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What rank did cadet branches hold in the peerage?

What rank did cadet branches hold in the peerage?

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I've looked at the answers for the question "How did cadet branches start?", and based off the information in that forum, I would like to know what rank equivalent to peerage the cadet branch could hold. Could they be given the ranks, powers, and titles equivalent to that of a duke or earl, or did cadets have something separate?

In England, as I understand it, a cadet branch of a house is simply descendants of sons after the first. They can be, and sometimes were, given peerages themselves. Let's take a look at one notable cadet branch.

If we start with Edward III Plantagenet, the King of England from 25th January 1327 until his death in 1377 there is a very good example of a Cadet Branch. Edward III had as a first born son, Edward, the Black Prince. He would have been King of England, had he not died a year before his father. Upon Edward III's death, his grandson, Richard II became King. Let's leave that line for now.

Edward III had lots of children. His third surviving son, John of Gaunt (so named because he was born in Ghent, Flanders, but that's another story) married Blanche of Lancaster, creating the (2nd) House of Lancaster (a Cadet Branch of the Plantagenet line). Their son Henry usurped the throne on one side of the War of the Roses. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster ended up providing Henry IV, Henry V and Henry VI, Kings of England.

In answer of your question, Edward the III's third surviving son was John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, with the title, lands and moneys they had. That is just one example of a Cadet Branch.

Peerage was not a guaranteed right to those later sons, however, but something that had to be gained by marriage, or granted. John gained his peerage by marriage to the heiress of the House of Lancaster. Without the marriage, he was just John of Gaunt, a son of the King.

Prince Philip: Which Military Ranks Did He Hold During His Life?

The Duke of Edinburgh ended his active naval career nearly 70 years ago, but always kept a strong relationship with the military.

Prince Philip held a number of military titles during his lifetime, as well as his own active naval career, which included being mentioned in dispatches during the Second World War.

He served in the war, first as a midshipman, and worked on board a number of Royal Navy vessels.

In mid-1941, following the Battles of Cape Matapan and Crete, the future Duke of Edinburgh headed to Portsmouth to take a sub-lieutenant exam.

The five-part test consisted of sections in gunnery, torpedoes, navigation, signals and seamanship, with marks ranging from one to three (highest to lowest) in each.

Philip scored highly, achieving a 'four-one', with just one of his subjects being graded as a two.

How Prince Philip Earned The Respect Of The British Military

He was subsequently promoted to Sub-Lieutenant and posted to HMS Wallace off the east coast of the UK, before becoming a Lieutenant a few months later, one of the youngest First Lieutenants in the Navy in 1942, taking the post at the age of just 21 while still on board Wallace.

In July 1950, Philip was promoted to Lieutenant Commander and given his first command, HMS Magpie, that September.

Philip would end his active naval career in July 1951, less than a year before Queen Elizabeth II took the throne.

The Duke of Edinburgh, however, was promoted to the rank of commander in the Royal Navy in June 1952.

In 1953, he was given honorary five-star appointments in all three services, being made an Admiral of the Fleet, British Army Field Marshal and Royal Air Force Marshal.

In 2011, he was made Lord High Admiral, the office of titular head of the Navy, succeeding the Queen in the role.

Honorary military ranks and titles held by the Duke of Edinburgh during his lifetime:


Field Marshal of the British Army

Colonel-in-Chief, Army Cadet Force

Colonel-in-Chief, Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers

Colonel-in-Chief, Intelligence Corps

Colonel-in-Chief, Queen's Royal Hussars

Colonel-in-Chief, The Rifles

Prince Philip Hands Over Rifles Colonel-In-Chief Role To Camilla

Royal Colonel, The Highlanders, 4th Battalion, The Royal Regiment of Scotland

Colonel-in-Chief, Queen's Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons)

Honorary Colonel, University of Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt Officer Training Corps

Honorary Colonel, Leicestershire and Derbyshire Yeomanry

Member, Honourable Artillery Company

Colonel-in-Chief, Queen's Royal Irish Hussars

Colonel-in-Chief, Duke of Edinburgh's Royal Regiment (Berkshire and Wiltshire)


An Officer's School of the Philippine Constabulary was established on February 17, 1905 within the walls of Intramuros in Manila. [15] This school was relocated to Baguio on September 1, 1908, at Camp Henry Allen where it would stay for many years to come.

On a Monday, October 23, 1916, immediately after assuming his position as senator representing Mindanao and Sulu, Senator Hadji Butu Abdul Baqui sponsored his first bill, Senate Bill No. 9 creating a law establishing a military academy and requiring military education in colleges and universities. On the same day, he also sponsored Senate Bill No. 10 creating a law to establish a naval academy. (From Senate Diaries of the 4th Philippine Legislature, Volume 1, page 32, October 1916, original copy (in Spanish) at Adams Building, U.S. Library of Congress, from research work of Dr. Abraham T. Rasul Jr., Washington DC). On February 9, 1917, US President Woodrow Wilson, in an article written in the Buffalo Enquirer mentioned "military or naval training will be a good thing for the young men of the country" and congratulated Senator Hadji Butu "for being the first among those in the upper house to introduce the measures for their establishment".

After the Philippine Legislature passed Act No. 3496 on September 8, 1926, the school was renamed the Philippine Constabulary Academy and courses were lengthened from nine months to three years. Just as the PC started with American and Filipino officers, the school had American and Filipino officer cadets in its student body.

When the National Defense Act was approved on December 21, 1935, the Philippine Constabulary Academy was renamed Philippine Military Academy and was permitted to grant its graduates Bachelor of Science degrees after completion of their four-year curriculum. [16] PMA was modeled after the United States Military Academy with officers from the Philippine Scouts and regular United States Army as instructors and members of the general staff. [17] [18] PMA Class of 1940, with 79 graduates, was the pioneer batch to complete four years of training. Quirico Evangelista and Reynaldo Mendoza of Class '40 composed the PMA alma mater song, "PMA, Oh Hail to Thee."

With the outbreak of the Second World War, training was disrupted at the PMA with Classes 1942 and 1943 being graduated prematurely and assigned to combat units in Bataan and other parts of the country. Many of these young officers perished in the war.

After the war, the Academy was reopened on May 5, 1947, at Camp Henry T. Allen in Baguio. But due to its increasing need for larger grounds, it was soon moved to its present location at Fort General Gregorio H. del Pilar, Loakan, some ten kilometers from downtown Baguio. [ citation needed ] The main building, Melchor Hall, was completed in 1949 under the supervision of military engineer Lt. Pacifico C. Cabrera, a decorated WWII hero, who later as a full colonel, became Chief of Engineers of the AFP. During the 1960s, as a need for more well-rounded individuals was found to be desirable, and socio-humanistic courses were added to the school's curriculum.

1993 proved a momentous year for the PMA as its first female cadets were admitted and specialization based on branch-of-service was introduced into the curriculum. The first female cadets graduated from the Academy in 1997.

In 1998, a proclamation by the President of the Philippines, while acknowledging the academy's traditional roots lay with the 1905 founding of the Philippine Constabulary school, changed the official celebration day of the academy to October 25, in honour of the Academia Militar which was established on October 25, 1898 in Malolos, Bulacan. [15] Other sources have since acknowledged this change. [19] [20] The Academia Militar was opened during the establishment of the insurgent First Philippine Republic. It was closed on January 20, 1899, before the Philippine–American War and thus was the first ever all-Filipino military academy to be established. [21]

Academic Program Edit

Headed by the Dean of Academics, the Academic Program has both military and civilian male and female instructors. It has the following seven departments:

  • Department of Managerial Sciences
  • Department of Mathematics
  • Department of Humanities
  • Department of Physical Sciences
  • Department of Engineering Sciences
  • Department of Social Sciences
  • Department of Information and Computing Sciences [22]

On June 1, 2019, the PMA upgraded its academic curriculum every cadet now focuses on national security management in response to growing national security threat. Upon completing and graduating from 4-year program, cadets will earn the degree of BS National Security Management and will be commissioned as 2nd Lieutenant or Ensign in the tri-services of the AFP. [23]

Military Program Edit

This program is headed by the Commandant of Cadets and is responsible for the professional military training, character development, leadership, and physical training of the cadets. The mission of the Tactics Group is likewise carried out by the tactical officers who are responsible for the different companies of the Cadet Corps. This group is made up of the following departments:

  • Department of Leadership Development
  • Department of Physical Education
  • Department of Ground Warfare
  • Department of Air Warfare'
  • Department of Naval Warfare

Four classes Edit

Unlike other colleges and universities, cadets are not referred to as freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors. They are classified as fourth class, third class, second class, and first class cadets.

