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26 July 1943

26 July 1943


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26 July 1943

War in the Air

Eighth Air Force Heavy Bomber Mission No. 77: 303 aircraft sent to attack targets in north west Germany. 54 hit the Hamburg U-boat yards, 92 hit industrial targets at Hanover, 18 attack a convoy and 35 attack targets of opportunity. 24 aircraft lost. This is the second US raid on Hamburg in two days and is part of the "Battle of Hamburg"

Four RAF Mosquitos carry out a nuisance raid over Hamburg (night of 26/27 July), triggering the main air raid alarm.

War at Sea

German submarine U-359 sunk with all hands off San Domingo

Italy

Martial Law is declared in Italy and the Fascist Party is dissolved

Related Books



Congressman Engel Discovers Profiteers They Are the Workers, He Avers

From Labor Action, Vol. 7 No. 30, 26 July 1943, p.ك.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

One of the most common ways of lying is to take a fact which is the exception to the rule, pretend it is the rule, and proceed to draw utterly false general conclusions.

Representative Albert J. Engel, reactionary Republican from Michigan, has been tramping around to war plants – actually only forty-seven out out of the tens of thousands in the country – with pad and pencil in hand, taking down “statistics” of this unreliable kind.

He found a girl of eighteen making $65 a week. He inquired at a bank where workers deposit their pay checks and was told the checks average from $60 to $110 a week. He learned that newly trained tank welders in certain factories are being paid $67 a week. And, horror of horrors, he was told of a machine-gun assembler making $8,741 annually and he remarked: “Think of paying a machine-gun assembler $241 more than the base pay of Lieut.-Gen. Stilwell, who commands the armed forces in the Chinese theater.”
 

Are High Wages Justified?

“Is there any one in or out of labor circles who can look those facts in the face and justify them?” asked Mr. Engel with a dramatic flourish.

Certainly! Labor Action most certainly can – assuming Mr. Engel’s figures to be facts. The congressman has himself reported – from his personal investigations – THAT CORPORATE PROFITS ON WAR CONTRACTS RANGED AS HIGH AS 53 PER CENT AFTER PAYMENT OF ALL TAXES. So why shouldn’t workers whose toil produces the war material on which the bosses are reaping their war harvest, why shouldn’t the workers get high wages?

We might add that senators and representatives get $10,000 a year. Every workers has a right to ask: Why should these gentlemen receive such high salaries? On the basis of labor and productivity, a good many of these legislators are highly overpaid. As a matter of fact, on the basis of labor and productivity, many of these gentlemen owe the people of the country a large rebate!

Another point worth noting in connection with the salaries of senators and congressmen is that they are decided upon by themselves!

Furthermore, it should be noted that generals would be very unimportant persons indeed – way off in China or anywhere else – if there weren’t these tank welders and gun assemblers who produce materials of war. From the standpoint of basic importance, therefore, the machine-gun assembler actually rates as high pay as the lieutenant-general or general, or at least as a senator or congressman.
 

What the Workers Really Get

But the workers are not getting high pay. They, therefore, have other things to worry about than the pay of generals. These generals, who have none of the living problems of the workers, seem to get along all right. Here are some facts about workers’ wages which are not exceptions but the rule:

Secretary of Labor Perkins made it known some months ago that in July, 1942, there were 16,000,000 workers in this country making less than $16 a week. ON A YEARLY BASIS THIS ADDS UP TO LESS THAN $850, OR LESS THAN ONE-TENTH THE ANNUAL PAY OF A LIEUTENANT-GENERAL – NOT TO MENTION A GENERAL’S PAY.

More recently – on July 2, 1943 – President Roosevelt stated:

“It is too easy to act on the assumption that all consumers have surplus purchasing power and that the high earnings of some workers in munitions plants are enjoyed by every worker’s family. This easy assumption overlooks the 4,000,000 wage workers still earning less than forty cents per hour, and millions of others whose incomes are almost as low.”

