpent. And its eyes were like lightning fires which flash. She cast it away from her, outside that place, that no one of the immortal ones might see it, for she had created it in ignorance. And she surrounded it with a luminous cloud, and she placed a throne in the middle of the cloud that no one might see it except the holy Spirit who is called the mother of the living. And she called his name Yaltabaoth.

    These Gnostic teachings are ancient Kush & Kemetic teachings - this is where many of the stories which are in Judaism, Islam and Christianity have taken their knowledge from.

    Yaldabaoth became arrogant and thinking that he was the only true high god or the absolute creator which is what I find in such gods like Allah, Yahweh and many others. They are arrogant and want submission by way of worship and slavery. Nevertheless, that's what is was never meant to be about.

    This is the first archon who took a great power from his mother. And he removed himself from her and moved away from the places in which he was born. He became strong and created for himself other aeons with a flame of luminous fire which (still) exists now. And he joined with his arrogance which is in him and begot authorities for himself. The name of the first one is Athoth, whom the generations call the reaper. The second one is Harmas, who is the eye of envy. The third one is Kalila-Oumbri. The fourth one is Yabel. The fifth one is Adonaiou, who is called Sabaoth. The sixth one is Cain, whom the generations of men call the sun. The seventh is Abel. The eighth is Abrisene. The ninth is Yobel. The tenth is Armoupieel. The eleventh is Melceir-Adonein. The twelfth is Belias, it is he who is over the depth of Hades. And he placed seven kings - each corresponding to the firmaments of heaven - over the seven heavens, and five over the depth of the abyss, that they may reign. And he shared his fire with them, but he did not send forth from the power of the light which he had taken from his mother, for he is ignorant darkness.

    "And when the light had mixed with the darkness, it caused the darkness to shine. And when the darkness had mixed with the light, it darkened the light and it became neither light nor dark, but it became dim.

    "Now the archon who is weak has three names. The first name is Yaltabaoth, the second is Saklas, and the third is Samael. And he is impious in his arrogance which is in him. For he said, 'I am God and there is no other God beside me,' for he is ignorant of his strength, the place from which he had come.

    Ru2religious

    Well-Known Member

    Such an arrogance has been displaced in many of the modern deities that have pretty much taken over this world as it may be. These deities are looking to enslave humanity and with success they have done this. Nevertheless, this is not the goal of the Absolute and his first creation the mother. The absolute mother did not approve of her daughter Sophia aka Wisdom making such a creation - this universe or her (Sophia) arrogant son.

    But Yaltabaoth had a multitude of faces, more than all of them, so that he could put a face before all of them, according to his desire, when he is in the midst of seraphs. He shared his fire with them therefore he became lord over them. Because of the power of the glory he possessed of his mother's light, he called himself God. And he did not obey the place from which he came. And he united the seven powers in his thought with the authorities which were with him. And when he spoke it happened. And he named each power beginning with the highest: the first is goodness with the first (authority), Athoth the second is foreknowledge with the second one, Eloaio and the third is divinity with the third one, Astraphaio) the fourth is lordship with the fourth one, Yao the fifth is kingdom with the fifth one, Sabaoth the sixth is envy with the sixth one, Adonein the seventh is understanding with the seventh one, Sabbateon. And these have a firmament corresponding to each aeon-heaven. They were given names according to the glory which belongs to heaven for the destruction of the powers. And in the names which were given to them by their Originator there was power. But the names which were given them according to the glory which belongs to heaven mean for them destruction and powerlessness. Thus they have two names.

    "And having created [. ] everything, he organized according to the model of the first aeons which had come into being, so that he might create them like the indestructible ones. Not because he had seen the indestructible ones, but the power in him, which he had taken from his mother, produced in him the likeness of the cosmos. And when he saw the creation which surrounds him, and the multitude of the angels around him which had come forth from him, he said to them, 'I am a jealous God, and there is no other God beside me.' But by announcing this he indicated to the angels who attended him that there exists another God. For if there were no other one, of whom would he be jealous?

    Yaldabaoth had several faces which is to say he had several names according to his desire - this kind of make one think about those deities with several names like 99 names or so.

    Yaldabaoth said, "I am a jealous God and there is no other God beside me", this statement can be found through the whole of the old testament aka Tanakh.

    Wisdom herself had to repent for her mistake in making her son without the consent of her husband. To this day in African theology we teach that all come from the mother - a divine wisdom that is well understood amongst us. Yet there are levels much higher then this divine mother Sophia which our universe comes from. She has a husband - and equal to her just as the great mother Barbelo has the absolute creator. Nothing is without balance except within our universe because we've become gender crazy - patriarchal & matriarchal and so forth. Women are fighting for equality and men are fighting to be the head by making women submit. We are not leveled because we are surrounded by wicked principles.