  • Fourthclass Cadets are the first year students. In the Academy, they are traditionally called "plebes" and are the equivalent of the college freshmen in civilian universities. The first day of plebehood starts with the Reception Ceremonies on June 1 of each year. Then, they undergo an eight-week summer training or "beast barracks" during which time they are indoctrinated with the military and cadet systems of training. During this period, the plebes form the New Cadet Battalion and their training is handled by the tactical officers and upper-class cadets forming the "Plebe Detail." After the beast barracks, the plebes are formally accepted into the ranks of the Cadet Corps in another ceremony called Incorporation which is held during the last week of May.
  • Thirdclass Cadets are sophomores in civilian universities, and called the "yearlings" in the Academy, starts upon completion of fourthclass year. During this period, the yearling adjusts to life as an upperclass cadet. Although they are the least ranking of the upperclass cadets, they are now entitled to the privileges of being upperclass cadets. One of their responsibilities is being a "buddy" to a plebe. As buddies, they set the examples of how a cadet should behave and they are responsible for ensuring that the plebes conform with the standards of cadetship.
  • Secondclass Cadets are also called the "cows". The secondclass year marks the point at which the cadet starts to specialize according to the branch of service he or she has elected to join. Thus, the secondclass cadets no longer take the same subjects as each of his or her classmates but they now take different subjects depending on their branches of service and fields of specialization. Within the cadet chain of command, the secondclass cadets now act as squad leaders. Moreover, in the absence of the firstclass cadets, they take over the responsibility of running the Cadet Corps.
  • Firstclass Cadets, also known as "immaculates", are the ruling class and as such they occupy the major positions of responsibility in the cadet chain of command. They are designated the chairmen and cadet-in-charge of the various committees, clubs and corps squads. They also enjoy certain privileges peculiar only to the "immaculates". Their academics are also more specialized as they now embark on the final year of their training for future officership in the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

Organization Edit

The Cadet Corps is organized into a brigade. The highest ranking cadet, the Brigade Commander, is traditionally known as the First Captain or "Baron". [25] The brigade is organized into four battalions. Within each battalion there are two companies. Companies are lettered A through H (Alfa to Hawk). First class cadets hold key leadership positions within the brigade from the First Captain down to platoon leaders within the companies. First class cadets hold the rank of cadet captain and cadet lieutenant. Second class cadets hold the rank of cadet sergeant and serve as squadleaders, third class cadets hold the rank of cadet corporal, and fourth class cadets as cadet private. [26]

Honor Code and System Edit

The Philippine Military Academy is governed by an honor code, and it binds the cadets to the following principle — “We, the cadets, do not lie, cheat, steal, nor tolerate among us those who do.”. Cheating, lying, and stealing are major honor code violations. Cadets who will be charged for violating the honor code are subjected to series of trials conducted by Cadets from Honor Committee. When a cadet is found guilty for violating the honor code, he/she will be banned from cadetship. One of the most sensationalized cases was during 2014 the lying case of ex-cadet Aldrin Jeff Cudia. [27]

Hazing videos Edit

On October 23, 2019, two videos, dated 2017 and 2018, of torture by the cadets were uploaded on social media. The 2018 video shows a cadet being punched and kicked by a fellow cadet. Another cadet wearing earphones is seen in the background of the video. In the video, two cadets were doing squats when one of them collapses, he is kicked as punishment by an upperclassman. The attack stops when someone opens the door to inspect the room. The 2017 video shows four upperclassmen with two plebes. An upperclassman is seen using his helmet to repeatedly hit one of the plebe's hands and the other's back. While the upperclassman attacks the plebes, the other cadets in the background were seen watching and laughing, actively bystanding and allowing the torture to continue. [28] [29] [30]

Of the six upper-class cadets seen attacking the plebes in the video, five were transferred to the PMA holding center while the academy investigated the incident on the other hand, the sixth cadet was discharged from the academy due to an "Honor Code" violation. [28] [29]

Forms of Address

During the colonial period (1500-1821), eighty families received noble titles from the Portuguese monarch because of their influence, wealth, power or service to the Portuguese Crown. Those families came from the most diverse origins. Some are considered "highborn", such as the Miranors, descendants from Manowan royalty the Nagatanis, descendants from Japanese daimiyos and the Paleologus descendents from a Byzantine Emperor's bastard and the Medicis, descendants from Italian nobility. Others are descendants from commoners, such as the Gevaudans, descendants from a French merchant the Bocayuvas, descendants from a bandeirante and the Angelous, descendants from a Greek merchant.

All house names are preceded by the particle "de" (Portuguese: of) when refering to the house as a whole (e.g. Casa de Bocayuva, or House of Bocayuva). As such, their members' have their house name as their surname, preceded accordingly by the particle "de" (e.g. Queen Alice of Brazil, previously Maria Alice de Veracruz), which is translated according to the language of the speaker to particles such as "of" in English, and "von", in German (e.g. Maria Alice of Veracruz, or Maria Alice von Veracruz).

The houses' can be named after their founder's region of origin (e.g. House of Gevaudan, from the French village House of Alcácer, after the Portuguese town) after their founder given name (e.g. House of Miranor, after Miranor, last heir to the Manowan throne) after their family or ancestral house name (e.g. House of Vladescu) after their domain (e.g. House of Veracruz, after the County of Veracruz) after an epithet or title of indigenous or European origin (e.g. House of Suassuna, from the epithet The Suassuna, Tupi: black stag, a title given to bandeirante Martinho Souza) or even a corruption of a previous name (e.g. House of Draculesi, from Draculesti House of Angelou, from Angelos).

The Brazilian noble houses are:

  1. House of Medici (Medici-Brasile)*
  2. House of Miranor
  3. House of Verona
  4. House of Gevaudan
  5. House of Avilez
  6. House of Matamouros
  7. House of Corvinus
  8. House of Paleologus
  9. House of Alcácer
  10. House of Argent
  11. House of Lagos
  12. House of Sardonna
  13. House of Kaballarios
  14. House of Baudelaire
  15. House of Montês
  16. House of Pallavicini
  17. House of Suassuna
  18. House of Beauclair
  19. House of Bocayuva
  20. House of Cavendish
  21. House of Martel
  22. House of Cortázar
  23. House of Villareal
  24. House of Angelou
  25. House of Melgaço
  26. House of Sulzbach
  27. House of Castelbranco
  28. House of Rey
  29. House of Saltão
  30. House of Maccaro
  31. House of Arnesson
  32. House of Proença
  33. House of Pettendorf
  34. House of Vladescu
  35. House of Rothstein
  36. House of Matarazzo
  37. House of Petrova
  38. House of Castranova
  39. House of Skarsgard
  40. House of Okazaki
  41. House of Nagatani
  42. House of Votorantim
  43. House of Karlsten
  44. House of Fey
  45. House of Montalverne
  46. House of Quintanilha
  47. House of Mortágua
  48. House of Travassos
  49. House of Lucci
  50. House of Sangnoble
  51. House of Elvas
  52. House of Mafra
  53. House of Barbarossa
  54. House of Dunord
  55. House of Mezzanotte
  56. House of Vinciguerra
  57. House of Raynott
  58. House of Gastrell
  59. House of Fortier
  60. House of Valpaços
  61. House of Alvernaz
  62. House of Frausto
  63. House of Gularte
  64. House of Mangual
  65. House of Montalvo
  66. House of Monterroso
  67. House of Reinhalter
  68. House of Rohan (Rohan-Montepiano)*
  69. House of Loures
  70. House of Monteverde
  71. House of Veracruz
  72. House of Somerset
  73. Hous of Beaufort
  74. House of Aventino
  75. House of Cadaval
  76. House of Morgenstern
  77. House of Krum
  78. House of Orlov
  79. House of Amarante
  80. House of Ransonov

* Cadet branch of European house.

Excursion jacket

Like the excursion jackets of 2150s and 2250s, Starfleet issued a version in the 2270s that sported a large ribbed collar and several external pockets. The rank insignia was worn above the right cuff, and a patch of Earth's solar system and departmental color stripe was attached to the left shoulder. This jacket was worn in combination with an excursion vest over the turtleneck undershirt during away missions, and was issued by Starfleet. ( Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan Star Trek III: The Search for Spock Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country )

  • Worn in 2285, during mission to Research stationRegula I
  • Worn in 2285, during mission to Genesis Planet
  • Captain James T. Kirk had one in his closet aboard the USS Enterprise-A in 2293

French Nobility Titles Explained

How do you imagine French nobility? Before the French Revolution, the French noble class ruled the roost across France. A visit to the opulent Versailles or the Louvre is enough to make anyone wonder about the lifestyle of the French upper crust. But all those titles are enough to make even a historian’s head spin.

And don’t make the mistake of thinking French nobility and noble titles died out with the revoultion. In fact, quite the opposite. While many nobles and former rulers were brought to the guillotine during the Reign of Terror, it certainly wasn’t over as most people believe.

Today there are around 4,000 noble families still in France. And more than 50,000 individuals claiming noble heritage. That’s a lot of French nobility to keep track of. Here’s a quick guide explaining all about the various French nobility titles.

French Nobility: The Three Estate System

Royal Family portrait – Image sourced from Wikimedia Commons

The French nobility emerged during the Middle Ages and stayed in power until the French Revolution which started in 1789. During this time, there was a very strictly defined hierarchy that separated society into three main classes, or Estates.

French Nobility: The First Estate

In pre revolutionary France, the First Estate was the most powerful and ruled the nation. This was comprised of the Monarchy (royal family) and the Catholic church clergy.

Most members of this class were born into it, and stayed there for the rest of their lives. Being a member of the First Estate meant living a life of luxury. Marie Antoinette, Louis XIV, red velvet tapestries and gold accents this is the lifestyle that comes to mind when most people hear ‘French nobility’.

French Nobility: The Second Estate

The Second Estate was made up of the nobility which accounted for just over 1.5% of the total population. This Second Estate also included the more distant members of the royal family, or those who had joined via marriage since clergy were unable to marry. At this time, noble families still held a significant amount of power and clout, and upward mobility was of paramount importance.

You could say that members of the Second Estate won the proverbial lottery at the time. They didn’t have the duties associated with the ruling class, but were exempt from hard labor and taxes. These benefits made the majority of the Second Estate very loyal to the Monarchy, and they certainly weren’t gunning for a reform.

