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Elizabeth II - History

Elizabeth II - History

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Elizabeth Taylor



Elizabeth Taylor was born in London England on Febrary 27, 1932.Perhaps no other actress has achieved the kind of worldwide interest and attention that has been enjoyed by Elizabeth Taylor since her first starring role in the motion picture National Velvet at age 12.

Through her long career, one marked by triumph and tragedy, Taylor has never been out of the public eye. Her fluctuating health, many marriages to men like Mike Todd, Richard Burton, Eddie Fisher, and John Warner coupled with her appearances in films such as Cleopatra (1963), Giant (1956), and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) have made Taylor one of the undisputed titans of Hollywood.

Taylor has won two Academy Awards in her career, in 1960 for Butterfield 8 and again in 1966 for Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf. In recent years, Taylor has used her fame to publicize and raise money for important causes, especially AIDS research.

LONDON — To the British people, he’s the longest-serving royal consort in the nation's history, serving alongside the queen for 65 years.

The country — and the world — paid tribute to Prince Philip after his death Friday at the age of 99.

But for his wife, Queen Elizabeth II, Philip's passing ends a 73-year marriage — one that began as a fairytale love story between a young princess and her older cousin.


World Prince Philip won't have state funeral, mourners asked to stay away because of Covid

Philip and Elizabeth first crossed paths in 1934 at a royal family wedding and then met properly again five years later in 1939 when she was 13 and he was 18 – the first time she said she remembered meeting him. The princess had accompanied her parents on a visit to Britain’s Royal Naval College where he was a cadet.

The two had very different upbringings.

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Handsome and athletic, Philip was worldly, having lived in Paris, Germany and the United Kingdom after his own royal family was forced to flee his birthplace, Greece. He spent much of his childhood apart from his parents and went on to serve in the Mediterranean and the Pacific during World War II.

Elizabeth, meanwhile, was educated at home and never left the U.K. She spoke fluent French and her education included constitutional history and law in preparation for her assumption to the throne.

According to a letter she wrote in 1947, she and Philip were able to spend time together after the war when he was stationed at a naval officers school and spent weekends and a long break with her family.


Photo Gallery At the queen's side: Prince Philip through the years

Their differing backgrounds was a cause of concern to other members of the royal family, according to Clive Irving, the author of “The Last Queen: How Queen Elizabeth II Saved the Monarchy.”

“Before they got married, there was a lot of hesitancy in the court and palace about whether he was the right match,” he said.

Their courtship also took place under the shadow of King Edward VIII, who abdicated in 1936 after he fell in love with an American woman, Wallis Simpson, who was twice divorced. Edward decided to step away from the monarchy rather than give her up.

“There was concern about the institution of the monarchy, as much as about the marriage,” Irving said.

Elizabeth and Philip announced their engagement in July 1947, and got married just over four months later, with the future queen smiling broadly in photos with her new husband. Like other brides in the years after World War II, Elizabeth had to use ration coupons to buy the materials for her wedding dress.

The wedding itself was a grand affair, with 2,000 guests at Westminster Abbey, a reception at Buckingham Palace and a 9-foot-tall wedding cake.

“We behave as though we had belonged to each other for years,” Elizabeth wrote in a letter to her parents shortly after they married. “Philip is an angel – he is so kind and thoughtful.’’

Philip, who was given the title the Duke of Edinburgh and rescinded his Greek royal title, was besotted with his young wife.

“My ambition is to weld the two of us into a new combined existence that will not only be able to withstand the shocks directed at us but will also have a positive existence for the good,” he wrote to his new mother-in-law shortly after the wedding.

This adoration was also clear to Elizabeth’s father, King George VI, who extolled his love in a letter to his daughter after her wedding, expressing how much he would miss her.

“I can see that you are sublimely happy with Philip which is right but don't forget us,” he wrote.

The couple soon had children, with Prince Charles arriving just a year after the wedding, and Princess Anne two years later.

During these early years, Philip concentrated on his military career and served as the commander of a Royal Navy ship. The couple lived in Malta from 1949 to 1951, where Elizabeth was less a princess than an officer’s wife.

This carefree existence came to an end with the unexpected death of Elizabeth’s father in 1952, just five years after Elizabeth and Philip’s wedding.

Elizabeth assumed the throne and Philip’s military career came to an end as he took on the role of royal consort, one that was difficult at first for Philip to adjust to, according to Irving.

Major Achievements of Queen Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth II Achievements

Loved by her country and millions across the world

In the past few years, many British royal family members – such as Meghan Markle, Prince Harry, Sophie, Countess of Wessex, Prince William, and Kate Middleton – have taken up the mantle and become extremely popular. However, none of that compares to the sheer amount of confidence and admiration that the British public, as well as the Commonwealth, have for Queen Elizabeth II.

Her tenacity displayed during patchy years in the 80s and 90s went on to solidify her claim as one of the greatest of British monarchs in history. Although she has never granted a single interview all throughout her over 65 years on the throne, Elizabeth II never lets her people down when it comes to communicating heartfelt emotions. These, and many others, are some of the reasons why the Queen is beloved my many.