    Gnosticism is one of the last Kemetic orders that Europeans tried to take for themselves and so many of our people reject Gnosticism for the 3 primary religious orders of today.

    Gnosis 'To Know' is an order after the mother which is Wisdom the great mother of Yaldabaoth aka Apedemak. Above we read that she moves about to and fro weeping and so forth.

    Wisdom is the tree of life - and as the story goes - the lord by wisdom founded the earth which is the story of Yaldabaoth by the power of his mother founded the earth.

    The next part will be the creation of man and then from there Man-KIND.

    Ru2religious

    Well-Known Member

    Continued . Apocryphon of John

    And a voice came forth from the exalted aeon-heaven: 'The Man exists and the son of Man.' And the chief archon, Yaltabaoth, heard (it) and thought that the voice had come from his mother. And he did not know from where it came. And he taught them, the holy and perfect Mother-Father, the complete foreknowledge, the image of the invisible one who is the Father of the all (and) through whom everything came into being, the first Man. For he revealed his likeness in a human form.

    "And the whole aeon of the chief archon trembled, and the foundations of the abyss shook. And of the waters which are above matter, the underside was illuminated by the appearance of his image which had been revealed. And when all the authorities and the chief archon looked, they saw the whole region of the underside which was illuminated. And through the light they saw the form of the image in the water.

    When the Archon, heard and saw the image of what appeared to be a man they wanted to create a man. It was at this point that they realized that Yaldabaoth wasn't the only as he described himself to be.

    And he said to the authorities which attend him, 'Come, let us create a man according to the image of God and according to our likeness, that his image may become a light for us.' And they created by means of their respective powers in correspondence with the characteristics which were given. And each authority supplied a characteristic in the form of the image which he had seen in its natural (form). He created a being according to the likeness of the first, perfect Man. And they said, 'Let us call him Adam, that his name may become a power of light for us.'

    "And the powers began: the first one, goodness, created a bone-soul and the second, foreknowledge, created a sinew-soul the third, divinity, created a flesh-soul and the fourth, the lordship, created a marrow-soul the fifth, kingdom created a blood-soul the sixth, envy, created a skin-soul the seventh, understanding, created a hair-soul. And the multitude of the angels attended him and they received from the powers the seven substances of the natural (form) in order to create the proportions of the limbs and the proportion of the rump and the proper working together of each of the parts.

    "The first one began to create the head. Eteraphaope-Abron created his head Meniggesstroeth created the brain Asterechme (created) the right eye Thaspomocha, the left eye Yeronumos, the right ear Bissoum, the left ear Akioreim, the nose Banen-Ephroum, the lips Amen, the teeth Ibikan, the molars Basiliademe, the tonsils Achcha, the uvula Adaban, the neck Chaaman, the vertebrae Dearcho, the throat Tebar, the right shoulder [. ], the left shoulder Mniarcon, the right elbow [. ], the left elbow Abitrion, the right underarm Evanthen, the left underarm Krys, the right hand Beluai, the left hand Treneu, the fingers of the right hand Balbel, the fingers of the left hand Kriman, the nails of the hands Astrops, the right breast Barroph, the left breast Baoum, the right shoulder joint Ararim, the left shoulder joint Areche, the belly Phthave, the navel Senaphim, the abdomen Arachethopi, the right ribs Zabedo, the left ribs Barias, the right hip Phnouth the left hip Abenlenarchei, the marrow Chnoumeninorin, the bones Gesole, the stomach Agromauna, the heart Bano, the lungs Sostrapal, the liver Anesimalar, the spleen Thopithro, the intestines Biblo, the kidneys Roeror, the sinews Taphreo, the spine of the body Ipouspoboba, the veins Bineborin, the arteries Atoimenpsephei, theirs are the breaths which are in all the limbs Entholleia, all the flesh Bedouk, the right buttock (?) Arabeei, the left penis Eilo, the testicles Sorma, the genitals Gorma-Kaiochlabar, the right thigh Nebrith, the left thigh Pserem, the kidneys of the right leg Asaklas, the left kidney Ormaoth, the right leg Emenun, the left leg Knyx, the right shin-bone Tupelon, the left shin-bone Achiel, the right knee Phnene, the left knee Phiouthrom, the right foot Boabel, its toes Trachoun, the left foot Phikna, its toes Miamai, the nails of the feet Labernioum - .