French Nobility: The Third Estate

Finally, the commoners and bourgeoisie people were sanctioned to the Third Estate. The majority of the French population remained in this third category, and had little to no power. And it goes without saying that they did not enjoy the same privileges as the nobility.

Forced labor, heavy taxation and food shortages were all regular occurrences for these people. And upward mobility was difficult to impossible for members of the Third Estate. This was one of the important factors leading up to the French Revolution.

How hard was it get a French Nobility Title?

During the Middle Ages, obtaining a noble title was no easy task. Unless you were born into nobility, it was a slim chance. And most members of the First and Second Estates stayed in the upper crust, as intermarriage among the two was common. People in the Third Estate rarely advanced to the first or second, but it was potentially possible.

Most members of the French nobility were born into it. Nothing you can do about it, but most of those born into the First and Second Estates were considered noble by blood. However nobility could usually only be passed on from the father’s side.

How did one become a member of French Nobility?

Louis XIV on WIkimedia Commons

Basically, if you weren’t born noble, there were three ways to become a member of French nobility. And none easier than the last. It was mostly the luck of the draw, were you born into the right family? Did you pursue a religious life and serve in the church? If not, it was next to impossible to become noble.

The first way to become noble was to marry someone noble. For those First and Second Estates, this was pretty common. In fact many aristocratic families used marriage as a strategy to rise through the ranks and gain more clout. Occasionally, a commoner could marry up to the Second Estate, but this was very rare.

If you were looking to nab a noble title during the Middle Ages, there was another option. You could dedicate your life to church work, and hope to rise through the ranks of the clergy to the Second Estate. Some commoners also entered high office for the King, which granted them noble status.

Finally, displaying exceptional military bravery and prowess could land you an envied noble title. Usually one at the lowest levels of nobility, such as a Knight or Lord. This happened rarely though, and was awarded on a case by case basis.

French Nobility Titles Ranked

Within the French society’s upper crust, there was still a distinct hierarchy present. Even among nobles. Those equal in rank were called peers, and of course, the Monarchy and Emperor were always at the top. The rest can be a little confusing, so I’ve included a chart to illustrate the various rankings.

French Nobility Rankings – Image sourced from Wikimedia Commons

The King and Queen were always at the highest rank among nobility, but often didn’t govern actively. So the duty of governing France was taken on by the Regent. The Regent then appointed middle levels of nobility for the castle including Prince, Duke, Marquis, Count, Viscounts and Barons. The level of power descended from Prince at the highest level to Baron at the lowest. Generally, there was only one pair of each level per castle (Duke and Duchess, Baron and Baroness, etc.).

Lords, Ladies and Knights made up the lower nobility, and didn’t actually have much in the way of active duty. They still retained their titles, mostly as a courtesy and as a sign that they were still noble.

What was it like to live as a French noble?

Château de Versailles – Photo courtesy of Stepahne LeBlanc on Unsplash

In today’s terms, the French nobility were the one percent. Moneyed, titled, and highly educated, the nobles had plenty of advantages over the rest of society. And profited off of them. Members of the nobility didn’t pay taxes, could have indentured servants, and overall lived in a completely different reality.

But while the French nobles were known for their lavish lifestyle, the commoners and bourgeoisie suffered massive taxation, forced labor and even food shortages. They were not afforded the same rights as noble people simply because of the family they were born into. This glaring inequality piled up over the years and eventually fueled the French Revolution.

And despite seemingly having it all, the French noble society was still extremely classist, and had a strict set of conduct. For example, there were all kinds of rules regarding where noble people could shop, the kinds of clothes they wore, and even the dishes they used.

Not to mention a host of restrictions on jobs and positions noblemen could hold. Many jobs were considered unfit for nobility, including the roles of lawyers and doctors. That’s quite a difference compared to today!

French Nobility Today

Château de Chenonceau in the Loire Valley – Photo by Gilles Lagnel on Pixabay

While French nobility aren’t a central part of French society today, the concept of noble titles and families didn’t completely die out after the Revolution. Actually, in 1975 there were around 4,000 noble families in France. And 130 families from the First Estate still living in France. These included one Prince and seven Dukes from all over France.

Today, this number has dropped today to around 110 families from the First Estate, although the exact count is unknown. It’s hard to get an exact figure because many noble families abandoned their titles after the Revolution. At this time, the whole concept of nobility and classism changed. The public opinion of nobility became very negative and many wanted a fresh start.

Want to know more about French Nobility?

Versailles Hall of Mirrors – Photo by Louis Paulin on Unsplash

You can see the opulence the French nobility enjoyed firsthand on a visit to Château de Versailles, or the Louvre. The Sun King Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette once called the castle home.

If you’re hankering to learn a bit more about French nobility, head to the Loire Valley. The Loire Valley is also home to many castles and former royal residences that you can easily visit on a day trip from Paris.

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Jordan has been writing a Paris blog for two years and became a Discover Walks writer in early 2018. While most of our Paris writers are born and raised Parisians, Jordan is not. She is a Californian who moved to Paris in 2013. We like her different point of view when she writes - of course our tour guides are a great source of tips and inspiration in her articles. We hope you enjoy all of them.


Paras 2-9 and 2-10, AR 600-20 further reinforce Scott Faith’s important points here. Practice ought to comport with policy.

My CTLT with D 1/47th IN (1983) was an amazing experience preparing me to enter an Army in transition, and the esprit de corps and commitment to duty extended from CPT Barber to every member of the command, even their temporary members (a USMA Cadet and me), with especially valuable membership from NCOs in the command.

The cadet would still have to be "Regularly Assigned". How would a cadet be regularly assigned? One might argue that a cadet who is SMP, simultaneous membership program, would be regularly assigned. So this cadet would already be embedded with the staff or command team or shadowing the Platoon Leader, and would most likely have some, albeit limited prior service. Still though, the cadet might be assigned to the unit based on the Modified Table of Organization and Equipment (MTO) to a non cadet billet. In this case he/she is regularly assigned, potentially in an E3, E4, E5, or what have you spot. So there is definitely some need to define regularly assigned. Does the cadet need to be regularly assigned to a Cadet billet?

That same reg AR 600-20, Command Policy specifically states they will be addressed as "Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms./Cadet" not Sir or Mam. If you salute a cadet, who is not a commissioned officer you would be making the entire "First Salute" ceremony asinine if cadets had been entitled to salutes the entire time.

The authors creative example about an NCO looking at a lugnut and an officer looking at the whole vehicle is nuts (bad humor). NCO's look at big picture constantly, good officers are aware of this and cultivate this. If you run a command climate where you relegate your NCOs to small picture things, you will be a small picture unit and your good NCOs will find their way out of your unit and you will be left with small picture, tunnel vision type folks such as those that you describe.

Correction – The lugnut comment was in reference to comment 11 from Toga, not the author. Sorry, I wrote that on the go from a mobile device, and can't edit it…

Somebody at USMA needs to ensure cadets are informed about their precedence in the order of ranks and teach them that while they are at AOT/CLTC, etc. that “When in Charge, Be in Charge” applies. If cadets, during this valuable leadership experience, are not given the chance to act as lieutenants and acting platoon leaders, then the whole CLTC program should be scrapped.

I’ve been on both sides of the fence. Your comment reeks of arrogance. The smart LT listens to his/her NCO and seeks counsel from him/her.

NCOs are the backbone of the Army and run the Army day to day (as opposed to commanding it). I say this as a retired officer. I pray that you are only a LT yourself. Of course there is a certain type of officer who fails to get it. For some reason a lot of angry major S3 types fall into this category.

Oh please. Get off your high horse. I’m a Senior WO and I can personally attest to the height of arrogance the NCO Corps exercises today. Too many Cadets are treated like children by unprofessional NCOs who fail to realize that they are only alienating their future rather and or senior rather. This author wrote an excellent piece. Give credit where it’s due and stop making it about you.

I have heard the saying "Stop being an arrogant officer?" come from many NCO's who claim that "NCO's are the backbone of the Army". While being true you must also realize there is a need for Commissioned Officers as well as Non Commissioned Officers. Not only do NCO's get shit on by their LT's but sometimes the LT is getting shit on by his Company Commander. It goes both ways and without Officers the Army would surely still fall apart. Each job is as important as the rest. Officers and NCO's must realize alike that, they way you treat your future Officers (NCO's case) and the way you treat your subordinates (Officers case) will dictate how the military can and will be run in the future. Share mutual respect and work together is the name of the game. I would argue that the NCO/CO rivalries have started as a result of more modern times as compared to past wars and generations and honestly it should stop.

In the 80s I was an instructor at the ANCOC Leadership School. Two of many subjects I taught E-6 and E-7 were Military Customs and Courtesy, and Uniform. This information was not covered or taught.

No idea if it is being taught now at BNCOC or ANCOC. It should be.

Wonder if each Military Academy Of other branches has the same rule/regulation authority.

I can't speak for the Air Force, but the Navy certainly does. Mids rank between W-1 and W-2 last time I had occasion to check.

"b. All Army personnel in uniform are required to salute when they meet and recognize persons entitled to the salute.
Salutes will be exchanged between officers (commissioned and warrant) and enlisted personnel, and with personnel of
the Armed Forces of the United States (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard), the commissioned corps
of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service
entitled to the salute."

Cadets are not commissioned nor do they possess a warrant. Per the order, they are not entitled to a salute.

Salute were means of communication.
Knights lifted their helmet to recognize they friends from enemy.
It is a chain of command situation. I always say Semper Fi or Airborne when I return salute

Good answer. They are legally considered E-5 equivalent, and aren't Branch qualified.

