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Udayagiri Caves, Madhya Pradesh

Udayagiri Caves, Madhya Pradesh


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MyIndiamyGlory

One of the oldest archaeological proofs of the Varaha are found in Mathura, dating back to the 1st and 2nd century CE. A detailed sculpture of Varaha is found in the Udayagiri Caves near Vidisha in Madhya Pradesh. Twenty rock-cut caves, dating back to the 5th century CE mark the splendor of Udayagiri Caves. The dates are corroborated by inscriptions. The iconography link the construction of these cave temples to the Gupta period. Cave 5 of the Udayagiri Caves has a Varaha temple. The sculptures narrate the story of Vishnu, Varaha, and Bhumi Devi. It narrates how Varaha saved Bhumi Devi from plummeting deep into the depths of the cosmic ocean.

During Satya Yug, prior to Treta Yug and Dwapar Yug lived an Asur king called Hiranakshya. He created chaos in the three worlds, terrorizing humans, saints, and the Devs alike. The Devs, led by Indra, approached Vishnu for help. Hiranakshya, cognizant of the plan, hid the earth by pushing her off her axis so that Vishnu could not find her.

When Hiranakshya touched Bhumi Devi and pushed her, an Asur took birth out of the contact. He was Narakasur, also called Bhaumasur. Bhumi Devi plunged deep inside space. It was then that Lord Vishnu incarnated as Varah, a boar. Before the earth plummeted further, the Lord held the earth in his horns and pushed her back in her axis. This was followed by Vishnu’s killing of Hiranyaksha.

Varaha in Udaigiri Caves Source: Wikipedia

Rohit Arya, who blogs on Indian culture writes, “In the Valimiki Ramayana, both Kumbakarna and Vibheeshana scold Ravana severely for kidnapping Sita Devi. Kumbakarna used even harsher language than the younger brother. I do not recall in which version this following story was first narrated but before he went to die at the hands of Shree Rama, Kumbakarna tried once more to make his brother see sense. Finding him obdurate he told him to come into the jungle behind Lanka. There he showed an odd structure, a huge hill shaped like a massive dome. It was covered up by vegetation but when scraped away, it was revealed to be pure gold!

Ravana was puzzled that he had no idea such a weird thing existed on his island kingdom and how did his perpetually sleeping brother know of it? And anyways at this point of crisis why was time being wasted with golden hills?

So Kumbarkarna had to tell him. “In my last life I was Hiryanyaksha, and you were Hiranyakashipu. When Mahavishnu as the Varaha Avatar fought me in the ocean to rescue Bhudevi, his kundala fell off in the combat and landed here. This hill which dwarfs even me was his kundala in that age! And that Mahavishnu, of such colossal power, has now come again in the form of Rama. You and I are both dead Brother, unless you return Sita. I remember my past life which is why I know of this place. Renounce this folly or we will both come to the same bad end as last time” but Ravana of course was coiled in his fate and refused to listen even then.

Of all the ten avatars of Shree Mahavishnu his third avatar as Shree Varaha Murti is supposed to be the most powerful, even more than the Shree Narasimha avatar. At one time, his temples were ubiquitous over the land. Oddly the only people who tap regularly into that zone of strength today are the Tantriks who invoke Sri Varahi Devi, the shakti aspect personified as a Goddess. When Shree Varahaswamy temples were commonplace it was the Golden Age of Hindus.”

There are twenty three Varaha temples in India out of which three exist in Kerala. A Varaha temple exists within the premises of the Khajuraho group of monuments.

The Sreevaraham Lakshmi Varaha Temple, also known as Sreevaraham Temple, is believed to be 5000 years old. It is located at Sreevaraham in Thiruvananthapuram. The principal deity of this temple is Varaha. The third avatar of Vishnu is seen here in sitting posture along with Lakshmi Devi. The sub-deities are Ganapathy, Sree Krishna, Nagarajah, Yakshiamma. Hence the name Lakshmi Varaha Temple! Only few temples depict Varaha with his consort Lakshmi Devi.

Featured image description:

Varaha tramples the fallen demon with Bhudevi on his shoulder. A sculpture of the avatar of Vishnu at Hoysaleswara Temple, also called Halebidu temple, the largest monument in Halebidu, Karnataka. Dedicated to Shiva, this temple was built during the 12th century by Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana.

The second image is a rare right-facing Varaha holding Bhudevi. This sculpture is from a group of monuments at Mahabalipuram in the coastal resort town of Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu. The site has 400 ancient monuments and temples which were built during the 7th and 8th centuries by rulers of the Pallava dynasty.

Featured image courtesy: Wikipedia.

Note: Part of this write-up (4th to 7th paragraphs) is directly sourced from posts on Varaha written by Rohit Arya.

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are solely of the author. My India My Glory does not assume any responsibility for the validity or information shared in this article by the author.


Tag: Udayagiri Cave

In the annals of Indian history, rivers occupy a special place. Revered as deities by Hindus, rivers mobilized resources, ideas and agricultural wealth. If there is something that strongly characterizes the idea of India, it is her endless river system. The very name ‘India’ or ‘Hind’ has been derived from the river Indus, first cited by Arab geographers. At the dawn of the Christian era, Ptolemy divided India as the lands of Ganges and beyond Ganges.

Although most of India’s rivers played a prolific role in shaping her civilization, only a few are celebrated as Pan-Indian tirthas, such as Ganga, Godavari, Narmada and Cauvery. Betwa or Vetrawati is a historically vibrant river that flows through the heart of Central India in the modern states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Cutting through the Vindhya ridges, its banks are not fertile valleys and the population density is low. It has still retained its medieval charm as not too many industries and large cities dot its banks.

Betwa silently crafted a story that we identify as the story of India. In her catchment we find the earliest imprints of humankind in India, the earliest of Hindu temples and India’s most splendid Buddhist monasteries. On its banks ran the grand highway of Ancient India, the Dakshina Path, connecting the cities of Gangetic plain and Deccan. Both Jains and Buddhists lived and prosper in the region. They together with Hindus have left beautifully sculptured edifices along the Betwa.

The story of Betwa begins approximately 30,000 years when the rock shelters of Bhimbetka and its surrounding hills were transformed into one of the earliest habitats of modern humans in the Sub-continent. The unique position of hills with gradual slopes and surrounding valleys not only provided shelters to live but also supplied a wealth of food resources. Our Stone Age ancestors took the advantage of this nature’s gift and silently laid the foundation of the story of India. They painted on the walls of the caves scenes from their daily life and created the first visual language. Today the rock-shelters of Bhimbetka are a world heritage site and a repository of knowledge of an ancient way of life and living.

Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka

The Stone Age way of life continued for thousands of years until the process of earliest urbanization began in the middle of 1 st millennium BCE. Vidisha became an important trade centre around this time and continued till the Gupta Empire took over in the 2 nd -3 rd centuries CE. Emperor Ashoka was the governor of Vidisha and his Buddhist wife Vidisha Devi was a native of this city. Today, among Vidisha’s oldest remains is the stone pillar that was erected in the 1 st century BCE by Heliodorus, a Greek ambassador of Indo-Greek King Antialcidas. The pillar is surmounted by a sculpture of Garuda and dedicated to Vasudeva.

Heliodorus Pillar at Vidisha

Sanchi, another world heritage site is a jewel in the crown of Buddhism. Originally commissioned by Emperor Ashoka in the 3 rd century BCE, the great stupa at Sanchi is an architectural landmark. It was here that Ashoka married Vidisha Devi, the daughter of a merchant from Vidisha. In the 1 st century BCE, four elaborately carved toranas with beautiful sculptures depicting daily life in Ancient India, the Dhamma wheels, Jataka tales and the worshipping of the Buddha in symbolic form were added.

During the course of time a number of stupas, temples and monasteries were built in Sanchi, among which the Temple 17 is worth mentioning. It is one of the earliest temples of India built in the form of a small square sanctum and a portico with flat roofs. The portico has four pillars bearing four lions on top. This temple is a wonderful example of the fact that the concept of Shikhara did not exist earlier.

Sanchi 17 Temple, one of the earliest temples in India

Similar to Sanchi, a number of other hills around Betwa and its tributary Bes became established centres of Buddhism. One such centre is Satdhara. The main stupa at Satdhara is even bigger than the Sanchi Mahastupa and was built during the time of Ashoka. Overlooking Bes River, the strikingly simpler Satdhara stupas are spread over a sprawling plateau.

Satdhara Buddhist Complex

When the Guptas took over, they created a parallel centre of worship at Udayagiri Hill near Vidisha and introduced the idea of rock-cut Hindu monasteries in the region. It was perhaps to counteract the popularity of Buddhism in the region and spread Brahmanical faith. The gigantic rock-cut statues of Varaha and Anantaseshayi Vishnu at Udayagiri will leave any visitor spellbound. This was the beginning of Hindu iconography that later evolved into more complex forms profusely adorning the medieval temples of India and Southeast Asia.

The Udayagiri Cave Complex

Situated on the right bank of Betwa in Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, Deogarh has one of the best known Gupta period temples, Dashavatara Vishnu Temple. It is also identified as the earliest known Panchayatana Temple in North India.

Nar Naryana Sculptures at Dashavatar Temple in Deogarh and Jain Sculptures at Parshavanath Temple in Deogarh (Source: Wikipedia)

Deogarh was also a major centre of Jainism. There are about 31 Jain Temples with 2000 sculptures built between 7 th and 17 th Centuries CE in Deogarh. According to UP Tourism website, Deograh has the largest collection of Jain sculptures found in one place. Most of these temples were built by Jain merchants who carried on trade both inland and overseas from Deogarh.

Calm flows the Betwa towards Budhi Chanderi, or the Old Chanderi, which is 20 km North of modern Chanderi and yet another major centre of Jainism.

A Jain Temple in Chanderi

The early seeds of architectural grandeur sown by the Guptas flowered during the period of Rashtrakutas and the best examples are found at the unfinished Shiva Temple at Bhojpur and ruins of the nearby Bhootnath Temple complex. The temple at Bhojpur was massive and the Shiva linga is the tallest in the medieval world.

Temple Ruins of Bhojpur and Bhootnath

The temple building activity continued in Vidisha and the sheer size of the unfinished temple of Bijamandal speaks eloquently of the skills and ambition of its builders.

Temple Ruins of Bijamandal at Vidisha

The next phase in Betwa story begins with the introduction of Islam. The political ambition of Sultanate rulers led their march to South and Betwa became the key passage. Victories of invaders pulled down the wealth of temples throwing life that revolved around sanatan belief into disarray. But this was not to last long. The faith in humanism saw new light through Sufi mysticism. Chanderi became a magnet of Sufi ideas with the preaching of the followers of Nizamuddin Auliya.

Chishtiyya is one of the four main streams of Sufi Islam. Though Chishtiyya had originated in Afghanistan in the 10th century CE, it was Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti, a revered Sufi Saint who had his abode at Ajmer in Rajasthan in the 12th century AD, who established the Chishti order in the Indian Subcontinent. The Chishti order of Sufism made a profound impact on the spread of Islam in India and stressed on values such as independence from rulers and states, rejection of money and land grants, generosity to others through sharing of food and wealth, and tolerance and respect to religious differences.

One of the eminent disciples of Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti was Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya. According to primary historical sources, in 13 th and 14th centuries CE, Auliya’s influence on Muslims of Delhi was so much that a paradigm shift was effected in their outlook towards worldly matters. People began to incline towards mysticism and prayers and remained aloof from the world.

During the time of Nizamuddin Auliya, the Chishti Silsila spread all over the country owing to the moving out of a large number of his followers to different cities and provinces. According to Abdullah Shatteri, a noted historian of that time, Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya had sent seven hundred well-trained disciples to various important cities in the country. These Khalifas, as theye were called, went on to become central figures in their respective regions. One such Khalifa was Hazrat Wajihuddin. During the reign of Allauddin Khilji, he was ordered by Hazrat Nizamuddin to go and settle in Chanderi and work for the people.

Sufi Shrines and Indo-Islamic Structures at Chanderi

Chanderi lies at the meeting point of Malwa Plateau and Bundelkhand. It is strategically located on the major trade routes of Central India towards Malwa, Mewar, coast of Gujarat and Deccan. Throughout history, Chanderi has attracted all major powers from Pratihars to Khilji, Lodhi, Mughals, Bundelas and finally the British.