Credited with injecting vigor and vitality into the British monarchy

In a time where monarchies across the world seem to be losing steam and public appeal, Queen Elizabeth II has steered the British monarchy into a path of continuous relevance and impact.

Born in 1926, you could say that the Queen has seen it all: World War II (WWII), the Korean War, the Cold War, the Falkland Islands War, and early ones like the Brexit crisis. In spite of all that, she showed nerves of steel in shepherding her country out of some pretty difficult situations. And even as Princess Elizabeth, she notably played a vital role in keeping the nation upbeat and strong during the Battle of Britain in WWII.

She is the longest-serving monarch in British history

Queen Elizabeth II holds the record of being Britain’s longest-reigning monarch. Succeeding her father King George VI in 1953, Elizabeth has carried herself in a manner that befits a true monarch for well over 65 years. Her ability to keep up with the changing times has earned her enormous praises from all corners of the world.

Her first milestone came in 2002, when she celebrated 50 years on the throne. This was followed by her Diamond and Sapphire Jubilee celebrations in 2012 and 2017 respectively.

In terms of longevity on the throne, Elizabeth II beats her great-grandmother, Queen Victoria , England’s second longest reigning monarch. It speaks volumes for a monarch to be regarded in the same light (or even better) as Queen Victoria.

Head of the Commonwealth

HM Queen Elizabeth II flanked by the Prime Ministers of the Commonwealth Nations, at Windsor Castle (1960)

When Elizabeth became queen in 1952, she became the head of Commonwealth realms – a group of sovereign territories and protectorates that consider the Queen as the head of state. As at 2020, there are 16 states that fall under the Commonwealth realm, including Jamaica, Grenada, Australia, the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, etc. These 16 countries are also members of the Commonwealth of Nations of which the Queen serves as the head.

The Commonwealth of Nations are a group of 53 independent countries (mostly former colonies of the British Empire) that work together to promote socio-economic and cultural ties amongst themselves.

It is estimated that the Commonwealth of Nations alone account for a third of the world’s population majority of these countries are in Africa.

As head of the Commonwealth, the Queen has been instrumental in bringing several socio-economic benefits to those countries. For example, the Commonwealth Games, which is held every four years, is a global event that helps to promote corporation among those 53 nations using the power of sports. In some regard, it is almost like the Olympics. It has also been estimated that she has visited over 110 countries during her long reign as queen.

Weathered the storm during her “annus horribilis”

What did Elizabeth say to the years that marked her “annus horribilis”? Our guess is that she must have said something like “bring it on!”

Imagine having 3 out of 4 children of yours all divorcing in the same period? Now, throw in a few more misfortunes, say your home getting burnt and then a few years later, losing your daughter-in-law in a freak accident. Unfortunately, those were the exact series of events that Elizabeth II went through during the early 1990s. She even termed that era (1992 to be specific) as her “annus horribilis”, meaning a horrible year in Latin. Three of her children – Prince Charles, Prince Andrew, and Princess Anne – had marriages that were bedeviled by enormous problems, hence, all three got divorced.

Elizabeth II is the best person to truly epitomize the term “what doesn’t kill you makes you stronger”. She remained resolute all throughout those horrific events and guided her family into brighter days.

Serves as important symbols for national identity and pride

Queen Elizabeth II Achievements | Image source: Royal.uk

Fast forward to the 21 st century and you can’t help but notice how the Queen never ceased to inject high doses of commitment and passion into her job. A true matriarch of the royal family, Elizabeth II has been responsible for making the monarchy once again relevant to the ideals and aspirations of the newer generations on social media. For example, she has kept up with the trends of the fast-changing internet environment. In 1997, she launched a website that details the charitable activities and works of the royal family.

In order to show her support of digital communication platforms, she made her first tweet in 2014. Five years later, in March 2019, the Queen made her first Instagram post during her visit to the British Science Museum, London. Elizabeth II has always been fan of healthy communication via tech tools. As far back as 1976, the Queen became the first monarch (also one of the first people in the world) to send an e-mail.

Helped pass the Crown Act of 2013

Up until 2013, the succession to the English crown heavily favored princes over princesses. What this meant was that princes were closer in line to the throne than their older sisters. However, this all changed in 2013 when the British Parliament enacted the Crown Act (2013). The act states that succession will be dissociated from the gender. This was a very empowering thing to do, and the Queen made sure that it got passed. By so doing she championed gender equality and equality of opportunities in her country. For example, the Queen’s great-grand child Princess Charlotte (the daughter of Prince William and Kate Middleton) is closer in line to the English throne than her younger brother Prince Louis.

Her reign saw the decolonization of several countries

Since 1952, Elizabeth has been the head of the Commonwealth, a group of countries and territories scattered across the world. Most notable of those countries were Canada, South Africa, Pakistan, Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), New Zealand, and Australia. From the early 1950s up to the 1990s, the Queen helped many of those countries in gaining independence or some sort of autonomy. This was particularly crucial in Africa, where virtually all of Britain’s colonies gained independence during her reign.