I'm popping into the conversation late, but I completely agree (not that you can argue with the regs). Saluting a cadet completely invalidates the First Salute ceremony when they commission. They clearly outrank privates and are often assigned to leadership roles, but they aren't yet commissioned.

I was wondering if I would have to make mention of the fact that until they are COMMISSIONED Officers, they will remain nothing more than a glorified E-5 NCO pay scale while in USMA.

Now, based on personal experience, I cannot say I was comfortable at all with the USMA grad who came into Iraq (2004-06). Through conversations, we get better LT's coming out of ROTC or NCO's newly converted to O grade…..

I agree totally with enlisted not saluting a cadet. I spent 3 years as a MSG and never saluted a cadet.

First, what an insult to a SNCO that instead of a 1SG with 10 plus years of experience leading soldiers in the absence of officers A Cadet would be next in succession. How dare enlisted swine preside over a command position? Are we really saying an NCO could not do that?

Secondly, just because of this outdated regulation (considering no cadets are assigned to any deployed units) requires no customs or courtesy obligation from enlisted soldiers or officers. Seriously get over yourselves West Point you produce officers like any other university and they are no better or worse than anyone else. You earn everything in the Army. No commission? No salute. Thanks for your disgustingly pointless article. Sir.

West Point grads are elite and you know it

Ask any enlisted person and they will tell you that westpointers are arrogant and on need of a lot of training. A lot of people have been killed in combat because of the arrogance of westpointers

Elite only in their mind. The smart ones find a good NCO to mentor them.

I respect ALL Personnel of the US ARMED FORCES and Civilians appointed over me. I did 24 years in the ARMY and have been led by West Pointers! I respect them all but I just wonder what makes them "Elite" as you say? Look at any Command where a COL thru Gen and you will see a whole lot of Soldiers both Officers and NCOs running and doing everything to make that command function! Without these people, "How do you become "ELite"!

First off the reg says regularly assigned personnel, which the Cadets are not. They are TDY for a few weeks therefore their authority only extends to West Point. No Salute should be required or rendered.

The only regularly assigned cadets are in the national guard or reserves as a SMP Cadet.

You are absolutely wrong. Cadets are Officers period and should be rendered the appropriate courtesy. You probably don’t salute WOs either because you think they’re beneath you as well. Unprofessional.

Cadets are never saluted. Period. They aren't commissioned yet, and as pointed out above, they are considered equivalent to an E-5. So you are incorrect when you say that Cadets outrank me. Plus, it's not typically possible for a Cadet to be a " regularly assigned member" of any unit other than their school unit. By reg,they can't command or lead troops in the field. They aren't " in the pipeline" yet regarding training , experience or anything else yet. They don't even have a MOS/Branch assignment or anything else at this point. Technically, they aren't even qualified to fulfill a team leader slot. Read the regs CAREFULLY people, when you want to use them to make a point.

Actually, cadets do fill positions in the National Guard in the Simultaneous Membership Program and can be assigned to an O-2 slot for a period of years. No, they won't deploy in that position, but they can and do attend annual training and NTC rotations and can act as Platoon Leader.

Incorrect. You have to look at national guard and the reserves. Both have an option for Cadets to be apart of a simultaneous membership program. I am a cadet and am military police and drill with them as well. AR 600-20 lists command structure.

That is why cadets dont go to parade rest while talking to NCOs. We only go to attention for officers. Dont take it as a sign of disrespect however. We are officers in training and when we get a chanve at a leadership role with the guidance of the NCOs it will ensure our success as officers.

Most cadets understand and respect the NCOs within their unit. I am acting PL of my platoon because we dont have a 2LT. I work with my leadership and learn from them and they help to shape me to become a good officer.

CDT Vincent – High marks! You sound like you have a good head on your shoulders and as such know who and where you are able to receive the BEST mentorship and hands on experience. It’s cadets like you that become “true” leaders, because you have put your ego in check and will EARN the respect of your troops!

Cadet you are not a cadet when in you ng or reserve unit. You know this, you are assigned as whatever rank you have in the guard. Only through a wriiten agreement from the pms tonthe guard commander are allowed to serve as acting LT's

He is actually correct, SMP cadets serve in ARNG units in the rank of “cadet”. They receive paygrade of

E-5 however they hold a higher position. This does not mean they are to enact on that rank as authority has been given to the person in command of them.

So I suppose we don’t salute appointed Officers either? Interesting because WO1s are appointed by SecDef on behalf of the CinC. They don’t commission until CW2 but I guess they don’t really count as Officers either. Treat the Cadets with respect. The Army isn’t some “pay your dues” ol boys club anymore.

You guys are all discussing how the Army does it.. I’m AF and In Services(Food Svc) i was assigned an Academy Cadet to teach him what i was responsible for as a SSGT. Production NCO(i overseen what the shift leaders do as far as getting production done (preparing the sustenance for the Airmen’s consumptioon in accordsnce with AF Standards… i showed him the Regs and the Cook production logs the leaders (shiftleader, 1st Cook, Baker Supervisor, bskers) follow at various levels of preparinv the Sustenance..
the leadership essentially passed off their job.. but i ythink it is good these future officers learn from those entrusted to prepare the sustenance.. instead of those that haven’t actually been in thr kitchen for a couple years.
Hands on training.. they eill not actually be cooking but learning from hose that do it daily.. The Cadet wr had wrote all of us NCOs that trained him, some. Very nice endorsements. Now by chance he.be in a billet at some hq and psperwork comes in front of him about ration counts for personnel and what the job description calls for for a 3m Senior Cook requisition.. for his order.. what it’s called these days) he’ll be sble to understand better what the job description says. We have other job description s (stores /rations handling.. what that person is responsible for , order for commissary ration/breakdown … The better we helped him to understand the less he has to look for answers…. We can feel confident we did our hob helping train a. Future leader in some position in our AF.

A wise cadet will be mindful of their position. Don’t demand respect earn it. Something I wish I knew 50 years ago.

I agree with you Sir. I am an honorably discharged Veteran of the active Army. Served in the regulars from 1983 to 1985, and from 1987 to 1989. I was an enlisted man and my rank at the time of my discharge in the late Summer of 1989 was Sergeant E5. I was a 13B20-Gunner. Cadets should know that they must earn respect. In fact, based on my experience there are some West Pointers out there who never learned that. During my time in the regulars, I encountered a couple of West Point Grads who, in my opinion had amused contempt for enlisted personnel below the rank of E5. One of these ignorant academy types was my battalion XO at Fort Ord. I respected his rank and expertise, but I detested him otherwise.

I too am an honorably discharged Army Vet from an Army family. Its like my father (retired CW3) taught me " I don't have to respect you but I HAVE TO RESPECT your rank."

Now, that is a perfect resolution. I practice it for all things because that was my mom golden rule from childhood to yesterday (dementia stole her from me).

It is not just West Point cadets who outrank NCO's. ROTC cadets do too. (Still, there is no need to salute them. A CSM outranks a SPC, but you never see the latter salute the former. )

Its not so much AR, but UCMJ. Officers, commissioned warrant officers, midshipmen, cadets, candidates are all affordedofficer status.

I think the part of the reg people have over looked is "the senior regularly assigned Army Soldier will assume command". Is a cadet a regularly assigned Army Soldier? I think not. The reason you would place cadets above enlisted in the rank chart is because they will be officers. Cadets are still learning and everyone in the unit should help mentor them and show the value of NCOs.

You missed it my good first sergeant so I dutifully call your attention to it. "(3) Senior regularly assigned Army Soldier refers (in order of priority) to officers, WOs, cadets, NCOs, specialists, or privates present for duty unless they are ineligible under paragraphs 2-15 or 2-16." So cadets are included in the definition.

The definition is enhanced further by stating Soldiers "present for duty." The cadet qualifies here too because s/he is obviously present for duty, as assigned. We need not be concerned about the proviso of either 2-15 or 2-16 as each applies to a Soldier under certain sanctions of discipline. Indeed, a cadet assigned as a visitor to a regular unit on active duty would not be under disciplinary sanctions by his training command and institution — if s/he were under sanctions the cadet would be disqualified from visiting. Army command policy is clear the definition of terms.

As for me, while a SNCO would in general be qualified to succeed a LT as platoon leader, any such succession would need to be limited to a short term basis. However, I don't see the wisdom of placing a SNCO in command of a company ahead of a cadet. Yet I would not want a Year 1 WP cadet in charge of a company. It's virtually guaranteed there are at least one or two SNCO in a given company qualified to take a short term command of the company. This would be wiser than placing a WP Year 1 cadet in charge of it.

In respect of ROTC, the R stipulates that only a contracted cadet in ROTC fits the definition I presented. (Contracted ROTC cadets are MS III and MS IV, overwhelmingly and predominantly.) I say these factors because while the SNCO is focused on the lugnut and wheel base the Year 3 cadet is looking at the whole of the Humvee and as much of the landscape around it as he can scope out. In other words, each the SNCO and the cadet would be functioning appropriately.

Imagine that, good ol “Top” didn’t read the entire regulation, only the part that suited his narrative…shocked.

Define "Duty", you know… as opposed to "Education/Training".

The reason "cadets" are even mention in a gentlemans role is due to long ago medieval social customs.
Cadets were sons of the upper class and were, due to social norms, afforded gentlemans status.

Example: In the U.S. Military a Warrant Officer (W-2–W-5) are commissioned but are not gentlemen officers. Warrant Officers are formally addressed as "Mister." A honorific form of address indicating respect but only for officers under the rank of knight.