From these facts Mr. Roosevelt has drawn the entirely erroneous conclusion that these underpaid workers must be fooled with such political twaddle as the payment of subsidies to the food bosses. However, what we are interested in now is that the President’s figures must considerably understate the actual case. For we have grave doubts that in one year’s time 12,000,000 of the 16,000,000 workers getting less than forty cents an hour and less than $16 a week in July 1942 have graduated out of that class.

But, of course, Mr. Engel does not want to lower the wages of these sub-sub-standard workers. Perhaps to him $16 a week is about right as the reward of those who toil and sweat to produce the wealth of this wealthiest nation on earth. He’s after bigger game – the war workers who get more than $16 a week.
 

Average Wages Are Low

But how about that girl getting $65 a week? Is she typical? Are the wages of those $67-a-week tank welders average? Are pay checks of $60 to $110 really the run of the mill? And is not the machine-gun assembler getting more than a lieutenant-general very extraordinary indeed?

Again we call into court official government figures from the U.S. Department of Labor. In September 1942 the average wage in all manufacturing industries in this country was not $110 nor $67 nor $65 nor $60. IT WAS THIRTY-SEVEN DOLLARS AND EIGHTY-EIGHT CENTS. In the manufacture of non-durable goods the average wage was AS LOW AS TWENTY-NINE DOLLARS AND SEVENTY-ONE CENTS. In the manufacture of durable goods the average was higher – FORTY-FOUR DOLLARS AND FORTY-SEVEN CENTS.

Let us assume that all war workers are in the higher-paid category. There is still a far cry between the average of $44.47 and the exceptional figures Mr. Engel puts to propaganda use to beat down wages.

The wage freeze, presidential hold-the-line edict, Little Steel formula, WLB stalling on wage demands and the entire anti-labor campaign have certainly not been conducive to raising the average wage since September 1942.

What has the cost of living and the tax squeeze done to that $44.47? The Consumers Union gives an eloquent answer. A recent thorough survey made by it of consumers in all parts of the country and at different income levels reveals the following:
 

Workers Face “Actual Disaster”

To meet the skyrocketing prices of food and other necessities – five per cent of the families earning below $1,500 are borrowing to make ends meet in higher income brackets, 2.8 per cent are borrowing to pay their larger bills 15 per cent of the lower income families are drawing on meager savings 11.4 per cent of higher income families are drawing on savings also – 55 per cent in the former category are buying less of everything in the latter category, 44.6 per cent are buying less food and clothing – all groups are cutting down on amusements and similar items – all groups have to count every penny they spend.

Consumers Union concludes from its survey that a large section of the nation’s population is faced with “ACTUAL DISASTER” – quite a different conclusion from that drawn by Congressman Engel that wages should be reduced.

The real facts mean that the struggle for higher wages is an absolute necessity for all workers.


Structure

VIII Air Support Command

3rd Bomb Wing

Wing
One of four original bombardment wings of the Eighth Air Force, the 3rd Bomb Wing comprised four groups of B-26 Marauder medium bombers by September 1943, as part of VIII Air Support Command. .

453rd Bomb Squadron

454th Bomb Squadron

455th Bomb Squadron

456th Bomb Squadron

Squadron
Selected Bibliography of Publications: .

Headquarters (323rd Bomb Group)


August 15th, 2018 is a Wednesday. It is the 227th day of the year, and in the 33rd week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 3rd quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 2018 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 8/15/2018, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 15/8/2018.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


Want to know more about Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment)?

Available at discounted prices.

Links

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Helping people find out more about their relatives wartime experiences since 1999 by recording and preserving recollections, documents, photographs and small items.

This website is paid for out of our own pockets, library subscriptions and from donations made by visitors. The popularity of the site means that it is far exceeding available resources.

If you are enjoying the site, please consider making a donation, however small to help with the costs of keeping the site running.