Although her role is largely ceremonial, it must be noted that Elizabeth II still serves as the head of state of about 16 countries, including Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, and a few others.

In 1977, the Queen showed so much leadership during the Patriation process in Canada. The process resulted in Canada removing the sway the British Parliament had on Canadians. However, Canadians still kept the Queen as the head of state.

She survived a couple of assassination attempts

On June 13, 1981, a 17-year-old by name Marcus Simon Serjeant fired six shots at the Queen, who was by then riding a horse (a 19-year-old Burmese horse) during the Trooping the Color ceremony in London. Luckily, the shots that were fired were blank, and the Queen was not harmed. What is remarkable about this incident is the level of composure the Queen exhibited while being under obvious threat. Tried under the 1842 Treason Act, the assailant, who was by the way a former air cadet from Kent, was slapped with a five-year prison sentence.

Then in October, 1981, the Queen’s life came under another threat when she visited Dunedin, New Zealand. The assailant was Christopher John Lewis, a 17-year-old man, who was armed with a .22 rifle. Christopher fired a single shot from an empty toilet stall in a story building close to where the Queen’s convoy passed. Christopher missed and was immediately apprehended by the police. For his crimes, the deranged man was sentenced to three years in a psychiatric prison. He would later take his life while serving his time.

The first British Monarch to address the U.S. Congress

The relationship between the U.S. and Britain is one that has been described as unbreakable by many experts. However, it was not always like this, bearing in mind that America was once a British colony, and that the two sides fought against each other during America’s long-struggle for independence.

Therefore, Queen Elizabeth II’s address to the United States Congress in 1991 was a very historic moment for both countries. By so doing, the Queen became the first British monarch to attain this feat.

Boosted the morale of Britain during WWII

Queen Elizabeth II (then Princess Elizabeth) serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service during WWII

With the outbreak of World War II (WWII) in 1939, the Queen (then Princess Elizabeth) – in her early teens by then – was eager to contribute to the defending of her people. Due to her important role in the society, i.e. being the heiress presumptive, Elizabeth was able to lift up the spirit of children all across the nation. She periodically made radio broadcasts during the war in a bid to bring joy to her people. The first of such radio broadcasts came via the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) in a program called Children’s Hour.

Queen Elizabeth II Achievements | Queen Elizabeth II BBC broadcast during WWII

As WWII heated up, she would go on to serve as a mechanic and then a driver in the women’s Auxiliary Territorial Service. Her bravery in the face of adversity was unmatched in her royal family.

The Queen and the Commonwealth: a force for international change?

As Britain was losing its grip on a shrinking empire, Elizabeth II pledged her "heart and soul" as the head of the Commonwealth. Ashley Jackson looks at her special status among nations and her role as an agent of international change

This competition is now closed

Published: March 9, 2020 at 10:00 am

The modern Commonwealth and Elizabeth II grew up together. They are age-mates – one might force an analogy and call them twins. Elizabeth’s birth year, 1926, was also the year of the Balfour Declaration (named after Arthur Balfour, as was the famous 1917 letter on the future of Palestine), a landmark statement acknowledging the independence of the ‘white’ Dominions in relation to Britain, bound only by their attachment to the crown. It was the Commonwealth’s foundational moment and the declaration’s principles extended to the empire’s non-white territories following the Second World War. The process of decolonisation, and the evolution of the Commonwealth of Nations that shadowed it, became leitmotifs of the new Elizabethan age, from the independence of Ghana in 1957 to the hand-over of Hong Kong four decades later.

I should make clear that any article on the Queen demands the caveat that much of what is written is speculative. This is because the Queen has not created a personal archive open to the public, published voluminous diaries or memoirs, granted interviews, or reflected autobiographically on Desert Island Discs. Given this, we are fortunate to have Philip Murphy’s study of the Queen, Monarchy and the End of Empire (2013), to guide us here.

The royal family’s role and identity became entwined with the British empire during Victoria’s reign and, by the time Elizabeth was born, the Windsors had become an imperial dynasty. In that interwar autumn of British power, against the backdrop of a vast empire buffeted by fissiparous currents of nationalism and the tide of British decline, the monarchy was nurtured as a symbol of unity. As a girl, Elizabeth observed her parents embarking on royal tours, such as the 1939 visit to North America. She accompanied them on the 1947 southern Africa tour, her debut as a royal performer on the international stage. The trip afforded her a vivid preview of the Commonwealth duties that lay ahead. Conveyed aboard Britain’s last great battleship, HMS Vanguard, the tour took in Bechuanaland, Basutoland, the Rhodesias and South Africa. Over a month of the four-month expedition was spent sleeping aboard the ‘White Train’ which carried them for much of the journey between Cape Town, Salisbury and the Victoria Falls.