A (knight) officer is a commissioned officer and formally addressed as "SIR!" indicating superior social status. If married his spouse is always addressed a "Lady so and so."

Thus, I suspect a warrant officer's wife is addressed a "wifady" (wife/lady.) Almost, like her husband, an officer and a lady. Yet, still burdened with the unsocial characteristic of the enlisted class.

So as indicated by mil/regs a 17 year old snot nosed cadet is indeed an enlisted social/moral/intellectual/ and just plain all around great american hero. Superior to a mere cunning, lazy enlisted man. Even if that enlisted man is the Sgt Maj of the Army. Holds the MOH, four Silver Stars, ten combat ribbons, CIB, is airborne qualified and ex special forces. And yes the officer corps views your spouse as just a "wife."

And yet, the UCMJ does hold all commissioned officers, including CW2-CW5, accountable for their behavior, as they are subject to Article 133, Conduct Unbecoming and Officer and Gentlemen. Only W1's, lacking a commission, are excepted from Art. 133.

Strangely enough, the Services expect the exact same behavior as "officers and gentlemen" (and of course ladies) from cadets and midshipmen, as they are also subject to Article 133, even lacking a commission, and some are dismissed from the Service every year for violating Article 133…

Will that is incorrect. WO1s even as “appointed” Officers are subject to all provisions of the UCMJ even art 33. Ask any SJA.

This should not turn into a them vs us type of debate. We are all “us.” I was one of Cohen’s blue to gold mustangs in the 90’s. No one does this better than The Corps. My NCOs treated me with respect while I was a midshipman, but taught me what it meant. It was “advanced pay” so to speak. It would be earned when I became the kind of Officer that he would be honored to serve as right hand to. As SNCOs think of this as an opportunity to shape the Os of the future. No matter what route an O receives his commission by, he will regard his SNCOs and NCOs who trained him with the utmost honor and respect. As corny as this will sound, the feelings related in the film “An Officer and a Gentleman” at the end we’re pretty accurate. A Gunny at 29Palms RTAMS and a Chief at NASA/AMES CA are among my most treasured mentors. I bet they could not even remember my name…

I highly doubt any West Point graduate will magically "see the light" after reading my imput on this discussion. I retired ten years ago as an 11B SNCO with 26 years in service and a star on my CIB. I was at Camp Buckner in 1989 as my Bn (2/502d, 101st ABN) was slated to train yearlings. Somehow, the memo of shifting demographics of new Soldiers within the Infantry never reached West Point so there's a huge disconnect in reality. IQ averages are around 120 for most Grunts and for those that don't track demographics, that's a huge jump from national averages. In my experience we rarely see a decent new officer come out of West Point and it's really sad. We get people whose ideals are from left field and seem to think the Army is their play ground. We always give you a chance before we let you sink your career all on your own. When you focus on things that scare you to death, always remember that those are your fears and we're not concerned with achieving the next rank or a nice review. Good Grunts care less for their next promotion beyond making sure our records are correct. And you'll have to deal with the reality that there are better men out there and you may be in over your head but don't blame others for your shortcomings. We want to mold a new Officer to become a great leader we can always remember but there's a limit to what we're willing to do. And if for one second you think any Infantrymen will ever do something that violates our Constitutional form of government, you've made the worst assumption of your young life. I see that USMA had a proud communist recently graduate, he might as well spit in my face and all other better warriors than myself before me. While in Iraq in 2003-04 we got a batch of 12 west pointer kids and more than half were momma's boys and short of a huge shift in their personality and ideals, they're too far gone in the head to be respectable leaders. Why hasn't a single one of you been taught that humility, respect and honor flows both ways but in different fashions? The ones that get emotional about my post will reply as expected and miss the lesson altogether because they've been hard wired to respond that way. The Army is always evolving but power bitches have always been around, we just don't frag them as we used to. 2LT Eisenhower, he was a 6' 3" tall man who was assigned to our platoon in 1992. His approach to us was simple and he asked lots of questions about how to best kill tanks and he found that each man has their own method of how they like to do things and tactics they like or dislike and for what reasons. As he worked in our platoon, we all quietly covered for him, especially when he got misoriented now and then (analog land nav isn't simple, especially when mounted) after a few months he was squared away and we taught him our secrets and he never betrayed us. The regulations can only go so far in some jobs and situations in our Army and beyond that you need to be resourceful or have friends who are.
I really wish I didn't have to speak this way about you kids but most of you did the West Point thing for power or prestige, both of which are useless to Infantrymen, we care less what college you went to, if you can't think on your feat when round crack by you then you get my men killed. And I declined two Bronze Stars because some senior Officer decided to dispense them for every Officer and Senior NCO in theater! Then again for the same categories who were on rear detachment duties! (I was going through a few operations connected to wound recovery). Here's my advise that will serve you well always remember this ASSUMPTIONS ARE THE MOTHER OF ALL FUCK UPS! And get to know your PBO very well! Don't assume a damn thing, if a young NCO or Soldier tells you he "thinks" the vehicle is ready or has a full tank of fuel, hand him a long stick, send him back to the Motor Pool, have him put the stick into the fuel tank and bring back said stick with fuel on it, that way both of you will now KNOW that the vehicle is fueled. Tell the NCO's that you don't want to seem like a dick that you're being so picky on things, you're just building trust so later you know who's good to go and what each of our strengths are and that goes for the young LT as well (that's called humility and the men will understand because it's fair).
Infantry Veterans/Retirees cluster together on various online formats and we're very concerned what direction things are going and it has nothing to do with President Trump, I've seen what a prelude to war is twice in my lifetime and I'm seeing another one but in a slower manner. Most of us own our own firearms and body armor because we assume nothing but pray for the best. We're also the one demographic that gives the socialist/communists nightmares because they know they can't take us head on in any manner so they go through the younger people to reach their aims. If you're not an Infantry Officer then to us you're an NPC because you lack skills and experience. If you think a fellow West Point graduate is a great leader, see how she/he behaves after having a soldier vaporized by an RPG in front of him. And if you think islam is a warm and fuzzy religion, you're way off! Always seek the minority view of any situation or story! It's often hard to find but its often the real truth on a subject especially if it's being spoon fed to you in briefs and media.
Be safe out there, use the "recon by fire" method if probing a road and drop to the ground when a frag is near you, the explosion goes up and away. And keep your mouth open and eyes covered with your hands when it or any other explosion goes off near you. I'm laughing as I remember when our sniper team took out 16 combatants at one road intersection in Falujah, Iraqi's have an average IQ of 70 so they aren't the brightest candle on the cake, lol. They always forgot to take the safety bail/pin out of the RPG fuze and the round would just bounce off our Bradleys, lol. Then we'd mow the guy down with an M4. Speed is your friend in a convoy, never drive slower than the rest of the civilian traffic, that way when a bad guy is trying to catch up to your convoy, he sticks out big time and the rear vehicle can easily engage him. In 2003 we never went slower than 55, usually 60 MPH and we never lost anyone. That one NCO who doesn't give a crap about you is the one you should be talking to.

Hey brother. Word of advice, if you want to write an op-Ed then you should submit it for publication. Nobody reads your comments past the first four lines.

A very interesting thread. A little ancient cadet history for anyone interested. I was an Air Force Aviation Cadet during the late 1950's. Requirements for a USAF Aviation Cadet at the time were two years of college and passing scores on a series of IQ and skills tests such as mathematics, logic, and spatial relations. At the time the pipeline for commissioned officers in the Air Force was ROTC, OCS, Aviation Cadets, and the new USAF Academy whose first class graduated circa 1958. While the other sources trained and commissioned officers for all USAF career fields, the Aviation Cadet Corps produced only pilots and navigators. We were enlisted in the Air Force for a two year enlistment. Aviation Cadet training was 15 months. The two year enlistment term allowed for cadets who had to temporarily halt training because of illness or injury. The first three months were preflight training at Lackland AFB where we were taught basic military skills such as customs and courtesies, UCMJ, drill, Air Force history, parachute training, confidence course, and firearms training. During cadet training we were paid at the rate of an E5. Upon completion of preflight we went to flight school. Pilot and navigator cadets went to different flight schools. In flight school cadets qualified for flight pay in addition to their regular pay. In those days once a month you went before the pay officer and received your pay in cash. Upon the successful completion of flight school cadets received their flight wings and were commissioned as second lieutenants and incured an additional four year service commitment. Both preflight and flight school were run under the traditional cadet model of upperclass and lowerclass where upperclassmen were responsible for much of the military training and discipline of the lowerclassmen. Interestingly, when a graduating cadet received his commission, (there were no females in the cadet corps in those days), his commission was backdated 15 months to the date he entered the cadet program, giving him a lead on promotion to first lieutenant. Regarding saluting courtesy in the cadet corps. Cadets saluted officers of all United States uniformed services. Cadets were not entitled to receive salutes from enlisted personnel. Within the cadet corps there was a rank structure and cadets saluted other cadets with rank above theirs. Interestingly, one weekend I had a pass and visited a college friend at a nearby naval base where he was undergoing Navy Aviation Cadet training. I was surprised at the gate when I was saluted by the gate personnel. I was further saluted by all enlisted personnel I encountered on base. My friend confirmed that Navy Aviation Cadets rated salutes by enlisted personnel, at least they did at that time. The Air Force Aviation Cadet program was fazed out during the mid 1960's as the Air Force Academy became the primary source of flight rated officers.