Indian Divisions

Three infantry divisions from the Indian Army participated in the Italian campaign. The first one to land in Italy was 8 Indian Infantry Division, which had previously seen action in Iraq and Iran during the British invasion of those countries in 1941. This formation was followed by 4 Indian Infantry Division, which had seen active service in Egypt, Eritrea, Libya, and Tunisia. This formation, known as the ‘Red Eagles’ on account of its divisional insigna, had won General MONTGOMERY’s respect during the Tunisian campaign, where it was used to outflank two German defence lines by driving through mountainous country.

DOWNLOADABLE DOCUMENTS (pdfs)

The 10 Indian Infantry Division had also seen active service in Iraq, and had also participated in the invasion of Syria. The Division was then ordered to drive from Iraq to Egypt, a distance of about 1,5000 miles, and was thrown in to attempt to halt the Axis advance into Egypt in 1942. After suffering heavy losses, the 10 Indian Division recuperated in the Egyptian Delta before being deployed to Italy.

What is worthy of note with all three Indian divisions, is the consistency in command throughout the formations. In addition, it has to be noted how the men from the Punjab, and Indian plains, coped with the extremely hostile conditions experienced in Italy. Even the Gurkhas from Nepal struggled with the heavy and persistent rain, and freezing nights in the Italian mountains. All three Divisions performed well in the Italian Campaign and were highly respected by the Allied and Axis commanders alike.

The 4 Indian Infantry Division was the first formation to leave India for service overseas in the Second World War, the first tranche leaving in August 1939. It had a very distinguished war record, having been central to the success of Operation Compass in December 1940, the Abyssinia campaign of early 1941, most of the major battles of the campaign in the Western Desert in 1941 and 1942, and the final victory in Tunisia. The 4 Indian Division arrived in Italy from North Africa on 7 December 1943. In mid December 1943, it moved to the Potenza area of Italy. On 9 January 1944, the division came under the command of XIII Corps, and moved into the line at Orsogna to relieve the New Zealand Division. In February 1944, it was transferred to the New Zealand Corps and deployed at Cassino. The division concentrated there by 6 February. The 7 Brigade relieved the Americans on 14 February at Cassino, with the opening attack on 16 February 1944. The second battle commenced on 15 March 1944. The division was withdrawn from Cassino during 25/26 March 1944. It was sent back to the Orsogna front. The division was engaged in operations there and along the line of retreat of the Germans forces. In July 1944, the division was involved in the operation in central Italy and the Gothic line battles from August to October. In December 1944, the division was sent to Greece.

The 8 Indian Infantry Division arrived in Italy from Syria via Egypt on 24 September 1943. The advance party arrived at Taranto on 3 September, with the main body arriving on the 19 September. On 19 October 1943, the division entered the line at Larino under command of V Corps and on 21 October 1943, it had its first action in the crossing of the River Biferno. It fought throughout the Italian campaign. Following the armistice in Europe, the division embarked for India from Taranto on 25 and 26 June 1945. The British battalions and artillery regiments did not go to India, and returned to the United Kingdom.

The 10 Indian Infantry Division was formed in Ahmednagar in India in May 1941. It was sent immediately to Iraq where it took part in the campaign to secure the oilfields in that country. Following the successful conclusion of that campaign, the division was split up across Iraq, Persia, and Syria. As the situation had deteriorated in Egypt and Libya, the Division was rushed to the desert where it suffered heavy casualties. The division then moved to Cyprus to refit before moving to Italy in March 1944. At the end of the campaign, it moved to Trieste in May 1945, staying there until August, then moving to Milan before leaving Taranto bound for Italy on 22 November 1945. It was disbanded at Rawalpindi in January 1947.


26 July 1943 - History

There are any number of precise and intimidating definitions of postal history. While these are all technically correct, in many ways they miss the wider aspects of hobby.

In a word, postal history is about mail. All over the world almost everyone receives mail. This mail, where it is from, where it is going, how it is paid, how it got to its destination and tribulations it faced in its journey is postal history. It speaks of the time and place it was mailed, the way it traveled and the scars it picked up along the way.