On the occasion of her 21st birthday, Elizabeth made a memorable debut broadcast from Cape Town to the empire-Commonwealth. The South African government made it the highlight of the visit, declaring a national holiday, and the young princess delivered a striking speech noted both for the words, written by the king’s private secretary, Sir Alan Lascelles, and for the sincerity with which they were enunciated. She addressed “the youth of the British family of nations” and pledged her life to the service of the Commonwealth – a “solemn act of dedication”, she said, made “with a whole empire listening”. This tour profoundly affected her outlook, helping to establish a Commonwealth interest and loyalty that became a consistent theme of her reign. Shortly after this defining tour, and further developing her Commonwealth perspective, Princess Elizabeth lived in Malta from 1949–51, where Prince Philip was stationed with the Mediterranean Fleet.

In 1952, Princess Elizabeth and her husband embarked on a tour of Australasia and east Africa. Undertaken on behalf of the ailing George VI, they made it no further than Kenya before news of his death was received. She thus became Queen while in the Aberdare mountains, in sight of Mount Kenya. The subsequent coronation was the swansong of the great imperial procession. Nevertheless, it featured adjustments that reflected the reality of the newly emergent Common­wealth. For example, the Accession Proclamation omitted reference to the ‘Imperial Crown’ – which would have had no meaning for independent India – employing instead the term ‘Head of Commonwealth’. Elizabeth’s sense of destiny and duty was confirmed by the event, with its strong Commonwealth flavour, including the presence of 300 guests from the empire-Commonwealth in Westminster Abbey alone.

Soon after her coronation, the Queen embarked on a 40,000-mile Commonwealth tour which took her to the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, Aden, east Africa, Ceylon, Australasia and the Pacific. The 1953 Christmas Day broadcast came from Auckland and in it the Queen stressed that the Commonwealth bore “no resemblance to the empires of the past. It is an entirely new conception – built on the higher qualities of the spirit of man: friendship, loyalty, and the desire for freedom and peace. To that new conception of an equal partnership of nations and races I shall give my heart and soul every day of my life.”

Looking forward from the vantage point of 1952 and Elizabeth’s accession, most of the British empire remained intact. Although change was afoot in the world, she would not have known just how rapidly it would come. No one did. Yet in the first dozen years of her reign, the empire all but disappeared, to the point that in 1965 the term ‘British empire’ had ceased commonly to be used. With the emergence of a multiracial Commonwealth of independent nations sporting divergent interests, the Queen’s role became one of providing continuity during transformation. The process of decolonisation gathered pace in the 1950s, entered a sprint in the 1960s, then slowed to a steady pace in the 1970s and a trickle in the 1980s. Decolon­isation meant that the modern Commonwealth was not going to be the vehicle for British world power that many politicians had hoped for. It was not going to be a British empire-lite. A key aspect of the Queen’s interpretation and performance of her role as head of the Commonwealth was her understanding of the fact that this was irrevocably a multiracial and multinational association. Ahead of the curve, unlike many of her ministers and indeed her British subjects, she discerned the need to avoid ‘old’ ideas of imperial loyalty or Anglo-Saxon superiority and instead to embrace new members. She emphasised the importance of common history, ideas and values – theoretically shared by the diverse people of the Commonwealth, even if not by their leaders.

The vicissitudes of international politics, inevitably, rent, repaired and refashioned the Common-wealth cloth. There were high-profile departures, such as those of Ireland, South Africa and Fiji expulsions, applications to rejoin, applications to join anew from countries never under British rule invasions of Commonwealth realms and damaging intra-Commonwealth disputes. Differences over republicanism, Britain’s applications to join the EEC, declining British-Commonwealth trade and the fundamental realities of political divergence, shaped the Commonwealth. So too did the desire of some Commonwealth states to strengthen ties with Britain and with the monarchy, creating what has been termed a ‘royal Commonwealth’. Moments of high drama such as the Suez Crisis strained relations between Common­wealth countries and Britain, as did slow-burning issues such as the response to struggles against white minority rule in Rhodesia/Zimbabwe and South Africa.

As head of state, as head of the Commonwealth and as Queen, Elizabeth negotiated the many challenges of independence, evolving relationships with new countries, and protocol. This was against an international landscape charged with the currents of east-west rivalry and north-south discord. The relationship with her own prime ministers and governments has sometimes been difficult and obliged the Queen to navigate a different course or to distance herself from government policies and the conduct of her ministers.

So what has Elizabeth II brought to the Commonwealth? Experts inevitably point to personal qualities, relationships and conduct. Her sensitivity is often remarked upon, as is her fundamental awareness of the Common­wealth as a postcolonial entity. Her awareness of other people and sense of caring is widely regarded, as is the strength of relationships that she has developed with the many leaders with whom she has dealt over a span of seven decades. This has engendered personal loyalties and affinities with Commonwealth leaders, irrespective of their politics or ideologies or, indeed, the attitude of British governments towards them. The Queen’s attendance at key Commonwealth events, such as the regular Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings, brings the emollient presence of a central figure outside of politics and one possessed of unrivalled experience. For many of the Commonwealth’s smaller states, recognition of the Queen and Common­wealth offers a sense of security and connection with the wider world.