    "And those who were appointed over all of these are: Zathoth, Armas, Kalila, Jabel, (Sabaoth, Cain, Abel). And those who are particularly active in the limbs (are) the head Diolimodraza, the neck Yammeax, the right shoulder Yakouib, the left shoulder Verton, the right hand Oudidi, the left one Arbao, the fingers of the right hand Lampno, the fingers of the left hand Leekaphar, the right breast Barbar, the left breast Imae, the chest Pisandriaptes, the right shoulder joint Koade, the left shoulder joint Odeor, the right ribs Asphixix, the left ribs Synogchouta, the belly Arouph, the womb Sabalo, the right thigh Charcharb, the left thigh Chthaon, all the genitals Bathinoth, the right leg Choux, the left leg Charcha, the right shin-bone Aroer, the left shin-bone Toechtha, the right knee Aol, the left knee Charaner, the right foot Bastan, its toes Archentechtha, the left foot Marephnounth, its toes Abrana.

    Now the story of how man got his senses -

    Seven have power over all of these: Michael, Ouriel, Asmenedas, Saphasatoel, Aarmouriam, Richram, Amiorps. And the ones who are in charge over the senses (are) Archendekta and he who is in charge over the receptions (is) Deitharbathas and he who is in charge over the imagination (is) Oummaa and he who is over the composition Aachiaram, and he who is over the whole impulse Riaramnacho.

    "And the origin of the demons which are in the whole body is determined to be four: heat, cold, wetness, and dryness. And the mother of all of them is matter. And he who reigns over the heat (is) Phloxopha and he who reigns over the cold is Oroorrothos and he who reigns over what is dry (is) Erimacho and he who reigns over the wetness (is) Athuro. And the mother of all of these, Onorthochrasaei, stands in their midst, since she is illimitable, and she mixes with all of them. And she is truly matter, for they are nourished by her.

    "The four chief demons are: Ephememphi, who belongs to pleasure, Yoko, who belongs to desire, Nenentophni, who belongs to grief, Blaomen, who belongs to fear. And the mother of them all is Aesthesis-Ouch-Epi-Ptoe. And from the four demons passions came forth. And from grief (came) envy, jealousy, distress, trouble, pain, callousness, anxiety, mourning, etc. And from pleasure much wickedness arises, and empty pride, and similar things. And from desire (comes) anger, wrath, and bitterness, and bitter passion, and unsatedness, and similar things. And from fear (comes) dread, fawning, agony, and shame. All of these are like useful things as well as evil things. But the insight into their true (character) is Anaro, who is the head of the material soul, for it belongs with the seven senses, Ouch-Epi-Ptoe.

    This is where the story gets interesting - in concerns to man and his creative force.

    This is the number of the angels: together they are 365. They all worked on it until, limb for limb, the natural and the material body was completed by them. Now there are other ones in charge over the remaining passions whom I did not mention to you. But if you wish to know them, it is written in the book of Zoroaster. And all the angels and demons worked until they had constructed the natural body. And their product was completely inactive and motionless for a long time.

    "And when the mother wanted to retrieve the power which she had given to the chief archon, she petitioned the Mother-Father of the All, who is most merciful. He sent, by means of the holy decree, the five lights down upon the place of the angels of the chief archon. They advised him that they should bring forth the power of the mother. And they said to Yaltabaoth, 'Blow into his face something of your spirit and his body will arise.' And he blew into his face the spirit which is the power of his mother he did not know (this), for he exists in ignorance. And the power of the mother went out of Yaltabaoth into the natural body, which they had fashioned after the image of the one who exists from the beginning. The body moved and gained strength, and it was luminous.

    "And in that moment the rest of the powers became jealous, because he had come into being through all of them and they had given their power to the man, and his intelligence was greater than that of those who had made him, and greater than that of the chief archon. And when they recognized that he was luminous, and that he could think better than they, and that he was free from wickedness, they took him and threw him into the lowest region of all matter.

    Aka earth also known as Amenta - is the lowest regions they speak of -

    Now Adam - aka male and female has the illuminated power

    But the blessed One, the Mother-Father, the beneficent and merciful One, had mercy on the power of the mother which had been brought forth out of the chief archon, for they (the archons) might gain power over the natural and perceptible body. And he sent, through his beneficent Spirit and his great mercy, a helper to Adam, luminous Epinoia which comes out of him, who is called Life. And she assists the whole creature, by toiling with him and by restoring him to his fullness and by teaching him about the descent of his seed (and) by teaching him about the way of ascent, (which is) the way he came down. And the luminous Epinoia was hidden in Adam, in order that the archons might not know her, but that the Epinoia might be a correction of the deficiency of the mother.