Since mail toches almost every person, postal history touches almost every interest. If your interest is in a place, perhaps your home town, the country of your ancestors or your favorite vacation spot, postal history will enhance that interest. If transportation is a passion, the movement of mail encompassed most modes of transport. Mail was the first mover in the development of some air travel and significant in utilizing rail network. Most every significant event of the last 250 years can be traced in the mail. Since every army provides mail for its soldiers, if the military is important to you, then postal history is intertwined.

Mail is a window to the past and a mirror of the present. Postal history opens that window wide and focuses the mirror. It tells us about ourselves, our ancestors, our nation and our world. The simple journey of a letter can be the start of a personal journey to wonders of the world.

New This Week



This week brings another 100 new world covers from Asia and Africa. There is a nice range of covers from Egypt, French West Africa and Palestine and Israel. Please note markings, postal stationery, airmail and some military related. Please click here to see the covers.

The next auction will be world military postal history. It will be posted in the next month or so and close one month after that.

There were 200 new covers on the site last week. There are modern, zip code era A.P.O.'s. There are from locations around the world with emphasis on Europe. Please click here to see the A.P.O.'s. There is a also a selection of U.S. military. There are domestic military covers primarily from WWII along with a few earlier and a few later. There are some interesting auxiliary markings. Click here for the Military.


Stamps Plus offers a wide range of material, both basic stamps and specialty items. Expect to see used and unused, sets and singles as well as unused stationery, first days, revenues, and the gamut of philatelic items not listed in the catalog. This week we have a nice range of British Commonwealth, Bulgaria, Greenland, United States, Vatican City, worldwide postal stationery and worldwide stamps. Please click here to visit the site.

Browse This Site

Cover Notification Service - Receive an e-mail notification every time a new cover that fits your interests is added to this site. You can set up the notifications yourself or have me set them up for you. If your interests are fairly general, for example a single country, you can set them yourself . If your interests are more specific, like a particular issue, you might find it easier to ask me to set them up. If you choose to set up your interests yourself, I'll review them to make sure they will work the way you intend.

Worldwide Postal History - Browse here for the country of your interest. Covers begin in the 18th Century and continue to the modern era. The emphasis is on 20th century up to about 1960 for larger countries and to about 1970 for smaller countries, You will find International Airmail, Town Cancels, Auxiliary Markings, Stampless, Registered, Advertising, Censors, Special Delivery and just about anything else you can imagine.

U.S. Postal History - Explore thousands of U.S. covers arranged to be browsed by issue. The stock is strongest in foreign destinations after 1920, but you'll find a bit of everything including 19th century.

U.S. Postal History By State - Use this section to browse for covers based upon the place where they were used. Explore local postal history in hundreds of covers for each state, a bibliography of literature available for each state, and market analysis.

United States Post Offices - This is a reference that list s the name and dates of operation of every post office in the U.S. The list is the best reference ever published in one place. A far better representation of both Alabama and Georgia is now online. Despite constant additions and corrections, it is still a work in progress.

Military Postal History - Browse here for war covers I have a strong stock of military covers of all types, with an emphasis on U.S. World War II material. Look for U.S. A.P.O. covers, U.S. Ship covers, Worldwide Civil Censors, U.S. Naval Shore Stations, Field Posts from most parts of the world and Prisoner of War and Internee mail. . You're welcome to use on-line copy of my book A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Covers of the Second World War.

Airmail Postal History - Browse for first flights, catapults, zeppelins, crash covers, trans pacific and all range of international airmail.

Save Your Cart - You may now save your shopping cart for up to 90 days. Simply click on Save Cart on the menu bar at the left or bottom link bar and log into your account. Come back any time within the next three months to review and purchase your selections by clicking Retrieve Cart. to check out the cart. Do please understand that saving items does not remove them from inventory or place them on hold for you.