Jesus….. Some of the comments left in this thread have really let me down. Other than those few, I feel as though the future is bright. I thought this is a very well written article. Before anyone attacks me, I am a prior Army SSG who is now a MSIV Cadet (Active duty and Branched). I let crap roll off of my back, but when I attended Fort Knox this last summer there were way too many NCOs who had a big chip on their shoulder. It was never the SNCOs, it was always a SSG, SGT, or junior enlisted Soldier disrespecting these cadets (myself included). Every single SNCO I've come in contact with in ROTC has developed me as an Officer. They've shown great patience, respected my process, and I am grateful for these SFCs, MSGs, and SGMs. *Back to the story: At first, I let things go and decided someone had to be tough on these kids, but after a while, I couldn't let it roll on. I found myself going toe to toe with these junior NCOs and enlisted, but not to destroy their souls (as the NCO in me wanted to do so badly) but to talk to them and help them understand that if you treat these cadets like crap, it will be returned 10 fold in a year when they commission, hate NCOs, and are their raters. They won't forget what you've shown them and they will resent you. I believe my words only carried weight because I've already been in the Army for 10 years and the Senior cadre knew this (I didn't get in any trouble). That just goes to show that the regular cadets get crapped on and they can't change it. I've seen this relationship play out in the Army. I had a CO at one point who absolutely had a genuine dislike for NCOs and believed them to be useless. It made it very difficult to operate as an NCO under his command.

Some points I wanted to make sure I hit are:

-No, you don't have to call them sir/ma'am or salute them, but you absolutely should show them the respect you would like to receive.
-Mentor these young cadets so that they can grow into the Officers that will leverage all the outstanding traits of the NCO Corps.
-If you are a Soldier and you are still carrying around the trash attitude of the "good ole' days", it is most likely time for you to go. Things are changing around you and you're failing to adapt.
-If you are a cadet and you don't see the value of picking the brain of an NCO (CPL to SGM), then you will most likely be doing your time and moving on. The key to success in your career is understanding the strengths and weaknesses of your key players AKA your subordinate leaders and junior Soldiers. They are everywhere and plugged into everything. Allow them to lead you too! You can't lead if you don't know how to follow.
– Without our outstanding NCO Corps counterparts, there would be no outstanding officers.

Enough of my rant! I hope this sheds some light on things. I'm not a regular progression cadet so this is a better look at the situation.

A little background: I received my commission as a 2LT in May 1987 after spending two years in the SMP where I was enrolled as a senior ROTC Cadet (MSIII and MSIV) while serving simultaneously in a National Guard Unit. When I contracted under the SMP I was administratively promoted to the rank and pay grade of E-5 ( I had served two years previously in the Army Reserve as a junior enlisted 11B). I wore the Cadet rank insignia of 2LT. As that was a long time ago, my memories of the experience were that it was the best and the worst of both worlds. From the enlisted perspective, while drilling with my Guard unit, there was confusion as to where exactly Cadets fit in to the scheme of things. From the junior officer perspective we were seen as coffee and errand boys. From the senior officer perspective we were largely ignored. The one group that actually gave us respect and tried to help and mentor us were the senior NCOs. For lack of official guidance I was assigned as an assistant platoon leader in an Armored Cavalry Company and my platoon sergeant was a former Navy Seal with combat tours in Vietnam (along with other unmentionable places during that conflict). To this day I credit a lot of the success I had when I went on active duty after I graduated to this great NCO. Sure I went through some hazing ( “Sir, could you go to the motor pool and ask the motor sergeant for a left thermal heat reticle calibration tool?” – I was sent all over the place until I finally caught on.) but after I had earned my keep so to speak he spent a lot of time teaching and mentoring this Dot head and when I was commissioned he took time off from his civilian job to come to the commissioning ceremony to congratulate me. I felt honored to have him there. So I think he had it right. As others have commented, folks should remember that those Cadets that you give a hard time to will in a short time become those officers that are in charge of writing your NCOERs never mind the fact that they also will be your leaders when deployed in a combat zone ( I served in the 1st Cav Div during Desert Shield and Storm), in other words garbage in equals garbage out. As an humorous aside, earlier I mentioned that the junior officers in my reserve unit treated cadets as little more than errand boys. I have to say that I got a little bit of vindication when I went back to obtain some records from my old guard unit. I was now an active duty Captain with a right shoulder patch ( a big deal in those days ) and a couple of combat medals on my chest ( not bragging but including because of the story ). It was priceless to see the look of surprise on my former XO’s face when I walked into my old unit on a drill weekend. Due to the nature of promotions in the Guard at the time, he was still serving as the XO and was still a 1st LT. when I walked in wearing my Class A’s. I have to admit that when he asked what I needed I probably got a little pleasure by responding: “a cup of coffee. Cream only. And make it quick Lieutenant”. Now it was said in good humor. And taken that way. But I’m sure he felt stung just a little bit. Anyway. Point is that one never knows what lies down the road so I try to treat everyone with respect regardless of their rank or position.

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Sloan posing as a deputy director with Internal Affairs

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In 2376, The Doctor aboard Voyager briefly resigned his Starfleet commission. ( VOY : " Virtuoso ")

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Commentary: The rank structure is holding us back. It’s time for drastic change

/>Airmen salute during a ceremony honoring a retiring chief master sergeant. Air Force Maj. Kevin Deibler argues that the military's rank structure is holding back the force, especially as it prepares to fight on the battlefields of the future. (Sue Sapp/Air Force)

No officers? No enlisted? No kidding: This Air Force officer says it’s time to classify service members by how they can help win the modern fight – or risk losing it.

Editor’s note: The following is an opinion piece. The writer is not employed by Military Times and the views expressed here do not necessarily represent those of Military Times or its editorial staff.

The military rank structure that has served our nation well for centuries is not suited for our modern conflicts. Our forces could suffer heavy losses, both on the battlefield and in the cyber arena, if changes aren’t made — changes that would eliminate the officer-enlisted divide, among other long-held military personnel constructs.

The development of a position-centric force that allows for rapid advancement based on job performance will better preserve lives in combat through more effective and streamlined command and control, ensure that rank does not supersede competence, and build a military that ensures all service members can reach their full potential.

Such a system would vastly outperform the current military system, in part by allowing and encouraging those with the greatest potential and initiative to rise to the highest levels of this evolved hierarchy. Commissioned officers, warrant officers and enlisted personnel would not exist in a position-centric model. Within the Defense Department, there would simply be Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines.

Over the course of my service in the Air Force in both combat rescue and cyberspace, I observed many missed opportunities where our military structure failed when a position-centric model would have been successful:

  • At the tactical level, I personally witnessed conflicts in which a team commander would not listen to his team leader because he was only in charge due to his officer status. In the combat environment, it nearly cost members their lives.
  • At the operational level, I witnessed senior enlisted airmen far exceed the abilities of junior officers in cyber operations, displaying the technical proficiency necessary to understand how to reach a desired end state in the cyber domain.
  • At the strategic level, while serving as a general’s aide I saw overlapping command chains that waste billions of dollars, mixing military and civilian leadership at all levels in a process that can strangle most any innovation with red tape.

The above examples are not isolated, and their underlying problem was the focus of my doctoral dissertation. The solution: Realign current ranks in a single hierarchy, and instead of separating service members as officers, warrants and enlisted, group them by function in tactical, operational and strategic groups.

Le Marchant

Among those who sought to remedy this was Colonel John Le Marchant, a veteran of the Flanders campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars (1793-1802). His experience there highlighted to him the deficiencies of the British officer corps in comparison to their Austrian allies.

Reportedly, an Austrian officer described British swordsmanship as most entertaining and reminiscent of someone chopping wood - a comment that would undoubtedly have riled any British officer. Le Marchant decided to rectify this. Following his return to England in 1795, he worked with a swordsmith to design a new light cavalry sabre and produced a manual of swordsmanship. Both of these were officially adopted.

The success of this project, along with his relationships with influential people such as King George III and Henry, Lord Paget, the Earl of Uxbridge, led him to develop more ambitious plans to establish an official military college to provide training for infantry and cavalry officers.

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Major-General John Le Marchant, first Governor of the Royal Military College, c1810

House of Massimo

Heading the Crime syndicate of the Black Nobility stands the House of Massimo.
Don Fabrizio Massimo-Brancaccio is the top owner of the Vatican and has high authority over the Sicilian Mafia and owns the Corleonisi Clan. They own a large fortress in Arsoli and another castle in Campania. The Massimo family use lions on their coat of arms like Corleone, Sicily uses a lion on its flag. The Massimo family frequently take the name Leone which means lion. Brancaccio is a neighbourhood in Sicily where Cosa Nostra originated and named after the Brancaccio family that later merged with the Massimo family.

The Massimo family are one of the oldest families of Rome and claim to be the ancient Fabii-Maximus dynasty. They likely have a portion of Maximus ancestry.

The Pope is titled the Pontifex Maximus.The communist Fabian Society uses the wolf in sheep’s clothing for its logo. Fabii like Fabian.

Prince Stefano Massimo married into the British Foxwell family and he is a fashion photographer with residences in London. Prince Stefano’s mother was the English actress Dawn Addams. The Massimo family of Roccasecca own the Clerkenwell Mafia of London also called the Adams crime family and part owners of various Irish Mafias. The district of Clerkenwell is known as London’s “Little Italy.” Rupert Murdoch who owns Fox News is a Vatican Knight of the Order of St Gregory. Fox was covertly named for Foxwell. The fox is considered a cunning animal. Fox News is a propaganda machine for the Vatican. Prince Valerio Massimo founded SCM Capital Partners and an aerospace company called Auctus Industries with his business associate Duke Edward Spencer-Churchill. The House of Massimo and other Italian Nobility have infiltrated the United Kingdom and work with the House of Windsor and some British Peers.

