History Podcasts

Did Time magazine aid Al Capone?

Did Time magazine aid Al Capone?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Note: maybe this should be on the law This Site, I really am not sure!

In 1930, Al Capone made the cover of Time Magazine. Assuming this image was taken by Time Magazine, they would have had to call in Al Capone, have him sit for a headshot, and let him leave. Wouldn't this be considered aiding and abetting a criminal in that they knew who he was but didn't try in any way to stop him or arrest him? I asked a teacher about it and he said laws were different back then- but were they so different that aiding a criminal wasn't illegal? If it was illegal, why didn't the federal government do anything?

Note #2: if this should be broken up into more than one question, also, please let me know! Thank you!


Leaving aside the fact that Al Capone was not actually wanted by the police at that point (for lack of sufficient evidence that could lead to a guilty verdict) as @C.Monsour pointed out:

The whole idea of much of the jurisdiction surrounding the press, the special status afforded to journalists, is that they are allowed, indeed expected to talk to all kinds of people, including those who are "wanted", fugitives, or would otherwise face less favorable handling by police, intelligence agencies, or governments. Without having to disclose the whereabouts, or even identity, of their sources.

Journalists are in the business of reporting both sides of a story, not in apprehending -- or helping to apprehend -- people the executive branch might consider criminals. If there were something inherently wrong in journalists not arresting a wanted person, they could not conduct interviews with e.g. whistleblowers, illegal immigrants, terrorists, etc. etc.

To the contrary, the fact that they are very much not in the business of apprehending / arresting people is what protects journalists. Like battlefield medics, they are protected by the very fact that they do not get involved, just report what is happening, and can therefore be considered "neutral" in that regard.


Note: @C.Monsour's comment should be the definitive answer to this question. Capone was not a fugitive. If @CMonsour will provide that as an answer, I'd urge all to upvote it and urge OP to accept the answer as authoritative.


I am not a lawyer, but I interpret "aiding and abetting" differently.

Aiding and abetting is a legal doctrine related to the guilt of someone who aids or abets in the commission of a crime (or in another's suicide). Wikipedia

and

In all cases of aiding and abetting, it must be shown a crime has been committed, but not necessarily who committed it. Ibid

When he was sitting for a photograph, was he committing a crime? If not, then the photographer was not "aiding and abetting". (Aside: I seriously doubt that they called Capone in to sit - Newspapers go to the story, they don't ask the story to come to them).

Did they send a photographer to take the headshot, or did they use a stock photo? Or did they purchase the photo from a stringer? If they invited him to the office, then there might have been counter-charges of entrapment, although I don't know how Illinois dealt with that at the time.

The question suggests that they should have arrested him. Still not a lawyer, but the power of citizen's arrest is very limited. I believe this power would be governed by state law, and I'm not familiar with 1930's Illinois law, but the Wikipedia summary is:

In the United States a private person may arrest another without a warrant, for a crime occurring in their presence. For which crimes this is permitted may vary state by state. Wikipedia

Once again, if the photographer didn't observe the crime, then the citizen's arrest might not be legal; I even think it is plausible that it would complicate police's attempt to arrest Capone.

Finally, one must consider Freedom of the press. @Devsolar's answer on this issue is superior, although I wish it explicitly called out to the First Amendment's protection of Freedom of the Press, which would make it very difficult for the government to prosecute a journalist for performing a legitimate journalistic function.


That would generally only apply if he was run from the law at the time, and a case could be made that Time Magazine was somehow helping him hide by putting his picture on their cover.

It sounds like you are assuming he was charged with serious crimes pretty much his whole adult life, and the only impediment to putting him in jail was law enforcement being able to find him. That was certainly not the case.

In fact, Capone was regularly arrested for relatively petty things. In 1930 alone he started the year in jail for gun possesion, got released in March, was arrested for "Vagrancy" in Florida, charged with Perjury and acquitted, charged with "Vagrancy" in Chicago, and tried and convicted on Contempt of Court.

The point of this is that he was never all that hard for the Law to get hold of when they wanted to. It would be tough to argue that Time helped him commit these crimes in any way.


Question:
In 1930, Al Capone made the cover of Time Magazine. Assuming this image was taken by Time Magazine, they would have had to call in Al Capone, have him sit for a headshot, and let him leave. Wouldn't this be considered aiding and abetting a criminal in that they knew who he was but didn't try in any way to stop him or arrest him?