26 July 1943 - History

Martha Euphemia Lofton Haynes,
first african american woman mathematican

Born: 1890 Died July 25, 1980

BA Smith College (1914) MA education, University of Chicago

Ph.D. (Mathematics) Catholic University, 1943
thesis: Determination of Sets of Independent Conditions Characterizing Certain Special Cases of Symmetric Correspondences , advisor: Aubrey Landry

In 1943, Euphemia Lofton Haynes earned her Ph.D. in Mathematics at The Catholic University in Washington, D.C., thus becoming the first African American Woman Ph. D. in Mathematics .

Born Martha Euphemia Lofton, Euphremia (she rarely used Martha) was a fourth generation Washingtonian, her father was Dr. William S. Lofton, a prominent Black D.C. dentist and financier of Black businesses in the area. Her mother, Lavinia Day Lofton, was active in the Catholic church as later was Euphemia. She graduated high school from Washington's Miner Normal School in 1909. Four years later, she received a B.A. in Mathematics (minor in Psychology). In 1917, she married Harold Appo Haynes who later became a principal and deputy superintendent in charge of Washington's "colored schools" (the schools for African Americans).

In 1930, Haynes received a masters degree in education from the University of Chicago, where she also did further graduate study in mathematics. She earned a doctorate degree in mathematics from Catholic University of America (CUA) in 1943, becoming the first black woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in mathematics. The title of her dissertation was "The Determination of Sets of Independent Conditions Characterizing Certain Special Cases of Symmetric Correspondences" Dr. Aubrey Landrey was her dissertation advisor and Drs . Otto J. Ramler and J. Nelson Rice were members of her doctoral committee.

Dr. Euphemia Haynes had a distinguished career in Washington. She taught in the public schools of Washington, DC for forty-seven years and was the first woman to chair the DC School Board. She was a teacher of first grade at Garrison and Garfield Schools a teacher of mathematics at Armstrong High School, an English teacher at Miner Normal School she taught mathematics and served as chair of the Mathematics Department at Dunbar High School she was a professor of mathematics at Miner Teachers College (established the mathematics department) and at the District of Columbia Teachers College for which she also served as chair of the Division of Mathematics and Business Education. After her 1959 retirement from the public school system, he was head of the city's Board of Education, and was central to the integration of the DC public schools.

Dr. Haynes established the mathematics department at Miners Teacher's College she was a professor of mathematics. She taught at the District of Columbia Teachers College for which she also served as chair of the Division of Mathematics and Business Education. She occasionally taught part-time at Howard University.

Haynes was active in many community activities. She served as first vice president of the Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Women, chairman of the Advisory Board of Fides Neighborhood House, on the Committee of International Social Welfare, on the Executive Committee of the National Social Welfare Assembly, as secretary and member of the Executive Committee of the DC Health and Welfare Council, on the local and national committees of the United Service Organization, and as a member of the National Conference of Christians and Jews, Catholic Interracial Council of Washington, the Urban League, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, League of Women Voters, and the American Association of University Women.

Euphemia Lofton Haynes was awarded the Papal Medal - Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice from the Catholic Church in 1959.

Upon her death in 1980, she bequeathed $700,000 to Catholic University in a trust fund established to support a professorial chair and student loan fund in the School of Education. Thus, there is a scholarship fund and a education department chair named in honor of Dr. Euphemia Lofton Haynes at The Catholic University.

Regarding the chair in her honor, the following is from the CUA School of Education Newsletter for January 1981, page 1: "The School of Education (ED) recently received a gift of $700,000 in the form of a bequest from Euphemia L. Haynes, an alumna of the university and a prominent Washington educator, who died earlier this year. The gift was willed to the university in a trust fund Mrs. Haynes established for the the support of a professorial chair in ED."

Here's the obituary from the August 1, 1980 "Washington Post": there is a photo but we do not have it

"By Ken Feil -- The Washington Post

Dr. Euphemia Lofton Haynes, 90, a former D.C. board of education president and member and a Washington educator for nearly 50 years, died Thursday at the Washington Hospital Center. She had been hospitalized since suffering a stroke July 25.