The House of Massimo is the nucleus of the Black Nobility. They are the primary owners of the Holy See.

Queen Maxima of the Netherlands claims Burgundian ancestry. I believe Baron August von Senarclens de Grancy who had an affair with Princess Wilhelmine of Baden was a relative of the Massimo family and this is why the House of Hesse created the name Battenberg for suspected Senaclens offspring which later married in with the royal families of Russia, Spain, Sweden, and England. Princess Marie of Battenberg’s son was named Count Maximilian and another suspected Senarclens was Princess Maximiliane Wilhelmine Auguste Sophie Marie of Hesse. Prince Carlo Massimo oversees the Sovereign Military Order of Malta as President of the Italian Association of the Order of Malta. Full Story

The Medici’s were a force behind the Reformation and the Renaissance, each a strategy with the sole aim of undermining the Catholic tradition in order they could re-introduce, by the back door, a new version of the doctrines which would include the traditions of the Old Testament in place of the original Catholic traditions, in its extreme form would spawn the Puritan’s, despisers of fun and freedom demanding absolute obedience upon pain of death, to the Testament of Old, side-lining the doctrines of the New. This would be to open the door for what we suffer today, the doctrines of the Talmud, a horrendous doctrine of hubris which to those who follow its license to do everything forbidden by the great religions, supersedes both the Old and New Testaments as the covenant with God.

The first of the family to be a distinct figure in history was Salvestro dei Medici, who, in the year 1378, took an active part in the revolt of the Ciompi so-called because it was led by a wool-carder (ciompo), one Michele di Lando, and because the chief share in it was taken by the populace, who held the reins of government for some time, and sought to obtain extended political rights. But, although Michele di Lando was the nominal chief of the revolt, Salvestro dei Medici was its real leader. The latter, although a member of the greater guilds, had joined the lesser and sought to be at their head, in order to lay the foundation of his own power and that of his kindred by attacking the Albizzi, who were the leading men of the greater guilds.

Then, in the person of Giovanni, son of Bicci dei Medici (1360 1429), another branch of the family arose, and became from that time forward its representative branch. Indeed this Giovanni may be considered the actual founder of Medicean greatness. He took little part in political affairs, but realised an immense fortune by trade, establishing banks in Italy and abroad, which in his successors hands became the most efficient engines of political power. The council of Constance (1414 – 1118) enabled Giovanni de Medici to realise enormous profits. Like his ancestor Salvestro, he was a constant supporter of the lesser guilds in Florence to undermine the higher guilds.

In these two alone we can see the fact in the Medici we have a powerful trading family moving to remove the Christian laws on trade by usurpation of the powers that governed it, and they used their wealth to gain advantage through indebtedness of those they lavishly supported who would go on to positions of power in their own right. And let us not lose sight of the fact in the Medici the term guild, itself synonymous with the craft of Freemasonry, became their theatre of choice for imposing their power into the governments of the people. And from the information yet to come in this thesis relating to Freemasonry and Lucifer, and in the fact the Medici were the force behind the Renaissance, I would expect the existing representations of the Medici today to also be the force behind Freemasonry today, its symbolism, its doctrine, and indeed its art of speculation, after all if you are in at the start of the banking monopoly and you become a major power, you ain’t letting go ever.

When the historical timeline sees you disappear as if by magic there is reason it is so, you disappear when you hold the power and appoint delegates to exercise the power for you. Exactly as today’s UK monarchy acts which keeps them out of the sight of legal mob, they reign but do not rule,’ they delegate rule to their appointees, this keeps the crown and royalty out of political scandal because it is their appointees exercising authority.

Upon the death of Giovanni dei Medici in 1429 would leave two sons, Cosimo (1389-1464) and Lorenzo (1395-1440). From the former proceeded the branch that held absolute sway for many generations over the nominal republic of Florence, and gave to Italy popes like Leo X. and Clement VII. On the extinction of this elder line in the 16th century, the younger branch derived from Lorenzo, Cosimo’s brother, seemed to acquire new life, and for two centuries supplied grand-dukes to Tuscany. Cosimo, surnamed Cosimo the Elder, to distinguish him from the many others bearing the same name, and honoured after his death by the title of Pater patrioe, first succeeded in solving the strange problem of becoming absolute ruler of a republic that was keenly jealous of its liberty, without holding any fixed office, without suppressing any previous form of government, and always preserving the appearance and demeanour of a private citizen. This family is expert in deception.

This is the strategy employed to usurp democracies today through corporatism, also known as fascism. It is the representation of the feudal system re-birthed at Cluny in Burgundy around 909 AD and launched and bedded in England in the 1066 invasion. This was carried out by the Carolingian VI-kings (six kings) of the shadow, the mimic of Loki.

Cosimo born in 1389, he had already reached the age of forty at the time of his father’s death. He had a certain amount of literary culture, and throughout his life showed much taste and an earnest love both for letters and art. But his father had mainly trained him to commerce, for which he had a special liking and aptitude. In fact he was devoted to business to the day of his death, and like his forefathers derived pecuniary advantage from his friendly relations with the papal court. He accompanied Pope John XXIII to the council of Constance, transacted a vast amount of business in that city, and made very large gains. He then travelled in Germany, and after his return to Florence discharged several ambassadorial missions.

Cosimo used his position to manipulate war and realised a few good men positioned at power levels operating for him was better than owning the institutions that governed, this is again the modus operandi of the craft Freemasonry. Having accomplished influence direct into the Church he was also able to accomplish influence in England. Using his great wealth enabled him to supply money to foreign potentates. Philippe do Comines tells us that Cosimo frequently furnished Edward IV of England with sums amounting to many hundred thousand florins.This is a time when the Order of the Garter had been formed along with 300 Knights the importance of which in our time shows itself in the supranational cartel called the Committee of 300.

When Tommaso Parentucelli was still a cardinal, and in needy circumstances, Cosimo made him considerable loans without demanding guarantees of payment. On the cardinal’s accession to the tiara as Nicholas V. he was naturally very well disposed towards Cosimo, and employed the Medici bank in Rome in all the affairs of the curia, which brought immense profits to the house.

It would appear Cosimo is using the arts assigned to the Templars which they learned from the Persians during the time of the Crusades, supposedly exterminated in the 1307 purge, perhaps in the Medici we are seeing its re-emergence, supported in the claims of the Rosicrucian’s and today’s Masonry that they represent the force behind the Renaissance. Cosimo would open the doors to Usury and compound interest in direct contradiction to Canon Law.

From this the House Medici would bankroll the Vatican on behalf of the Masonic Templars. This role would switch to the `House Fugger‘ and then onto the House Rothschild.

We are certainly looking at the pied piper that is the serpent in these forces, come again to tempt the hearts of man, and as we witness the state of today there are many dancing to the tune out of the garden and into the hands of the fallen.

Seeking Lucifer through the secret orders that worship his kingdom to come.

The following are a collection of outpourings from the realm of the hidden, the occult world all around us moving the world to a new order. The externalisation of the Hierarchy is upon us.

There is abundant evidence that in many forms of modern thought-especially the so called prosperity psychology will power building and systems of high pressure salesmanship-black magic has merely passed through a metamorphosis, and although its name may be changed, its nature remains the same.

Manly p Hall, Masonic, Hermetic, and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy, p.C1 C11

Yoga, a practice synonymous with Hindu philosophy means to yoke.
Its goal is to unite man with Brahman the Hindu concept of god
Caryl Matriciana Gods of the New Age p. 18

In the circles of some respected researchers into the occult origins of rock n roll it is believed that John Lennon was murdered after an interview with a radio host in which he began to explain that he had realised how the Beatles had been used to programme the 1960s subculture based in the LSD experience, to introduce the eastern philosophies according to the Theosophical doctrines direct into the west to create the new age movement, from which will spawn the one world religion and sanctify the climate taxation policies of the Committee of 300. That this was the reason shortly after that interview he was gunned down and killed. The following supports this

The traditional purpose of the Indian ashram has always been to teach people how to die through Yoga meditation. It has only been since the 1960s that the Beatles-inspired young westerners had flooded the ashrams, sitting spellbound at the Gurus feet.
Caryl Matriciana Gods of the New Age p. 144

The New Age Movement needs to be understood as one of the fastest growing uprisings of the end time’s powerful delusion occurring in the world today.

In fact, it has expanded with explosive diversification in the last three decades to a much greater extent than many realise.

Today’s rapid growth of the New Age phenomenon is nothing less than a major branch of the latter day rise of the Anti-Christ forces. It is in this context that the most penetrating in sights into the greatest deceptions and dangers of the movement are seen.
Randall N. Baer, Inside the New Age Nightmare p.79.

French philosopher Dennis De Rougement whilst attending a Hitler rally was described to have affected him thus :

De Rougement indicated that despite his rigorous attempt to remain detached from the spectacle unfolding before him, he was involuntarily drawn into the vortex of the crowd’s hysterical adulation of Adolf Hitler. It was only by dint of superhuman resolve, said the French philosopher that he was able to regain his equilibrium before the mesmerising presence of Hitler’s evil genius.
Jewish Exponent, Oct 3 1996, article: Unable to resist the Fuhrer .

It is also said of Dennis De Rougement that he stated :

Some people believe, from having experienced in his presence a feeling of horror and an impression of supernatural power that he is the seat of, thrones, dominions, and powers

By which Saint Paul meant those hierarchical spirits which can descend into any ordinary mortal and occupy him like a garrison.