It also helps that the Queen has visited 116 countries, including those of the Commonwealth she is probably the most widely-travelled head of state in history. Royal tours and state visits have become ineffable features of international diplomacy, Britain’s global profile and the modern Commonwealth. Tours and visits have been innumerable, including milestones such as the 1961 visit to India and Pakistan (which set the tone for visits to Commonwealth republics), the 2011 visit to Ireland and the tour of South Africa in 1995. Such occasions attracted significant media attention and sometimes marked major changes in relations between Britain and the countries involved, or key developments in their political and constitutional history.

Largely because the Commonwealth failed to develop as an agency of British power, the British government and establishment, and indeed the British people, lost interest and collectively forgot why, apart from shared history, it was there. But the Queen did not. Unlike her position as monarch of the United Kingdom, the headship of the modern Commonwealth was something that she had been instrumental in creating. Her roles as head of a Commonwealth of 53 nations and head of state in 16 of them continued to be taken with a seriousness not necessarily reflected in Westminster or Whitehall.

It has been speciously suggested that the Queen needed the Commonwealth more than the other way around. The historian Ben Pimlott succinctly (and more accurately) captured the symbiotic relationship: “The monarchy, with its imperial memory, keenly sought a Commonwealth role, partly to justify itself, but also because it had taken its supra-national role seriously, and – in a way that was never quite understood by politicians – it continued to relate to distant communities which showed their loyalty in ways that did not necessarily come to the attention of Whitehall.”

Harold Macmillan said that the Commonwealth “offered opportunities for a monarchical role, carved out for herself, that the United Kingdom could not provide”. The Common­wealth might have become a loose association and ties to the former ‘mother country’ been eroded by decolonisation, globalisation, demographic change, divergent views and changing patterns of trade. But the umbilical cord that linked states constitutionally to the monarchy continued to give the palace a different perspective and created a new space of contact – one beyond, in many ways, British society and politics. The question is how long these historical and, in some ways, anomalous links will continue, and where the extraordinary relationship that has developed between the Queen and the Commonwealth will go.

This article first appeared in BBC History Magazine’s ‘The Queen at 90’ bookazine

After meeting Eisenhower, the queen traveled to New York City, where she also met with former President Herbert Hoover, who had been out of office for 24 years. They gathered at a luncheon hosted by then-New York City Mayor Robert Wagner.

During his first year as president, John F. Kennedy, along with first lady Jacqueline Kennedy, traveled to the U.K. for a banquet in his honor. The Kennedys met with the queen and Philip at Buckingham Palace on June 5.

After returning to the U.S., Kennedy sent the queen a birthday message on June 9, adding at the end of his letter, “May I also at the same time say how grateful my wife and I are for the cordial hospitality offered to us by your Majesty and Prince Philip during our visit to London last Monday. We shall always cherish the memory of that delightful evening.”

Generation 8 (5th Great-Grandparents)

  • 128. Ernst Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (father of 64)

  • 129. Sophia Antonia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (mother of 64)

  • 130. Heinrich XXIV, Count Reuss of Ebersdorf (father of 65)

  • 131. Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg (mother of 65)

  • 132. Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (father of 66)

  • 133. Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen (mother of 66)
  • �. Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (father of 67)

  • 135. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (mother of 67)
  • �. Frederick, Prince of Wales (father of 68), same person as 88

  • 137. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (mother of 68), same person as 89

  • 138. Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg (father of 69), same person as 90

  • 139. Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen (mother of 69), same person as 91

  • 140. same person as 128

  • 141. same person as 129
  • �. same person as 130

  • 143. same person as 131

  • 144. Karl Anton August, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (father of 72)

  • 145. Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Schlodien (mother of 72)

  • 146. Count Charles Leopold von Schlieben (father of 73)
  • �. Countess Maria Eleonore of Lehndorff (mother of 73)

  • 148. Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (father of 74 & 76), same person as 92

  • 149. Princess Mary of Great Britain (mother of 74 & 76), same person as 93
  • �. Frederick V of Denmark (father of 75 & 78)

  • 151. Princess Louise of Great Britain (mother of 75)

  • 152. same person as 148

  • 153. same person as 149

  • 154. Charles William, Prince of Nassau-Usingen (father of 77), same person as 94

  • 155. Countess Caroline Felizitas of Leiningen-Dagsburg (mother of 77), same person as 95

  • 156. same person as 150
  • �. Duchess Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (mother of 78)
  • �. Duke Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (father of 79)
  • 159. Princess Charlotte Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (mother of 79)

  • 160. Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg (father of 80)

  • 161. Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis (mother of 80)

  • 162. Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg-Schwedt (father of 81)

  • 163. Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia (mother of 81)
  • �. Charles August, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (father of 82)

  • 165. Augusta Frederika Wilhelmina of Nassau-Idstein (mother of 82)

  • 166. William IV, Prince of Orange (father of 83)

  • 167. Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange (mother of 83)
  • �. Count László Rhຝy de Kis-Rh (father of 84)
  • �. Countess Mária Toroczkay de Toroczkó-Szent-György (mother of 84)
  • �. Count Boldizsár Bánffy de Losoncz (father of 85)