A rock-cut Jain Sculpture at Chanderi

Hazrat Wajihuddin reached Chanderi in 1305 AD and established his Khanaqah. Soon he attracted thousands of visitors to Chanderi. These devotees not only came from Chanderi and surrounding areas but also from places as far as Bengal. Meer Khurd in his book Siyar-Ul-Auliya mentions many devotees especially from Lakhanuti, which is near Dhaka, who not only visited Hazrat Wajihuddin but decided to settle down in Chanderi. It was, most probably, this group of people that began the practice of weaving in Chanderi as Dhaka was a major centre of weaving in those times. Chanderi today is well-known for its silk and its patrons are from all religions, classes and faiths but most of us are unaware of its deep connection with Sufism, especially the Chisthiyya order of Sufism.

A Chanderi Weaver at Work

Mazar Khandan – e – Nizamuddin is a grave complex that was built in 1425 AD for the followers of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya during the rule of Hoshang Shah, the Sultan of Malwa. The complex has some of India’s most beautiful jali work on its walls and carving of motifs on black stone graves. According to KK Muhammad, a noted archaeologist and an expert on the subject, the jali work of these tombs are earliest, which eventually would develop into more intricate refined jali work at the Mausoleum of Muhammad Ghaus in Gwalior and the Dargah of Salim Chishti at Fatehpur Sikri. Many of these jalis and motifs have found their way into the design of Chanderi Sarees and fabrics.

Chanderi has also a deep connection with Hindustani music. Baiju Bawra, a contemporary of Tansen sang many of his dhrupads in the court of Chanderi in the 16 th century CE.

In the final leg of Betwa story, we encounter the fusion of two great ideas, the Mughals and the Bundela Rajputs. Orchha, the capital of Bundelas is one of the most celebrated centres of art, architecture, music and dance. The imposing chhatris of Bundela Rajputs, the majestic Chaturbhuj Temple and Jehangir Mahal were amongst the last link of Betwa story that began at the remote corner of time in Bhimbetka, some 30,000 years back.

In the 13 th Century CE, Bundelkhand region was embroiled in battles between Sultanate and the Rajput kings to acquire power and wealth and the region became important as it connected the Ganga – Yamuna doab in the North to the Malwa Plateau and Deccan in the South. Betwa’s fortune changed with the arrival of Akbar and Bundela Rajputs. Their peaceful coexistence turned Orchha into a magnet of creativity. The region witnessed cultural renaissance with several innovations in Hindustani music, dance, paintings and architecture.

The Bundela Cenotaphs across Betwa

The name Orchha has an interesting story. Once when, Raja Rudra Pratap was out on a hunting expedition, he came across a small Rama Temple in the middle of the forest. Being a devout follower of Rama, he sat in front of the temple to meditate unaware of a wolf that was hiding nearby. The smell of human sweat pulled him closer to the king. All of a sudden, out of nowhere, a voice boomed ‘Orchha’, the chasing command given to dogs. The hunting dogs thus awakened chased the wolf finally killing it. According to the story the command was given by Lord Rama himself. The King immediately decided to establish his capital at this holy spot and named it Orchha.

Though Rudra Pratap founded Orchha, he did not survive to build his dream city. He died the same year saving a cow. His successor Madhukar Shah however took Orchha to new heights of prosperity. Orchha became a vassal kingdom under the Mughals during the reign of Emperor Akbar.

Vir Singh Deo was the next important ruler of Orchha. He was a vassal of Jahangir, the next Mughal Emperor after Akbar. It was during his rule that Orchha reached its zenith in terms of artistic and architectural proliferation. Vir Singh Deo built Jahangir Mahal, a jewel among the medieval palaces in India and the Laxmi Narayan Temple, where we see the best of Orchha murals. He had a dashing personality but his name was tainted as the murderer of Abul Fazal, the court historian and one of the nine jewels of Akbar’s court.


Tracing the First Ganesha

Deep in a cave on a hill, in Udayagiri in Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, archaeologists found a 5th century CE, Gupta era sculpture which they believe could be the oldest dateable representation of the elephant god, Ganesha.

Udayagiri caves are a complex of almost twenty Hindu and Jain caves dating back to the Gupta period. This complex of caves contains a spectacular array of images including those of Vishnu in the Varaha or boar avatar lifting Bhudevi, the earth goddess. But of greatest interest to historians is Cave no. 6, where you can see the image of a portly Ganesha with the matrikas or mother goddesses next to him. This very famous Udayagiri Ganesha is considered the oldest representation of the elephant god in the country!

But like always, views on this differ. Take a seven hour drive to village of Bhumara in Satna district, also in Madhya Pradesh and you will find another sculpture of Ganesha at the Bhumara Shiva temple. Given that both the sculptures are from the same late Gupta period, one really can’t be sure which came first.

This is not to say that older images of elephants have not been found. There are elephant seals dating back to Harappan times but there are no traces of them being worshipped.

Elephant as an icon is also found in coins of Indo-Greek kings such as Menander and Demetrios. A coin of Demetrios I (r. c.200-180 BCE) shows him wearing an elephant headdress to mark his Indian conquests. Elephants also appear in Buddhist sculptures at the Bharhut stupa in Madhya Pradesh dated to 100 BCE.

Historians like Dr M K Dhavalikar believe that actual worship of Ganesha began only in the later days of the Gupta period between 450 -500 CE – the time when the Udayagiri and Bhumara temples were made.

In more recent times, the man who took Ganesha to every home was freedom fighter, Lokmanya Tilak. He is credited with reviving the Ganesha Utsav in the 1890s. This helped transform a local, low key Maharashtrian celebration into the mega festival it has become today!

The Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur is a spectacular example of Chola architecture and was cherished by the dynasty’s greatest king. But did you know that the temple’s gopuram was used as a marker to map the Indian subcontinent? Catch the story of this architectural wonder in Tamil Nadu

Tucked away in a small lane in Bhubaneswar in Odisha lies an architectural gem. Mukteswar or the temple of salvation, is dedicated to Shiva, in the form of Mukta, the Lord of Salvation.


History comes alive. SANCHI AND UDAIGIRI

Was in Bhopal. Realized Sanchi Stupa was a must see. All those history lessons. the stupa, the garba griha, gopurams. Armed with our water and some fruits and snacks, we set out from our friends place in Habibganj. in a hired SUV. impressed with the roads. and how well this World Heritage is being maintained.

. yes. there it is. we approach the main Stupa.

. the front gopuram of the Sanchi stupa.

. the ornately carved gopurams.