Capone was found guilty of one count of Tax evasion, for his 1925 taxes, Oct 8th 1931, eleven months after the Time Cover was published. So when the time magazine article was published Nov 12, 1930; Capone wasn't wanted by the law.

I also think it's a leap to assume Time Magazine which was published (headquarters) in New York would have required Al Capone to travel from Chicago to their offices in New York to sit for the cover photograph. The March 31st 1930 magazine cover featured, Mahatma Gandhi. Who would be arrested in India, only about five weeks after the issue was published on May 5th, near Dandi for violating Salt Law. There is no record Gandhi traveled to NY to be photographed for his cover.

Sources:

  • Al Capone Trial (1931): An Account
  • List of Time Magazine Covers (1930)
  • Years of Arrests & Imprisonment of Mahatma Gandhi
  • Tax evasion in the United States


Background Notes.
Al Capone actually had a plea bargain in place prior to going to trial in 1931, in which he agreed to serve two and a half years in jail for a guilty plea to tax evasion. The judge threw out the agreement and ordered trial to commence. Capone's 11 year sentence is still the longest sentence ever issued for tax evasion. Capone would serve only 7 years of his sentence being released November 1939, for a medical condition (paresis caused by untreated syphilis). Capone died January 25, 1947.


Al Capone

Al Capone was one of the most notorious criminals of all time. During the Roaring Twenties, he gained fame both for the success of his criminal operation and for the violent way it was built and maintained. Capone became a symbol for the lawlessness of this decade, when Prohibition (the constitutional ban on the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages that was intended to improve society) seemed to lead directly to murder and corruption. With his bulky body and facial features, his slick suits and hats, his money, power, and disregard for the law, Capone remains a popular icon of the 1920s.


Here's the History of TIME's Person of the Year Franchise

E ver since Charles Lindbergh was proclaimed Man of the Year for 1927 in the Jan. 2, 1928, issue, TIME magazine has annually selected what is now known as the Person of the Year &mdash the man, woman, group or concept that had the most influence on the world during the previous 12 months. In 2020, TIME’s editors chose President-elect Joe Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris.

But, according to a letter to readers that appeared in the 1944 edition (Man of the Year: Dwight Eisenhower), TIME’s Person of the Year franchise all started by accident.

Here&rsquos what happened: New Year&rsquos week of 1928 had been a string of slow news days. In those years, TIME’s cover &mdash which had only recently acquired its signature red border &mdash was dedicated almost exclusively to portraiture, but there was nobody whose face seemed to fit the week’s events. As the publication date approached, the editors were at a loss. &ldquoNo one had done anything newsworthy enough to put his picture on TIME&rsquos cover, so somebody suggested we stop looking for a Man of the Week and pick a Man of the Year,&rdquo wrote then-publisher P.I. Prentice in the Jan. 1, 1945, issue. &ldquoThis was an easy choice: Charles Augustus Lindbergh, who had soloed the Atlantic in only 33 hours and 39 minutes, was the hero of 1927.&rdquo (It was also the case that Lindbergh had not been on the cover yet, an oversight that needed rectifying. The week that news of Lindbergh’s flight was reported, the TIME cover featured an old picture of King George V & Queen Mary in masquerade costumes.)

The editors apparently didn&rsquot think that naming Lindbergh as TIME’s Person of the Year would be particularly noteworthy &mdash in fact, the actual article about him is fairly brief and not even easy to find within the magazine. It begins thus:

Height: 6 ft. 2 inches.

Age: 25.

Eyes: Blue.

Cheeks: Pink.

Hair: Sandy.

Feet: Large. When he arrived at the Embassy in France no shoes big enough were handy.

Habits: Smokes not drinks not. Does not gamble. Eats a thorough-going breakfast. Prefers light luncheon and dinner when permitted. Avoids rich dishes. Likes sweets.

Barely two columns, the article goes on to list where he&rsquos flown and ends on the fact that his mother always thought he was &ldquothe world&rsquos greatest.&rdquo And yet, the response to making him Person of the Year was enthusiastic enough that the editors decided to do it again a year later, naming Walter P. Chrysler &ldquothe outstanding businessman of the year&rdquo and putting him on 1929&rsquos first cover.