    "And the man came forth because of the shadow of the light which is in him. And his thinking was superior to all those who had made him. When they looked up, they saw that his thinking was superior. And they took counsel with the whole array of archons and angels. They took fire and earth and water and mixed them together with the four fiery winds. And they wrought them together and caused a great disturbance. And they brought him (Adam) into the shadow of death, in order that they might form (him) again from earth and water and fire and the spirit which originates in matter, which is the ignorance of darkness and desire, and their counterfeit spirit. This is the tomb of the newly-formed body with which the robbers had clothed the man, the bond of forgetfulness and he became a mortal man. This is the first one who came down, and the first separation. But the Epinoia of the light which was in him, she is the one who was to awaken his thinking.

    "And the archons took him and placed him in paradise. And they said to him, 'Eat, that is at leisure,' for their luxury is bitter and their beauty is depraved. And their luxury is deception and their trees are godlessness and their fruit is deadly poison and their promise is death. And the tree of their life they had placed in the midst of paradise.

    Ru2religious

    Well-Known Member

    And I shall teach you (pl.) what is the mystery of their life, which is the plan which they made together, which is the likeness of their spirit. The root of this (tree) is bitter and its branches are death, its shadow is hate and deception is in its leaves, and its blossom is the ointment of evil, and its fruit is death and desire is its seed, and it sprouts in darkness. The dwelling place of those who taste from it is Hades, and the darkness is their place of rest.

    "But what they call the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which is the Epinoia of the light, they stayed in front of it in order that he (Adam) might not look up to his fullness and recognize the nakedness of his shamefulness. But it was I who brought about that they ate."

    And to I said to the savior, "Lord, was it not the serpent that taught Adam to eat?" The savior smiled and said, "The serpent taught them to eat from wickedness of begetting, lust, (and) destruction, that he (Adam) might be useful to him. And he (Adam) knew that he was disobedient to him (the chief archon) due to light of the Epinoia which is in him, which made him more correct in his thinking than the chief archon. And (the latter) wanted to bring about the power which he himself had given him. And he brought a forgetfulness over Adam."

    This story is grounded in esoteric wisdom - to which some calls metaphysics. Here is the fall of Adam -

    And I said to the savior, "What is the forgetfulness?" And he said "It is not the way Moses wrote (and) you heard. For he said in his first book, 'He put him to sleep' (Gn 2:21), but (it was) in his perception. For also he said through the prophet, 'I will make their hearts heavy, that they may not pay attention and may not see' (Is 6:10).

    "Then the Epinoia of the light hid herself in him (Adam). And the chief archon wanted to bring her out of his rib. But the Epinoia of the light cannot be grasped. Although darkness pursued her, it did not catch her. And he brought a part of his power out of him. And he made another creature, in the form of a woman, according to the likeness of the Epinoia which had appeared to him. And he brought the part which he had taken from the power of the man into the female creature, and not as Moses said, 'his rib-bone.'

    "And he (Adam) saw the woman beside him. And in that moment the luminous Epinoia appeared, and she lifted the veil which lay over his mind. And he became sober from the drunkenness of darkness. And he recognized his counter-image, and he said, 'This is indeed bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh.' Therefore the man will leave his father and his mother, and he will cleave to his wife, and they will both be one flesh. For they will send him his consort, and he will leave his father and his mother . (3 lines unreadable)

    "And our sister Sophia (is) she who came down in innocence in order to rectify her deficiency. Therefore she was called Life, which is the mother of the living, by the foreknowledge of the sovereignty of heaven. And through her they have tasted the perfect Knowledge. I appeared in the form of an eagle on the tree of knowledge, which is the Epinoia from the foreknowledge of the pure light, that I might teach them and awaken them out of the depth of sleep. For they were both in a fallen state, and they recognized their nakedness. The Epinoia appeared to them as a light she awakened their thinking.

    "And when Yaltabaoth noticed that they withdrew from him, he cursed his earth. He found the woman as she was preparing herself for her husband. He was lord over her, though he did not know the mystery which had come to pass through the holy decree. And they were afraid to blame him. And he showed his angels his ignorance which is in him. And he cast them out of paradise and he clothed them in gloomy darkness. And the chief archon saw the virgin who stood by Adam, and that the luminous Epinoia of life had appeared in her. And Yaltabaoth was full of ignorance. And when the foreknowledge of the All noticed (it), she sent some and they snatched life out of Eve.

    Satan and his fallen angels - as the story goes in the bible -

    The Children of Eve and Yaldabaoth -

    And the chief archon seduced her and he begot in her two sons the first and the second (are) Eloim and Yave. Eloim has a bear-face and Yave has a cat-face. The one is righteous but the other is unrighteous. (Yave is righteous but Eloim is unrighteous.) Yave he set over the fire and the wind, and Eloim he set over the water and the earth. And these he called with the names Cain and Abel with a view to deceive.