. some of the figures carved so intricately show people with curly hair. a reference to the greek influence during those times of Chandragupta Maurya.

. another gopuram to the side.

. another smaller stupa beside.

. a monastery. which looked to have been a big central hall with rooms all around. and a reservoir

. shady and incredibly comfortable despite the temperature.

. what is it about temple ruins. that pulls at your heart. the beauty, the art or the mystery of what life must have been like so many years back.

standing tall. some majestic looking pillars. Grecian like.

. An Ashokan edict with fading inscriptions in Pali. local language. spreading Buddhism.

. some other Ashokan pillars which had been razed to the ground. now housed under theses shelters.

. some more ruins. of. mystery.

..the heaped rock carvings excavated by ASI. numbered and kept..

. a view from the top. the chap at the handicrafts cafe. which was selling artefacts with snacks and tea, pointed out at the Udaigiri caves. which he said could be approached by a new road. which was very good.

. nature and history co existing side by side.

. a modern addition. accomodation for Sri Lankan Buddhist monks.

. the "smooth as butter" road from Sanchi to Udaigiri caves, near Vidisha.

Udaigiri Caves

. we reach Udaigiri caves

Archaeological Society of India

Indian Archaeological Society

Udaigiri Caves

. the caves cut out of rocks with carved sculptures within.

. the Tawa cave. can you guess why. :)

. you can rest your grey cells. the answer is here.

. one of the earliest and largest carving of Vishnu sleeping on a snake, resting hid hand on the palm of his hand.

. BUT WHY DID ASI HAVE TO CAGE HIM. what an insult to art and sculpture. and beauty. they could have used laminated glass, thereby protecting a historical artpiece . without creating a visually displeasing purdah between the Sculpted and the Connoisseur of Beauty.

. and the second half. lols. apologies to the reclining Vishnu. we had to slip our mobiles inside the grills and take close ups. our hearts in our mouth. .if our mobile slipped and fell inside.

. some beautiful sculptures inside. but why the grills. is Archaeological Soceity of India listening. hat about using laminated glass framed with some grunge effect. where are our sculptors forums?

Sanchi

. ancient folklore. Varah. incarnation of Vishnu. rescuing Mother Earth when Demon Hrinakshya took her under water.

. the cosmological fight between good and evil. Varah rescuing Mother earth from Hrinakshya.

. the first historical depictions of godesses. Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswati. notice the wave like carvings depicting water.

. luncheon time. after a lot of history lessons. Gateway resort. nice clean place by MP tourism. good affordable food.

. nice ambience. nice artwork surround spaces.

Sanchi and Udaigiri caves are for those who prefer to see history come alive. They are for those who love breathing in the smell of an era long gone. They are for that crazy lot who find beauty in stone and the stories they tell. and. the mysteries they hide. and they are for those trigger happy shooters who will go to lengths to shoot air, water , fire or earth.

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In which state are the caves cut in Udayagiri stone? Download Ancient MCQ PDF

Qns. On the basis of archaeological and other available evidence, which one of the following is not considered responsible for the extinction of the Harappan culture?
(a) flood (b) earthquake
(c) Climate change (d) Aryan invasion
Ans: (*)

Qns. Who was the Hun who invaded India in the latter part of the Gupta period?
(a) A Yayawar tribe of Central Asia
(b) A group of Mongol tribes
(c) A Parsi tribe of religious tribes
(d) None of these
Ans: (a)

Qns. ‘Amri’, a site of the Harappan civilization, is located in which province?
(a) Sindh (b) Rajasthan
(c) Gujarat (d) Balochistan
Ans: (d)

Qns. Which of the following was not worshiped in the Harappan culture?
(a) a horned Taurus (b) tree
(c) Vishnu (d) Matradevi
Ans: (c)

Qns. Mahatma Buddha was born in which family?
(a) Shakya (b) Malla
(c) Kund (d) Yatrak
Ans: (a)

Qns. In Indian ancient literature, the word mlechha was used for which of the following?
(a) For slaves
(b) For foreigners
(c) For conquered nonresidents
(d) For the unprivileged others
Ans: (b)

Qns. Mahatma Buddha did not believe which of the following?
(a) Ahsa (b) the truth of God
(c) asthey (d) impermanence
Ans: (b)

Qns. In which of these times did Alexander encroach in northwest India in 326 BC?
(a) Ajat Shatru (b) Nanda
(c) Chandragupta Maurya (d) Shishunag
Ans: (b)

Qns. Under whose leadership was the foreign invasion of India in 326 BC?
(a) Darius I (b) Cyrus
(c) Selpukas (d) Alexander
Ans: (d)

Qns. Who among the following was the most famous ruler of the Kushan dynasty?
(a) Kanishka (b) Torman
(c) Kadphisus (d) Huvishka
Ans: (a)

Qns. In which period was the first trade union established?
(a) Mahajanapada period (b) Mauryan period
(c) Gupta period (d) Post-Gupta period
Ans: (a)

Qns. In which place did the capital of Pandya dynasty reside?
(a) Vatapi (b) Madurai
(c) Kochi (d) Warangal
Ans: (b)

Qns. Mahavira was born in which royal family?
(a) Shakya (b) Satavahana
(c) Lichchavi (d) Kshatriya
Ans: (d)

Qns. Most metals of Satavahanas are found in which metal?
(a) gold (b) silver
(c) copper (d) lead
Ans: (d)

Qns. Varahamihira’s ‘Vrihatsamhita’ text is based on –
(a) Governance (b) Ayurveda
(c) Economics (d) Astronomy
Ans: (d)

Qns. Who has built the famous Elephanta temples built by cutting rocks?
(a) Chalukyas (b) Cholas
(c) Pallavas (d) Rashtrakutas
Ans: (d)

Qns. Which language did the Rigvedic Aryans use?
(a) Sanskrit (b) Dravidian
(c) Pali (d) Prakrit
Ans: (a)

Qns. Archaeological material related to the era of Sangam literature was excavated from here.
(a) Madurai (b) Thanjavur
(c) Arikamedu (d) Brahmagiri
Ans: (c)

Qns. In the last Vedic gods, what was the order of the Devatas according to their importance?
a. Indra b. Vishnu
c. Creator d. Rudra
(a) cdba (b) cbda
(c) bcda (d) bacd
Ans: (a)