Dr. Haynes served as school board president from July 1966 to July 1967. A fourth-generation Washingtonian, she was a product of the same school system that she later headed.

She served as a member of the old nine-member school board, then appointed by judges of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, for seven years before becoming its president.

During that time she was an active and outspoken critic of the school system's de facto structure of segregation and its "track system," which placed students in academic or vocational programs depending on ability.

The track system, which had structured the city's schools for a number of years and which was said to discriminate against black and poor students, was abolished along with de facto segregation by Judge J. Skelly Wright in June 1967, when Mrs. Haynes was board president.

Mrs. Haynes had favored black civil rights leader Julius W. Hobson's suit, charging the school system with racial and economic discrimination, which led to Judge Wright's decision.

She also was school board president when the machinery for an election to establish collective bargaining rights for public school teachers was set up in March 1967. She left the board in 1968 when the city's first elected school board took office.

Mrs. Haynes graduated from Smith College in 1914. She earned a master's degree in education from the University of Chicago and a doctorate in mathematics from Catholic University.

She taught mathematics in Washington high schools and, in 1930, established a mathematics department at old Miners Teachers College here. She was professor and chairman of the department when she retired in 1959.

After retiring, Mrs. Haynes became active in Catholic organizations. She was president of the Washington Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Women from 1964 to 1966. She also served on the board of Catholic Charities and as member of the D.C. branch of the National Conference of Christians and Jews.

In 1959, she received the Papal medal, "Pro Ecclesia et Pontifex" for her service to the church and her community.

Her husband, Dr. Harold A. Haynes, a former deputy superintendent of the city's public schools, died two years ago. Mrs. Haynes leaves no immediate survivors."

Personal papers of Catholic University of America alumna Euphemia Lofton Haynes, her husband Harold Appo Haynes, and their families. Held by CUA: Papers consist of correspondence, financial records, publications, speeches, reports, newspaper clippings, and photographs, and provide a record of her family, professional, and social life, including her involvement in education, civic affairs, real estate, and business matters in Washington."

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: We had help (8/23/2001) with this web page from Robert Fikes, Jr. of the San Diego State University. It was Fikes who first informed us (August 2001) of the existence of Euphemia Lofton Haynes. We also had help (9/4/2001) from William John Shepherd, Sr., Assistant Archivist - [email protected], The Catholic University of America
.

references: [ProQuest Digital Dissertations] [Washington Post 08/01/1980]
Mary McLeod Bethune archives http://www.nps.gov/mamc/bethune/archives/collect.htm
library CAU: http://libraries.cua.edu/manuA-K.html#HAY-LOF [Houston 2001]


The Mathematics Department of
The State University of New York at Buffalo.

They are created and maintained by
Scott W. Williams
Professor of Mathematics


♫Today in Music History-July 26, 1943♫

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My mom thanks you for the sweet compliment pasta.☺

Thank you Bobbie, I will pass that on to mom next time I talk to her!! She's down in Florida now visiting her grandson (my nephew) and won't be back until the 8th of August.

Happy Birthday to both your moms. Must be two amazing woman, to have such beautiful, kind caring, loving children.x♥x♥x

Wow can you believe it both our moms having the same special day only a couple years apart. We should both post tributes to our moms.♥♥♥

You too Iris! My mom turns 88 on Saturday.

Don't you love the summer season and eating in great outdoors. Mom can not get out much with her bad legs. Her legs starting giving her trouble right after our big doings in Moscow. It was probably why she took the bad fall that day. She is fine indoors though as long as she does not have to go up and down steps. She stays very busy doing what she can though and stays 100 percent upbeat. Hard to believe she turns 86 this weekend. Have a great evening.