  • 171. Krisztina Kemény de Magyar-Gyerö-Monostor (mother of 85)
  • �. Baron Gergely Inczຝy de Nagy-Várad (father of 86)

  • 173. Baroness Ágnes Kendeffy de Malmoviz (mother of 86)

  • 174. Baron Péter Barcsay de Nagy-Barcsa (father of 87)

  • 175. Baroness Terézia Inczຝy de Nagy-Várad (mother of 87)

  • 184. William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (father of 92)

  • 185. Dorothea Wilhelmine of Saxe-Zeitz (mother of 92)

  • 186. George II of Great Britain (father of 93)

  • 187. Caroline of Ansbach (mother of 93)

  • 188. Charles, Prince of Nassau-Usingen (father of 94)

  • 189. Christina Wilhelmina of Saxe-Eisenach (mother of 94)

  • 190. Christian Karl Reinhard of Leiningen-Dachsburg-Falkenburg-Heidesheim (father of 95)
  • �. Katherine Polyxene of Solms-Rlheim and Assenheim (mother of 95)

  • 192. Thomas Lyon, 8th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (father of 96)

  • 193. Jean Nicholsen (mother of 96)

  • 194. George Bowes (father of 97)

  • 195. Mary Gilbert (mother of 97)

Prada Men’s Spring 2022

According to the House of Garrard, the tiara snapped on the day of Queen Elizabeth&rsquos wedding as she was getting ready for the ceremony. A police escort transported the tiara to the jeweler&rsquos workshop where it was mended just in time for the wedding.

Queen Elizabeth has gone on to wear the tiara frequently throughout her reign. She also lent the tiara to her daughter Princess Anne for her wedding in 1973 and her granddaughter Princess Beatrice for her royal wedding in 2020.

Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara

The Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara is one of the queen’s most recognizable headpieces, as she’s frequently seen wearing the tiara. The diamond tiara was purchased by Queen Mary’s ladies-in-waiting as a wedding gift in 1898, according to the House of Garrard. Queen Mary later gave the tiara to her granddaughter as a wedding gift in 1947.

While the queen did not wear the tiara on her wedding day, she has regularly worn the piece throughout her reign and is seen wearing the tiara on certain issues of British and Commonwealth banknotes.

The Grand Duchess Vladimir Tiara

Queen Elizabeth II in 1963 and 2006.

The Grand Duchess Vladimir Tiara is another of the queen’s most frequently worn pieces. The tiara was commissioned by the Duchess Vladimir in 1874 from the Romanov court jeweler, Bolin, and was smuggled out of the country after the duchess fled St. Petersburg during the Russian Revolution in 1918, according to Town & Country.

The duchess&rsquo family later sold the tiara after her death in 1909 to Queen Mary, who had the tiara altered so that emeralds or pearls could be added to the piece as desired. Queen Elizabeth later inherited the tiara from her grandmother upon assuming the throne and has regularly worn the piece throughout her reign with emeralds or pearls and without additional jewels.

The State Diadem

Queen Elizabeth II at the State Opening of Parliament in 2014. Heathcliff O'Malley/Shutterstock

The State Diadem has been in the British royal family since 1821 when it was made for King George IV&rsquos coronation. After his death the diadem was passed to Queen Adelaide, consort of King William IV, who made it tradition for female monarchs to wear the piece, according to the Royal Collection Trust.

The diadem was passed down to Queen Elizabeth, who wore the headpiece on the way to her coronation at Westminster Abbey in June 1953. The queen continues to wear the diadem on her way to and from every State Opening of Parliament.

The State Diadem is made with more than 1,000 diamonds &mdash including a 4-carat yellow diamond at the center &mdash and roughly 170 pearls.

Lover&rsquos Knot Tiara

Princess Diana in 1989 and the Duchess of Cambridge in 2018. REX/Shutterstock

Queen Mary commissioned the Lover&rsquos Knot Tiara in 1913 to the House of Garrard, and the piece has since become one of the most recognizable tiaras of the British royal family. The tiara was often worn by the late Princess Diana and is frequently seen on the Duchess of Cambridge, Kate Middleton.

The tiara was created with 19 baroque pearls and rose-cut diamonds, which are set in a series of heart-shaped knots.

Queen Elizabeth gifted the tiara to Princess Diana as a wedding present, which the princess wore on multiple occasions, including a visit to Hong Kong in 1989. Princess Diana later returned the tiara to Queen Elizabeth after her divorce from Prince Charles in 1996.

Queen Mary&rsquos Bandeau Tiara

The Duchess of Sussex, Meghan Markle, at her royal wedding in 2018. David Fisher/Shutterstock

Queen Mary&rsquos Bandeau Tiara was created in 1932 from a brooch she received in 1893 by the County of Lincoln for her marriage to the future King George V. The tiara was designed with a flexible band of 11 sections with pavé-set diamonds. The center brooch includes 10 individual diamonds. Queen Elizabeth received the tiara when her grandmother died in 1953.

The queen lent the tiara to the Duchess of Sussex, Meghan Markle, for her wedding to Prince Harry in 2018.