Discovering the city of lakes and beyond (Part 1)_ Sanchi and Udyagiri caves

A painting in 'NAMO BUDDHAYA', a vihara at Sa Bird's eye view of the main Toran Headless Buddha the main Toran One of the numerous pillars asans for meditation Meditating Buddha a beautifully made scupltour At sanchi Sir Marshal's cottage the courtyard Somewhere on the way to Udyagiri udaygiri caves sleeping buddha at udaygiri caves orange orcahrd kark rekha

In a quest to discover the heritage of ‘Hindustan Ka Dil’, we decided to explore ‘Sanchi Stupa’ (a world heritage site by UNESCO) located in the district of Sanchi (48 kms from Bhopal) which was followed by a impromptu visit to ‘Udaygiri Caves’ located in the neighbouring district of Vidisha (13 kms from Sanchi). We also discovered the cottage of Sir James Marshel, the great historian. We started from Bhopal at 12 noon on a Sunday morning and it took us slightly over an hour to reach Sanchi. Udyagiri from Sanchi takes a good 40 mins as the road is full of potholes. Drive to Sanchi is very pleasant as the road is laden with vast green fields and a view of the Satpura range. Good music and good company makes this a perfect road trip. December to February is a good time to visit these places as the weather stays very pleasant adding to the beauty and charm of these ancient wonders.

Sanchi

Frequented by many Indian and foreign tourists, Sanchi is a treat for those interested in cultural history. Sanchi is deemed as one of the most organized structures with the best architectural design dating back to the medieval period. For those not interested in medieval architecture, the calmness and serenity the place offers is a reason enough to pay a visit. Sanchi Stupa is surrounded by a railing with four carved gateways facing all the four directions. The sculptures show scenes integrated with the daily life of Buddha. A careful examination of these sculptures reveals a lot about the life during those times. Depending on one’s interest in history and art, one can spend a good 2-3 hrs at the site. Owing to its status as a world heritage site, the stupa sees an outpour of tourists over the weekend, therefore for those willing to explore the site in intricate detail, weekdays are preferable.


Indian Columbus

Restaurants: Varieties of options - only in the nearby Bhubaneswar
Opening Time: Sunrise to Sunset
Entry Fee: INR 5 for Indians and INR 100 for foreigners
Caution Note: Beware of monkeys hundreds of monkeys wander the site. Avoid the priests in Durga temple in Khandagiri caves if you do not want to hear false history and lose your money to them. Some caves are not easily accessible if you are a lady or a person who does not speak local language, it's better to get accompanied by some local.

Bhubaneswar aka Bhubaneshwar is the capital city of Odisha (called as Orissa earlier) state of India. It has numerous architecturally beautiful temples and is also referred as the 'City of Temples'. Along with Puri and Konark, this city is called as 'Swarna Tribuja' (Golden Triangle).

Around 7 kms from the historic city of Bhubaneswar, there are two historically significant sites called as Udayagiri and Khandagiri. Let us explore in detail about these sites.

Introduction:

On either side of the National Highway No. 5 in the outskirts of Bhubaneswar, the twin hills of Udayagiri and Khandagiri are located. These two hills represent one of the earliest Jain rock-cut architectural styles in the Eastern India. In the ancient times, Udayagiri was called as Kumari and Khandagiri was called as Kumara Parvata. These hills were discovered in 1825 CE by A. Stirling.

There are 18 caves in Udayagiri hill and 15 caves in Khandagiri hill. The caves are meant for the residence of Jain ascetics and hence they provide hardly any amenities. Most of the caves consist of a row of cells open either to the verandah or to the open space. Some of the caves are double storeyed. Although all the caves were meant to be shelters for the Jain monks, some of them were converted into shrines and few relief and bas relief images were added in the later period. The caves in Udayagiri are in much better shape than that of Khandagiri hill.

Udayagiri:

The Udayagiri hills fall on your right side when you enter into this area from Bhubaneswar. There are 18 caves in Udayagiri. Compared to Khandagiri, Udayagiri offers more beautiful and better maintained cave shrines.

1. Rani Gumpha

Rani Gumpha is the largest and most popular cave among the caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri. The word 'Rani' means Queen. Although it is not an architectural marvel, it has some ancient beautiful sculptures.

This cave is double storeyed. Each storey has three wings and the central wing is bigger among all the three wings. The lower floor has seven entrances in the middle wing whereas the upper floor has nine columns. The upper portion of the central wing has relief images depicting the victory march of a king. Many of the cells have carved dwara pala images some of them are disfigured. The area that connects the central wing with right and left wings have some panels where the sculptures of wild animals, fruit laden trees, human figures, women playing musical instruments, monkeys and playful elephants are found. The pilasters contain the toranas (arches) decorated with sculptures of Jain religious importance and royal scenes.

2. Bajaghara Gumpha

Bajaghara Gumpha is very simple and small. It has stone bed and pillow and it was obviously used as the Jain monks' shelter in the ancient times. Apart from the plain rectangular shaped pillars, there is no other sculpture found in this cave.

3. Chota Hathi Gumpha

Chota Hathi Gumpha is small in size. It has six small elephant figures in the facade. The word 'chota hathi' means 'small elephant'.

4. Alkapuri Gumpha

Alkapuri Gumpha has a relief sculpture of a lion holding its prey in its mouth. The pillars with the human figures (divine beings) with wings are found in this cave. It is double storeyed.

5. Jaya Vijaya Gumpha

Jaya Vijaya Gumpha is double storeyed. It has a relief image of Bodhi tree with umbrella on its top and flanked by people worshipping it.

6. Panasa Gumpha

Panasa Gumpha is very small and simple cave without any significant features.

7. Thakurani Gumpha

Thakurani Gumpha is double storeyd but is very simple in style. It has few tiny relief sculptures.

8. Patalapuri Gumpha

Patalapuri Gumpha is slightly bigger with a pillared verandah. However, there is no noteable feature in this cave.

9. Mancapuri and Swargapuri Gumpha

Mancapuri and Swargapuri Gumpha is double storeyed. It has a damaged Jain religious symbol which was probably used for worship.

There are three inscriptions found in this cave. One inscription talks about the chief queen of Kharavela. The other two inscriptions talk about Kudepasiri, the successor of Kharavela and Badukha, the son or brother of Kudepasiri.