And I'm so glad about that!! Met many new friends here as well!! You and your mom should come up here for a cookout! :))

It is working for sure. I know I have learned much and made many awesome friends on these pages. ☺♥♥

Glad to bring up those good memories Iris!! That's been my goal with these music posts. To take people back or introduce them to music they may have missed. Hope it's working!! :))

Grew up listening to my brother and sister play these songs. Great memories!☺

You can expect the first song (of hopefully many) by the first of next week. Going to spend the weekend recording and mixing :))

Hi Joe how are you, when can we expect your first release, I hope you will release it on vinyl with plenty of liner notes.


Timeline of the Americans with Disabilities Act

The National Council on the Handicapped (now National Council on Disability, or NCD) issued its report Toward Independence legislative recommendations include enactment by Congress of a “comprehensive” equal opportunity law, “perhaps under such a title as ‘The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1986.’"

The National Council on the Handicapped (now National Council on Disability, or NCD) issued its report On the Threshold of Independence.

The Congressional Task Force on the Rights and Empowerment of Americans with Disabilities was created by Rep. Owens, co-chaired by Justin Dart Jr. and Elizabeth Boggs.

The first version of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was introduced by Sen. Weicker and Rep. Coelho in the 100 th Congress.

A revised Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was introduced by Sen. Harkin and Sen. Durrenberger, Rep. Coelho and Rep. Fish in the 101 st Congress.

The ADA passed the Senate by a vote of 76 to 8.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed and signed into law by President George H.W. Bush on July 26, 1990.

Regulations for Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) were issued by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).

Regulations for Title II and Title III were issued by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ).

Transportation regulations for Title II and Title III were issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).

Regulations for Title IV were issued by Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) took effect for employers with 25 or more employees.

Title II and Title III took effect.

Title IV of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) took effect.

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) took effect for employers with 15 or more employees.

The Supreme Court ruled in Sutton v United Airlines, Murphy v United Parcel Service, and Albertson’s Inc. v Kirkingburg (the “Sutton trilogy”), narrowing the definition of disability by holding that people who use “mitigating measures,” such as medication, may not be protected by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

The Supreme Court ruled in Olmstead v L.C., recognizing that the “unjustified institutional isolation of persons with disabilities is a form of discrimination” and holding that services must be provided in integrated, community-based settings when possible.

The Supreme Court ruled in Toyota Motor Manufacturing v Williams, further narrowing the protections of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by holding that the terms of the definition of disability “need to be interpreted strictly to create a demanding standard.”

National Council on Disability issued its report Righting the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), urging the Administration and Congress to support legislation to restore the original intent of the ADA and counteract the Supreme Court rulings that had narrowed the scope of the ADA’s protections.

Revised transportation regulations for Title II and Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (facility standards) were issued by Department of Transportation .

The ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) was signed into law by President George W. Bush to counteract the Supreme Court’s narrow interpretation of disability and provide broad protection from discrimination.

The ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) took effect.

Revised regulations for Title II and Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) were issued by Department of Justice .

Revised transportation regulations (passenger vessel operators) for Title II and Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) were issued by Department of Transportation .

Revised transportation regulations for Title II and Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (boarding at rail platforms, miscellaneous) were issued by Department of Transportation .

Revised regulations for Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) were issued by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).

The U.S. Access Board is developing or updating guidelines for electronic and information technology, telecommunications products and services, public rights-of-way, passenger vessels, and medical diagnostic equipment visit http://www.access-board.gov/ for more information and watch for opportunities to participate in the rulemaking by submitting your comments.

Department of Justice is developing or updating rules to address web information and services, movie captioning and video description, equipment and furniture, and next-generation 9-1-1 services visit http://www.ada.gov/newproposed_regs.htm for more information and watch for opportunities to submit your comments.

The 25th Anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act is July 26th, 2015!
Learn about the ADA Anniversary and how to participate.

Celebrate ADA 30 Years (1990-2020) Americans with Disabilities Act
Share: #ADA30 #ThanksToTheADA


Watch the video: Обращение немецкого диктатора к партизанам советский войск (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Devin

    Quick answer, a sign of quick wits;)

  2. Tobrytan

    I don’t even know what to say here.



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