Cartier Halo Tiara

The Duchess of Cambridge, Kate Middleton, at her royal wedding in 2011. Sipa/Shutterstock

King George VI, the queen&rsquos father, commissioned the Cartier Halo Tiara in 1936 for his wife just shortly before he assumed the throne. She gifted the tiara to Queen Elizabeth on her 18th birthday. The tiara is set with 739 brilliant and 149 baton diamonds, according to the Royal Collection Trust.

The queen later lent the tiara to the Duchess of Cambridge, Kate Middleton, to wear at her wedding to Prince William in 2011.

Burmese Ruby Tiara

Queen Elizabeth II in 1992. Assignments/Shutterstock

Queen Elizabeth commissioned her Burmese Ruby Tiara to the House of Garrard in 1973, using rubies that were given to her as a wedding gift by the people of Myanmar (formerly known as Burma).

The rubies are extremely rare and were banned in the U.S. starting in the early Aughts as part of President George W. Bush&rsquos continued sanctions on Myanmar for its military regime. President Obama later lifted these sanctions and its subsequent ban on the rubies in 2016.

According to the House of Garrard, the 96 rubies in the tiara have a symbolic meaning as in Burmese culture, the stones are said to protect against evil and illnesses.

Given the supposed meaning, the queen made headlines last year when she wore the tiara during a state dinner with then-President Trump at Buckingham Palace.

Greville Emerald Kokoshnik Tiara

Princess Eugenie’s wedding in 2018. Tim Rooke/Shutterstock

The Greville Emerald Kokoshnik Tiara was created in 1919 by Boucheron for Margaret Greville, a well-known socialite who left her jewels to Queen Elizabeth’s mother upon her death. The tiara takes its style from those popular in Russia&rsquos Imperial Court in the early 19th century. It is made with rose-cut pavé diamonds set in platinum and features six emeralds, with the central stone sizing at 93.7 carats.

The Queen lent the tiara to her granddaughter Princess Eugenie for her royal wedding in 2018.

Delhi Durbar Tiara

The Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla Parker Bowles, in 2005. Shutterstock

The Delhi Durbar Tiara was made in 1911 for Queen Mary to wear for King George V&rsquos succession as King Emperor of India. The tiara was originally set with 10 large emeralds, but they were later removed in 1922 for other uses.

Queen Elizabeth acquired the tiara after her mother&rsquos death in 2002. She has since lent the tiara to her daughter-in-law, the Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla Parker Bowles.

The Brazilian Aquamarine Tiara

Queen Elizabeth II in 2011. Shutterstock

Queen Elizabeth commissioned her Brazilian Aquamarine Tiara from the House of Garrard to match a diamond and aquamarine earring and necklace set that the people of Brazil gifted her for her coronation in 1953.

The Sapphire Tiara

Queen Elizabeth II in 1969. Reginald Davis/Shutterstock

The queen commissioned her sapphire tiara in 1963 to match a set of diamond and sapphire earrings and a necklace given to her by her father for her wedding.

Read more here:

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The Coronation

“Sirs, I here present unto you
your undoubted Queen:
Wherefore all you who are come this day
to do your homage and service,
Are you willing to do the same?”

The public signified its willingness and joy by loud and repeated acclamations, with one voice crying out, “God Save the Queen”, and hence, she was formally accepted to rule the hearts of British people, for decades to come.

A look at the queen's history-making visits with American presidents

President Biden and first lady Jill Biden shared afternoon tea with Queen Elizabeth II at Windsor Castle on Sunday. But while that gathering was a first for the first couple, the queen's encounters with American presidents and their wives is a piece of history all its own.

In her nearly 70-year reign, Queen Elizabeth may have met more U.S. presidents than anyone else alive today.

Some were a bit out of order. She met the nation's 31st president, Herbert Hoover, at a 1957 luncheon &mdash 24 years after he left office.

And she was only Princess Elizabeth when she and her late husband met President Harry Truman in Washington, on behalf of her father, King George.

American President Harry Truman and Elizabeth II in the back of the Lincoln Cosmopolitan Presidential state car, Washington, D.C., on October 31, 1951. Image courtesy National Archives/Getty Images

But most of the encounters have been as queen, and with a sitting president &mdash including a 1959 visit by Dwight Eisenhower to Balmoral Castle in Scotland, a 1961 state dinner at Buckingham Palace for John and Jackie Kennedy, and a 1969 palace tour for President Richard Nixon.

In 1976, President Ford played host, waltzing with Queen Elizabeth at the White House to celebrate the nation's bicentennial.

The Royals

Jimmy Carter also made quite an impression on the queen and her mother. During a 1977 Buckingham Palace state dinner &mdash instead of bowing his head or shaking the queen mother's hand, he decided to kiss her right on the lips.

President Jimmy Carter (second right) speaks with Her Majesties The Queen and the Queen Mother as Prince Philip and Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti (r) look on in the Blue Drawing Room at Buckingham Palace. PA Images/ Contributor/Getty

Ronald Reagan, a personal favorite of her majesty, bonded with the queen over their mutual love of horses.