10. Ganesha Gumpha

Ganesha Gumpha is one of the most important caves in Udayagiri. The cave got this name due to carved figure of Ganesha on the back of its right cell. Of course, it would have been carved in the later period and it cannot be the original work. The cave has two big statues of elephants carrying garlands at the entrance. Also, the carved figures of dwara palas are found at the entrances. The carvings in this cave narrate the story of the elopement of Bassavadatta, Princess of Ujjayini, with King Udayan of Kausambi in the company of Vasantaka.

Above this cave, the ruins of an apsidal structure is found. It is believed that the legendary Kalinga Jina was placed here once. Kalinga Jina was the idol of Rishabhanatha, which had been taken away from Kalinga by Mahapadma Nanda. After 300 years, Kharavela won the Sunga King Bahasatimita and brought it back.

16. Haridasa Gumpha

Haridasa Gumpha is a small cave with three entrances and a verandah in the front side. There is an inscription found here.

17. Jagannatha Gumpha

Jagannatha Gumpha is roughly cut cave with three entrances.

18. Rasui Gumpha

Rasui Gumpha is unusually very small cave.

Khandagiri:

The Khandagiri hills fall on your left side when you enter into this area from Bhubaneswar. There are 15 caves in Khandagiri.

1. Tatowa Gumpha


The parrots are carved above the entrance arch and hence it is called as Tatowa Gumpha. It has two dwarapala figures too.

2. Tatowa Gumpha


The cave sharing the same name with the first cave has a veranda with pilasters containing exquisite carvings.

3. Ananta Gumpha

The cave has sculptures of women, elephants, geese, etc.


It is a small rock cut chamber with just one column.

5. Khandagiri Gumpha


It is a roughly cut cell and has double storeys.


It is a roughly cut cell.

7. Navamuni Gumpha

Navamuni Gumpha is a roughly cut cell with the sculptures of nine Jain Tirthankaras and Sasana Devis.

8. Barabhuji Gumpha


Barabhuji Gumpha has two relief images of twelve armed Sasana Devis, hence it is called as Barabhuji (meaning twelve armed) Gumpha. There are few Tirthankara sculptures also found in this cave. The Sasana Devis are worshiped as Hindu deity Durga nowadays. Funnily, the priests in this shrine claim some Jain Tirthankara sculpture as Surya.

9. Trusula Gumpha


Trusula Gumpha appears to be reconverted in the medieval times. There are three sculptures of Rishabha Deva who is found in the standing posture and look beautiful. Apart from these sculptures there are sculptures of 24 Jain Tirthankaras which look rough.

10. Ambika Gumpha


Few relief images of Sasana Devis are found here.

11. Lalatendu Keshari Gumpha


The relief images of Mahavira, Parshvanath and few Jain Tirthankaras are found here.

Caves 12, 13 and 15 are unnamed. Cave 14 is very simple and called as Ekadasi Gumpha.

When you go to Puri or Bhubaneshwar, ensure that you travel to this 2000 years old heritage and historical site too.

Happy travelling.


Madhya Pradesh Famous Caves

उदयगिरि की गुफाएं विदिशा के निकट स्थित है यहां 20 गुफाएं हैं इनमें से पहली गुफा व बींसवी गुफा जैन धर्म से है जबकि पांच के नंबर में वराह की विशाल प्रतिमा है ! चौथी पांचवी शताब्दी की गुफाएं गुप्त काल की कलाकृति हैं !उदयगिरि विदिशा से वैसनगर होते हुए पहुँचा जा सकता है। नदी से यह गिरि लगभग 1 मील की दूरी पर है। पहाड़ी के पूरब की तरफ पत्थरों को काटकर गुफाएँ बनाई गई हैं। इन गुफाओं में प्रस्तर- मूर्तियों के प्रमाण मिलते हैं, जो भारतीय मूर्तिकला के इतिहास में मील का पत्थर माना जाता है। उत्खनन से प्राप्त ध्वंसावशेष अपनी अलग कहानी कहते हैं।

उदयगिरि में कुल 20 गुफाएँ हैं। इनमें से कुछ गुफाएँ 4वीं- 5वीं सदी से संबद्ध है। गुफाओं की प्रस्तर की कटाई कर छोटे- छोटे कमरों के रूप में बनाया गया है। साथ- ही- साथ मूर्तियाँ भी उत्कीर्ण कर दी गई हैं। वर्तमान में इन गुफाओं में से अधिकांश मूर्ति- विहीन गुफाएँ रह गई हैं। ऐसा यहाँ पाये जाने वाले स्थानीय पत्थर के कारण हुआ है। पत्थर के नरम होने के कारण खुदाई का काम आसान था, लेकिन साथ- ही- साथ यह मौसमी प्रभावों को झेलने के लिए उपयुक्त नहीं है।

Bagh Caves ( वाघ की गुफ़ाएं )

इसमें कुल 9 गुफ़ाएँ हैं, जिनमें से 1,7,8 और 9वीं गुफा नष्टप्राय है तथा गुफा संख्या 2 ‘पाण्डव गुफ़ा’ के नाम से प्रचलित है जबकि तीसरी गुफा ‘हाथीखाना’ और चौथी रंगमहल के नाम से जानी जाती है। इन गुफा का निर्माण सम्भवतः 5वी-6वीं शताब्दी ई. में हुआ होगा। लगभग 1600 वर्ष पूर्व बाघ की गुफ़ाएं भगवान बुद्ध की दिव्यवार्ता प्रतिपादित करने हेतु निर्मित एवं चित्रित की गयी थीं।

धार्मिक सौरभ, सौंदर्यानुभूति का स्पन्दन, सरिता की सुगम स्थिति और उसके लयपूर्ण प्रवाह से प्रभावित भिक्षुओं का जीवन अत्यन्त सहजता से एक आदर्श ढांचे में ढलता रहा तथा निष्ठावान उपासकों को अभूतपूर्व परिपक्वता प्राप्त होती रही। विहारों को नैतिक उन्नति एवं निर्देशन के उद्देश्य की पूर्ति करने वाले भित्ति-चित्र पर्याप्त समय से सुसज्जित करते रहे हैं। विहारों में चित्र अलंकरण का वर्णन मूल सरवास्तिवादिन सम्प्रदाय के विनय में पाया जाता है। बौद्ध साहित्य से ज्ञात होता है कि चित्रकला का पूर्ण प्रचार बुद्ध जीवनकाल में ही हो चुका था। भित्तिचित्रों में फूल, पक्षी व पशुओं का चित्रण महत्त्वपूर्ण है।