    "Now up to the present day, sexual intercourse continued due to the chief archon. And he planted sexual desire in her who belongs to Adam. And he produced through intercourse the copies of the bodies, and he inspired them with his counterfeit spirit.

    "And the two archons he set over principalities, so that they might rule over the tomb. And when Adam recognized the likeness of his own foreknowledge, he begot the likeness of the son of man. He called him Seth, according to the way of the race in the aeons. Likewise, the mother also sent down her spirit, which is in her likeness and a copy of those who are in the pleroma, for she will prepare a dwelling place for the aeons which will come down. And he made them drink water of forgetfulness, from the chief archon, in order that they might not know from where they came. Thus, the seed remained for a while assisting (him), in order that, when the Spirit comes forth from the holy aeons, he may raise up and heal him from the deficiency, that the whole pleroma may (again) become holy and faultless."

    And I said to the savior, "Lord, will all the souls then be brought safely into the pure light?" He answered and said to me, "Great things have arisen in your mind, for it is difficult to explain them to others except to those who are from the immovable race. Those on whom the Spirit of life will descend and (with whom) he will be with the power, they will be saved and become perfect and be worthy of the greatness and be purified in that place from all wickedness and the involvements in evil. Then they have no other care than the incorruption alone, to which they direct their attention from here on, without anger or envy or jealousy or desire and greed of anything. They are not affected by anything except the state of being in the flesh alone, which they bear while looking expectantly for the time when they will be met by the receivers (of the body). Such then are worthy of the imperishable, eternal life and the calling. For they endure everything and bear up under everything, that they may finish the good fight and inherit eternal life."

    I said to him, "Lord, the souls of those who did not do these works (but) on whom the power and Spirit descended, (will they be rejected?" He answered and said to me, "If) the Spirit (descended upon them), they will in any case be saved, and they will change (for the better). For the power will descend on every man, for without it no one can stand. And after they are born, then, when the Spirit of life increases and the power comes and strengthens that soul, no one can lead it astray with works of evil. But those on whom the counterfeit spirit descends are drawn by him and they go astray."

    And I said, "Lord, where will the souls of these go when they have come out of their flesh?" And he smiled and said to me, "The soul in which the power will become stronger than the counterfeit spirit, is strong and it flees from evil and, through the intervention of the incorruptible one, it is saved, and it is taken up to the rest of the aeons."

    And I said, "Lord, those, however, who have not known to whom they belong, where will their souls be?" And he said to me, "In those, the despicable spirit has gained strength when they went astray. And he burdens the soul and draws it to the works of evil, and he casts it down into forgetfulness. And after it comes out of (the body), it is handed over to the authorities, who came into being through the archon, and they bind it with chains and cast it into prison, and consort with it until it is liberated from the forgetfulness and acquires knowledge. And if thus it becomes perfect, it is saved."

    And I said, "Lord, how can the soul become smaller and return into the nature of its mother or into man?" Then he rejoiced when I asked him this, and he said to me, "Truly, you are blessed, for you have understood! That soul is made to follow another one (fem.), since the Spirit of life is in it. It is saved through him. It is not again cast into another flesh."

    And I said, "Lord, these also who did not know, but have turned away, where will their souls go?" Then he said to me, "To that place where the angels of poverty go they will be taken, the place where there is no repentance. And they will be kept for the day on which those who have blasphemed the spirit will be tortured, and they will be punished with eternal punishment."

    And I said, "Lord, from where did the counterfeit spirit come?" Then he said to me, "The Mother-Father, who is rich in mercy, the holy Spirit in every way, the One who is merciful and who sympathizes with you (pl.), i.e., the Epinoia of the foreknowledge of light, he raised up the offspring of the perfect race and its thinking and the eternal light of man. When the chief archon realized that they were exalted above him in the height - and they surpass him in thinking - then he wanted to seize their thought, not knowing that they surpassed him in thinking, and that he will not be able to seize them.

    "He made a plan with his authorities, which are his powers, and they committed together adultery with Sophia, and bitter fate was begotten through them, which is the last of the changeable bonds. And it is of a sort that is interchangeable. And it is harder and stronger than she with whom the gods united, and the angels and the demons and all the generations until this day. For from that fate came forth every sin and injustice and blasphemy, and the chain of forgetfulness and ignorance and every severe command, and serious sins and great fears. And thus the whole creation was made blind, in order that they may not know God, who is above all of them. And because of the chain of forgetfulness, their sins were hidden. For they are bound with measures and times and moments, since it (fate) is lord over everything.


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