And in 1991, President George H.W. Bush took the royal couple to one of America's favorite pastimes: a baseball game, between the Baltimore Orioles and the Oakland A's.

Bill Clinton and George W. Bush each met with the queen and Prince Philip on numerous occasions, without any major breaches of royal protocol.

President Bill Clinton talks with Elizabeth II along with the first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and daughter Chelsea at the Garden Entrance of Buckingham Palace, on December, 14, 2000, in London, England. PAUL J. RICHARDS/AFP via Getty Images

Unfortunately, more recent presidents weren't so lucky.

While toasting the monarch at a 2009 state dinner, President Obama kept right on talking as the band played the British national anthem.

And most recently, Donald Trump drew some raised British eyebrows when he walked ahead of the queen during their 2018 visit.

In this file photo dated July 13, 2018, President Trump and Britain's Queen Elizabeth II inspect a Guard of Honour, formed of the Coldstream Guards at Windsor Castle in Windsor, England. Matt Dunham/AP

British Royal Family History

Elizabeth II has reigned for 69 years, 4 months, and 14 days.

Queen Elizabeth II became Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth on 6th February 1952. She is head of the British Royal Family, has 4 children, 8 grandchildren and 11 great-grandchildren, and is 95 years, 2 months, old.

She is the 32nd great-granddaughter of King Alfred the Great who was the first effective King of England 871-899. See Royal Family Tree.

She was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 2nd June 1953, nearly eighteen months after she succeeded her father, King George VI who died on 6th February 1952. As of today she has reigned for 69 years, 4 months, and 14 days. 2nd June 2013 was the 60th anniversary of her coronation. She will have reigned for 70 years on 6th February 2022 and plans are being put in place to stage a series of events from 2-5 June 2022 to celebrate her 70th Platinum Jubilee.

On 21st December 2007 she became the oldest reigning British monarch having lived longer than Queen Victoria who died 22nd January 1901 aged 81 years, 7 months and 29 days. On 20th November 2020 Queen Elizabeth II celebrated her 73rd wedding anniversary. On 21st April 2020 she became 94 years old.

On 10th September 2015 Queen Elizabeth II became the longest reigning monarch in over 1,200 years of British History when the length of her reign surpassed her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria who reigned for 63 years and 7 months from 20th June 1837 to 22nd January 1901. See British Kings & Queens by Length of Reign.

2017 was the 100th anniversary of the House of Windsor. It was founded by the Queen's grandfather King George V on 17th July 1917.

The Queen and her husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, were married on 20th November 1947 at Westminster Abbey, and in 2020 celebrated their 73rd wedding anniversary. Prince Philip died at Windsor on 9th April 2021 just 2 months before his 100th birthday. He was the longest ever serving royal consort and oldest spouse of a reigning British monarch.

Their eldest son Prince Charles became 72 years old on 14th November 2020 and is the longest waiting and oldest ever heir to the throne. See British Kings & Queens by Age of Ascent.

On 29th April 2011 the Queen's grandson Prince William, who is 2nd in line to the throne, married Catherine (Kate) Middleton in Westminster Abbey. They are now the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, and in Scotland the Earl and Countess of Strathearn. On 22nd July 2013 their first child Prince George was born. He is now 3rd in Line of Succession to the thone after his father, Prince William, and his grandfather Prince Charles. Their second child Princess Charlotte was born on 2nd May 2015 and is 4th in line. Their 3rd child, Prince Louis who is 5th in line, was born on 23rd April 2018.

The Queen's grandson Prince Henry (known as Harry), who is 6th in line to the throne, and Meghan Markle were married in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 19th May 2018. They are now the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, and in Scotland the Earl and Countess of Dumbarton. Their son Archie was born on 6th May 2019, and their daughter Lilibet on 4th June 2021. They have stepped down from their royal roles and now live in California.

The Queen's granddaughter Princess Eugenie married Jack Brooksbank in St George's Chapel on the 12th October 2018. Their first child August Philip was born on 9th February 2021. Her sister Princess Beatrice married Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi in the Royal Chapel of All Saints, Windsor, on 17th July 2020.

Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and Head of the Commonwealth of Nations. Great Britain was formed 310 years ago by the Act of Union between England and Scotland on 1st April 1707. More about Great Britain and the United Kingdom.

As well as the United Kingdom, she is Queen of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts and Nevis, where she is represented by Governors-General. The sixteen countries of which she is Queen are known as Commonwealth Realms, and their combined population is 150 million.

She is Head of the Commonwealth of Nations comprising 54 member states and over 20% of the Word's land in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. The aims of the Commonwealth include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace. The 2.4 billion people in the member states account for almost a third of the world's population.

Her reign of over 69 years has seen 14 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, and numerous Prime Ministers in the Commonwealth Realms of which she is (or was) also Head of State between them she has had a total of over 170 Prime Ministers including 12 Canadian and 18 Australian Prime Ministers during her reign. There have been 14 US Presidents during her reign.