कमल पुष्प मूर्ति तथा चित्रकला दोनों में ही लोकप्रिय है, जो पवित्रता के अतिरिक्त यह शुद्धता व सद्गुंण का प्रतीक है। बाघ की गुफ़ाओं में बुद्ध, बोघिसत्व चित्रों के अतिरिक्त राजदरबार, संगीत दृश्य, पुष्पमाला दृश्य आदि का चित्रण महत्त्वपूर्ण है।

बाघ की कला में अजन्ता के समान केवल धार्मिक विषय ही नहीं हैं, यहाँ पर मानवोचित भावों के चित्रण में वेगपूर्ण प्रवाह भी है। यहाँ के प्राकृतिक सौंदर्य ने चित्रकला में जो योगदान दिया है, यहाँ पर चित्रित विराट दृश्य उसके प्रत्यक्ष प्रमाण है। नदी, पहाड़, जंगल आदि के असीमित भू-दृश्य बड़े मनोहर हैं।

विंध्य पर्वत का यह अंश मालवा क्षेत्र में धार ज़िले की कुक्षी तहसील के अंतर्गत है। नर्मदा की एक छोटी सी करद नदी जिसका नाम बाघनी या बाघ है उसी के कारण यहाँ की गुफ़ाओं का नाम और पास के गाँव का नाम बाघ पड़ा है। यहाँ कुल 9 गुफ़ाएं हैं। ये 9 गुफ़ाएं आपस में मिली हुई नहीं है। इनमें चौथी एवं पाँचवी गुफ़ाओं से मिला 65 मीटर लम्बा बरामदा (कॉरीडोर) है। जिसकी छत 20 भारी खम्बों पर छत आवृत थी।

Pandav caves ( पांडव गुफ़ाए )

पांडव गुफ़ाएँ मध्य प्रदेश के प्रसिद्ध पर्यटन स्थल पंचमढ़ी (होशंगाबाद )में स्थित हैं। इन गुफ़ाओं का सम्बंध महाभारत के पात्र पांडवों से बताया जाता है। एक छोटी पहाड़ी पर यह पांच प्राचीन गुफ़ाएँ बनी हैं। इन्हीं पांच गुफ़ाओं के कारण इस स्थान को ‘पंचमढ़ी’ कहा जाता है। कहा जाता है कि पांडव अपने वनवास के दौरान इन्हीं गुफ़ाओं में आकर ठहरे थे। सबसे साफ-सुथरी और हवादार गुफ़ा को ‘द्रोपदी कुटी’ कहा जाता है, जबकि सबसे अंधेरी गुफ़ा ‘भीम कोठरी’ के नाम से लोकप्रिय है। पुरातत्वेत्ताओं का मानना है कि इन गुफ़ाओं को 9वीं और 10वीं शताब्दी में गुप्त काल के दौरान बौद्धों द्वारा बनवाया गया था।

Bhimbethaka caves ( भीमबेठका की गुफाएं )

भीमबेटका गुफ़ाएँ मध्य प्रदेश के (अब्दुल्लागंज) रायसेन ज़िले में स्थित है। ये गुफ़ाएँ भोपाल से 46 किलोमीटर की दूरी पर दक्षिण में मौजूद है। गुफ़ाएँ चारों तरफ़ से विंध्य पर्वतमालाओं से घिरी हुईं हैं, जिनका संबंध ‘नव पाषाण काल’ से है।

भीमबेटका गुफ़ाएँ मध्य भारत के पठार के दक्षिणी किनारे पर स्थित विंध्याचल की पहाड़ियों के निचले छोर पर हैं। इसके दक्षिण में सतपुड़ा की पहाड़ियाँ आरम्भ हो जाती हैं। भीम से संबन्धित भीमबेटका को भीम का निवास भी कहते हैं। हिन्दू धर्म ग्रंथ महाभारत के अनुसार पांच पाण्डव राजकुमारों में से भीम द्वितीय थे। ऐसा माना जाता है कि भीमबेटका गुफ़ाओं का स्थान महाभारत के चरित्र भीम से संबन्धित है और इसी से इसका नाम ‘भीमबैठका’ भी पड़ा गया।

ये गुफ़ाएँ मध्य भारत के पठार के दक्षिणी किनारे पर स्थित विन्ध्याचल की पहाड़ियों के निचले छोर पर हैं। इसके दक्षिण में सतपुड़ा की पहाड़ियाँ आरम्भ हो जाती हैं। इनकी खोज वर्ष 1957-1958 में ‘डॉक्टर विष्णु श्रीधर वाकणकर’ द्वारा की गई थी। हिरण का लाल और गेरू रंग का चित्र, आदि बने हुए हैं “भीमबेटका विश्व का सबसे बड़ा गुफा समूह में यूनेस्को ने इसे विश्व धरोहर में शामिल किया है !

Shankaracharya’s cave ( शंकराचार्य की गुफाए )

शंकराचार्य की गुफाए ओम्कारेश्वर मध्यप्रदेश में स्थित है और भगवान शिव के 12 ज्योतिर्लिंगों में से एक है। यह एक द्वीप है जहा नर्मदा नदी दो भागो में विभाजित होकर फिर से ओम्कारेश्वर पर्वत से होकर मिलती है। इस द्वीप को मंधाता या शिवपुरी भी कहते है। नर्मदा के दूसरे भाग को हम कावेरी के नाम से जानते है।

इस स्थान के इतिहास का एक वर्णन ऐसा भी है कि , यहाँ श्री गोविन्द पदाचार्य जो श्री आदि शंकर के गुरु थे , नदी के पास एक गुफा में रहते थे। जब श्री शंकर ने योग धारण किया तब वें गुरु की खोज में केरल से चलते हुए यहाँ पोहोचे। यह गुफा अब भी वह मौजूद है और ज्यादा बदलाव नहीं आया है। यहाँ आने पर 2000 वर्ष पीछे लौट जाने का आभास होता है। इस गुफा से नर्मदा तक जाने के गुप्त रास्ते थे जिन्हे अब बंद कर दिया गया है। जब आदि शंकराचार्य दूसरी बार अपने गुरु से मिले तब नर्मदा में बाढ़ आई हुई थी और गुरु ध्यान मग्न थे। श्री शंकर ने नर्मदा से शांत होने की प्रार्थना की और बाढ़ रुक गया। इस घटना को गुफा में बानी कलाकृतियों में दर्शाया गया है।