What I am saying would be the cheapest of romantic nonsense were it not that what has been established by this man or rather through him is a reality that is one of the wonders of this century.
French philosopher Dennis De Rougement

Illuminism is really the religion of a benevolent mythical Lucifer not Satan. It is disguised as political idealism, bent on eradicating religion and monarchies in general, and Christianity in particular, and gaining global control for a commonwealth of nations featuring universal democracy.

To the secret societies Lucifer is always depicted as a benevolent peace loving god with nothing but the best intentions for the human race.

Among Luciferian’s god is seen as evil, trying to keep knowledge away from man. The same scenario was repeated in the Garden of Eden when the snake explained to Adam and eve that god didn’t want them to have knowledge that would make them wise.
From the book by William T Still, New World Order p. 40

Lucifer the Son of the Morning is it he who bears the light? doubt it not
Albert Pike Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry p.321.

“For the initiates this [Satan] is not a person, but a force created for good, but which may serve for evil. It is the instrument of Liberty or free will.”

They represent this force, which presides over the physical generation under the mythologic and horned form of the god Pan, thence came the he-goat of the Sabbat, brother of the ancient serpent, and the Light-bearer or phosphor, of which the poets have made the false Lucifer of the legend.”

Albert Pike …… Morals and Dogma from the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry p.200.

“The Masonic religion should be, by all of us initiates of the high degree, maintained in the purity of the Luciferian doctrine.

If Lucifer were not god, would Adonay (sic)whose deeds prove his cruelty, perfidy, and hatred of man, barbarianism and repulsion for science, would Adonay and his priests culminate him?
Yes Lucifer is god, and unfortunately Adonay is also god.
For the eternal law is that there is no light without shade, no beauty without ugliness, no white without black, for the absolute can only exist as two gods, darkness being necessary for light to serve as its foil as the pedestal is necessary to the state.
Thus the doctrine of Satanism is a heresy and the true and pure philosophical religion is the belief in Lucifer, the equal of Adonay but Lucifer and god, God of Light and God of Good, is struggling for humanity against Adonay, the God of Darkness and Evil.”

Albert Pike Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry p.217 Quoted again by William Shnoebelen in Masonry Behind the Light p.58-59

“When the Mason learns that the key to the warrior on the block is the proper application of the dynamo of living power, he has learned the mystery of his craft.
The seething energies of Lucifer are in his hands and before he may step onward and upward he must prove his ability to properly apply his energy.”

Manly P Hall The Lost Keys of Freemasonry p.48

For Thou [Lucifer] hast said in thine heart,
I will ascend into heaven,
I will exalt my throne above the stars of God :
I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation,
In the sides of the north :
I will ascend above the heights of the clouds
I will be like the most high
Isaiah 14:13-14

In so doing Lucifer moved to destroy monotheism to be replaced by many cults and orders thus introducing polytheism and many gods giving his cohorts a place in his court.
And no marvel: for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light [in the hearts of men].
Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also transformed as the ministers of righteousness:
Whose end shall be according to their works [so too those who follow the false doctrine]
2 Corinthians 11:14-15

Luciferianism in the Catholic Orders
For the Son of God became man so that we might become God
The only-begotten Son of God, wanting to make us shares in his divinity, assumed our nature,
So that he, made man, might make man gods.
Catechism of the Catholic Church p.116

Then I will be able to walk triumphantly. Like a God,
through the ruins of their kingdom.
Every word of mine is fire and action.
My beast is equal to that of the creator.
Karl Marx quoted in Marx and Satan by Rev Richard Wurmbrand p.13

The hellish vapours rise and fill the brain.
Till I go mad and my heart is utterly changed.
See this sword
The prince of Darkness Sold it too me.
For me he beats the time and gives the signs.
Ever more boldly I play the dance of death.
Karl Marx quoted in Marx and Satan by Rev Richard Wurmbrand p.15

Thus heaven Ive forfeited.
I know it full well.
My Soul, once true to God.
Is chosen for hell.
Karl Marx quoted in Marx and Satan by Rev Richard Wurmbrand p.22

The Black Nobility or Black Aristocracy (Italian: “nobiltà nera” or “aristocrazia nera”) are Roman aristocratic families who sided with the Papacy under Pope Pius IX after the Savoy family-led army of the Kingdom of Italy entered Rome on September 20, 1870, overthrew the Pope and the Papal States, and took over the Quirinal Palace, and any nobles subsequently ennobled by the Pope prior to the 1929 Lateran Treaty. For the next 59 years, the Pope confined himself to Vatican City and claimed to be a prisoner in the Vatican to avoid the appearance of accepting the authority of the new Italian government and state. Aristocrats who had been ennobled by the Pope and were formerly subjects of the Papal states, including the senior members of the Papal Court, kept the doors of their palaces in Rome closed to mourn the Pope’s confinement, which led to they’re being called the “Black Nobility”.

Despite the relatively recent name, the Black Nobility had existed for centuries, originating in the Baronial class of Rome and in the powerful families who moved to Rome to benefit from a family connection to the Vatican. These supported the Popes in the governance of the Papal States and in the administration of the Holy See. Many of the members of Black Noble families also became high-ranking clergy and even Popes. Black Nobility families (in this instance families whose ancestors included Popes) still in existence include notably the Colonna, Massimo, Orsini, Pallavicini, Borghese, Odescalchi, and Ludovisi. Schiaratura familly. Major extinct papal families include the Savelli, Caetani, the Aldobrandini family and Conti. Famous members of Black Nobility families include Eugenio Pacelli, who later became Pope Pius XII, Ernesto Pacelli, an important financier and Prospero Colonna, mayor of Rome.
Colonna, Orsini, Sacchetti, Massimo, Patrizi Naro Montoro, Serlupi Crescenzi), i Gaetani, Ruspoli, Radini Tedeschi, Borghese, Chigi, Gabrielli, Guglielmi, Lancellotti, Aldobrandini, Pallavicini, Odescalchi, Altieri, le Guardie Nobili (come gli Acqua), i Camerieri Segreti, i Parafrenieri Pontifici, i Sediari Pontifici e le altre che nel corso dei secoli avevano ricevuto dal romano Pontefice titoli o altri privilegi, come i Torlonia, Theodoli (m.si di baldacchino), Soderini (conti di baldacchino), Mazzetti di Pietralata, Del Gallo di Roccagiovine, Senni, Ricci Parracciani, Lepri, Rocchi, Bufalari, Datti, Pietromarchi, Pacelli, Tuccimei, Cantuti di Castelvetri
Boncompagni Ludovisi, Ottoboni, Caetani, Cesarini Sforza, Doria Pamphilj, Ruspoli, Sciarra, Schiaratura, Lovatelli, rami degli Odescalchi e dei Pallavicini.

[XX] Transcript of Norman Dodd Interview
[1] The Aldobrandini are claimed to be an Italian noble family from Florence. (Just from the following sentence we can see they were in fact tied to the Roman lines through marriage and not of.) Its Roman fortunes were made when Ippolito Aldobrandini became pope under the name Pope Clement VIII. He arranged the marriage that linked the Aldobrandini with the Roman family of Pamphili. Additionally, they were also linked to marriage alliances with the Farnese (Ranuccio I, duke of Parma, had married Margherita Aldobrandini) and Borghese (since Olimpia Aldobrandini married Paolo Borghese).

The family also lends its name to the Villa Aldobrandini on the Quirinal Hill. The Aldobrandini family, having reached the height of its powers when Ippolito Aldobrandini became Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605), began the building of the villa. In 1600 Clement VIII acquired the Orti Vitelli on the Quirinal hill and in 1601 donated the property to his nephew Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini. The old buildings of the Vitelli Family were demolished and construction began on the new villa and adjacent garden. The villa was never the family seat as the Aldobrandini family owned even more splendid residences elsewhere in Rome. The villa on the Quirinal hill served essentially for ceremonial functions.

More famous was the Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati. Also known as Belvedere for it’s charming location overlooking the whole valley up to Rome, it was rebuilt on the order of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, Pope Clement VIII’s nephew over a pre-existing edifice built by the Vatican prelate Alessandro Rufini in 1550. The villa, aligned with the cathedral down its axial avenue that is continued through the town as Viale Catone, was rebuilt in the current form by Giacomo della Porta from 1598 to 1602, and then completed by Carlo Maderno and Giovanni Fontana. The villa has an imposing 17th-century facade and some other interesting architectural and environmental features, such as the double gallery order on the rear facade, the spiral-shaped flights, the large exedra of the Water Theatre and the magnificent park. Inside there are paintings of Mannerist and Baroque artists such as the Zuccari brothers, Cavalier D Arpino and Domenichino. Outside there is a monumental gate by Carlo Francesco Bizzacheri (early 18th century).

[2] The Medici
This article is from the Encyclopaedia Brittanica 9th Edition, 1875. Most readers here would be aware this was the last Encyclopaedia Brittanica published before the Rockefellers bought it out.

[3] Sword Mitre and Cloister, Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980-1198, Constance Brittain Bouchard, 1987

Tags : Albert Pike, Aldobrandini, Caryl Matriciana, Cinzio-Aldobrandini, Committee of 300, Constellation Alde-Baeran, de Medici, Dennis De Rougement, Freemasonry, Giovanni dei Medici, Lucifer, Manly p Hall, Paolo Borghese, Pater patrioe, Perseus, Randall N. Baer, Renaissance, Rev Richard Wurmbrand, Salvestro dei Medici, the Beatles, Vitelli Family, William T Still


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