Mrigendranath cave ( मृगेंद्रनाथ गुफा )

मध्य प्रदेश के रायसेन जिले की बरेली तहसील के पाटनी गांव के करीब स्थित है मृगेन्द्र नाथ की गुफा। इस गुफा तक पहुंचना आसान नहीं है। टेढ़े मेढ़े रास्तों और चट्टानों को पार करते हुए इस गुफा तक पहुंचना होता है। गुफा की शुरुआत में बजरंग बली की प्रतिमा है और पत्थर पर शिव चरण उकेरे गए हैं। लगभग 100 मीटर का रास्ता तय करने के बाद अनेक ऐसी चट्टानें मिलती है जिनपर जानवरों की अनेक आकृतियां उकेरी गई है।

गुफा के प्रवेश द्वार पर खड़े होते ही ठंडी हवाओं के झौंके मदमस्त कर देते हैं। यह गुफा इतनी संकरी है कि एक बार में एक व्यक्ति ही जा सकता है। उसे भी गुफा में सहजता से नहीं बल्कि चट्टानों से चिपक कर ऐसे चलना पड़ता है जैसे छिपकली रास्ता तय कर रही हो। गुफा के अंदर प्राकृतिक पत्थर के विभिन्न स्वरूप देखने को मिलते हैं। गुफा आगे चलकर काफी चौड़ी हो जाती है और उसके चारों ओर भूल भुलैया जैसे कई छोटे रास्ते नजर आने लगते है।

Cave of Mara ( मारा की गुफाएं )

मध्य प्रदेश में सिंगरौली में सबसे महत्वपूर्ण पर्यटन स्थलों में से एक माडा( मारा) गुफाओं हैं। मारा, बैढन तहसील से 32 किलोमीटर की दूरी पर है, इन गुफाओं में 7 वीं-8 वीं सदी की तारीख मिलती है। यह पहाड़ियों, पहाड़ों, नदियों और घाटियों से घिरा हुआ है। इन पहाड़ों और पहाड़ियों राज्य में सबसे विश्वासघाती के कुछ विचार किया गया है। यह इन पहाड़ियों और घाटियों में स्थित है, माडा गुफाएं के बीच में है। इन गुफाओं चट्टानों को काटकर आर्किटेक्चर की न केवल सुंदर उदाहरण है, लेकिन शास्त्र की दृष्टि से भी महत्वपूर्ण हैं। इन गुफाओं जो विवाह माडा, गणेश माडा, जलजालिया माडा आदि जैसे विभिन्न नामों से जाना जाता है जो गुफाओं की एक श्रृंखला से मिलकर बनी है !

Bhattari cave ( भृर्तहरि गुफाए )

भृर्तहरि गुफाए मध्य प्रदेश के उज्जैन जिले के समीप स्थित है इन्हें परमार वंश के राजाओं ने ग्यारहवीं सदी में बनवाया था गुफाओं में सभी चित्र रंगीन है !

इसके संबंध में यह माना जाता है कि यहां भरथरी ने तपस्या की थी। यह गुफा शहर से बाहर एक सुनसान इलाके में है। गुफा के पास ही शिप्रा नदी बह रही है। गुफा के अंदर जाने का रास्ता काफी छोटा है। जब हम इस गुफा के अंदर जाते हैं तो सांस लेने में भी कठिनाई महसूस होती है। गुफा की ऊंचाई भी काफी कम है, अत: अंदर जाते समय काफी सावधानी रखनी होती है। यहाँ पर एक गुफा और है जो कि पहली गुफा से छोटी है। यह गोपीचन्द कि गुफा है जो कि भरथरी का भतीजा था।

यहां प्रकाश भी काफी कम है, अंदर रोशनी के लिए बल्ब लगे हुए हैं। इसके बावजूद गुफा में अंधेरा दिखाई देता है। यदि किसी व्यक्ति को डर लगता है तो उसे गुफा के अंदर अकेले जाने में भी डर लगेगा। यहां की छत बड़े-बड़े पत्थरों के सहारे टिकी हुई है। गुफा के अंत में राजा भर्तृहरि की प्रतिमा है और उस प्रतिमा के पास ही एक और गुफा का रास्ता है। इस दूसरी गुफा के विषय में ऐसा माना जाता है कि यहां से चारों धामों का रास्ता है। गुफा में भर्तृहरि की प्रतिमा के सामने एक धुनी भी है, जिसकी राख हमेशा गर्म ही रहती है।

Caves of Adamagarh ( आदमगढ़ की गुफाएं )

आदमगढ़ गुफाएं मध्य प्रदेश राज्य के होशंगाबाद नगर से 2 कि.मी. दूर नर्मदा नदी के पास स्थित है। आदम गढ़ पहाड़ी की गुफ़ाओं में की गई चित्रकारी में पाषाण युगीन सभ्यता के अवशेष आसानी से देखे जा सकते हैं। भारतीय पुरातत्व सर्वेक्षण (एएसआई) के नियंत्रण के तहत प्राचीन स्थानों में से एक आदम गढ़, विश्व प्रसिद्ध भीमबेटका गुफ़ाओं से क़रीब 40 कि.मी. दूर है। आदम गढ़ में 20 चट्टानी आश्रय चित्रकारी से सजे हैं जो लगभग 4 कि.मी. के क्षेत्र में फैले हुए हैं। आदम गढ़ की पहाड़ियों में बने चित्रित चट्टानी आश्रय पाषाण काल तथा मध्यपाषाण काल के हैं।इस कला स्थल का खुदाई सामग्री से पता लगाया गया है।


Khandagiri Caves

The Khandagiri caves are not as numerous as those on Udayagiri, and some are being used as active temples with new structures built in front of them.

View of Khandagiri hill from Udayagiri, with the Pidha Deuls of the 19th c Jain hilltop temple. The new construction in front of some of the caves can be seen to the left of the visible rock outcrop, as well as another Pidha Deul structure

Cave 7, with sculptures of Tirthankars on the wall

Caves 8 and 9 are active temples

Pidha Deul above Caves 8 and 9

Cave 10, which has been almost completely destroyed by cannibalization for its stone (in earlier times)


Watch the video: उदयगर: गफओ क भतर फल धरम और इतहस. Udaigiri, Madhya Pradesh (May 2022).