“The Man of the Year idea caught on with a bang and, somewhat surprised, we decided to make it an annual event,” Prentice wrote in 1945. “The choice is in no way an accolade, nor a Nobel Prize for doing good. Nor is it a moral judgment. (Al Capone was runner-up in riotous, bootleg 1928.) The two criteria are always these: who had the biggest rise in fame and who did the most to change the news for better (like Stalin in 1942) or for worse (like Stalin in 1939, when his flop to Hitler’s side unleashed this worldwide war).”

In the years since TIME first began its Person of the Year franchise, it has evolved considerably.

The first Woman of the Year belonged to 1936 (Wallis Simpson), but TIME didn&rsquot switch to consistent use of the gender-neutral &ldquoPerson of the Year&rdquo till 1999 (Jeff Bezos).

Not every Person of the Year has wielded positive influence perhaps most notably, 1938&rsquos Man of the Year was Adolf Hitler, with the added ominous prediction that he &ldquomay make 1939 a year to be remembered.&rdquo The first multi-person choice was 1937&rsquos &mdash Gen. and Mme. Chiang Kai-shek were &ldquoMan & Wife of the Year&rdquo &mdash and the first symbolic group was 1950&rsquos choice of &ldquothe American Fighting-man.&rdquo The first inanimate object chosen was 1982&rsquos Machine of the Year, the personal computer. And of course,You were Person of the Year in 2006. In 2018, TIME&rsquos editors picked the Guardians&mdashJamal Khashoggi, the Capital Gazette of Annapolis, Md., Maria Ressa, Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo.


2. The Tax Lawyer Who Brought Down Capone

While Capone was known by Chicagoland as a rule-breaker, Attorney George Johnson was known as a saint. For thirty years he worked as an attorney in Chicago and not once did he take a bribe. He was so clean that President Calvin Coolidge appointed him U.S. District Attorney.

While the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre received the media attention and subsequently the government’s, Capone was directly responsible for only a handful of murders and the Massacre wasn’t one of them. Thus, the government had a difficult time pinning the kingpin with anything substantial.

George Johnson and the Dull Work of Tax Sleuthing

The FBI tried relentlessly to catch Capone on bootlegging, racketeering, and murder. They failed.

All the while George Johnson and his team of tax detectives were doing the boring work. They were shuffling through what they had on Capone’s taxes.

Johnson’s tax work never received media attention. He wasn’t publicity-happy like Elliot Ness, and even his name was boring. Ness hogged the spotlight by calling the press any time he raided a shipment of bootlegged liquor. Sledgehammers and smashed barrels were more interesting to the press than shuffled papers and tax forms.

But Johnson nabbed Capone because he was doing the real work behind the scenes.

Al Capone & Tax Evasion

Al Capone once said, “They can’t collect taxes from illegal money.” Because of Johnson’s work, Capone ate his own words on October 18th, 1931 when the tax man came collecting. And Capone paid in time instead of money.

Capone made off with a lot of tax-free money during his years as Chicagoland gangster. He was raking in $60 million (tax-free) annually by the mid-1920s.

Oddly, Capone’s statement about taxes on illegal money was true at the time. But in 1927, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that “gains from illicit traffic in liquor are subject to the income tax.” This ruling on tax law was just what George Johnson needed to put Capone away for a while.

Alfonso Capone of Chicago was indicted on 22 separate accounts of federal income tax evasion. Johnson wasn’t just successful in bringing in Capone on these charges either. Johnson’s work was a net that fished out Capone’s brothers, Jake “Greasy Thumb,” Ralph “Bottles” Capone, and a few other lower level gangsters connected to Capone’s empire.

On Oct. 17th, 1931 Al Capone was convicted of tax evasion. Capone entered a plea deal on the charges. He asked for a reduced sentence of only two years in prison with good behavior. But the judge said “no.”

Capone received 11 years in the “lock-up”. The government fined him $50,000 ($847,111 in today’s dollars). Court costs were a damning $215,000 ($3,642,576 today).


Francis Miller / TIME-LIFE Pictures

Tony "Big Tuna" Accardo died — remarkably, of natural causes — at age 86 in 1992. The "reputed" mob boss (he denied holding the position and eluded prosecutors) headed Chicago's Outfit after Al Capone, and upon Accardo's death the director of the Chicago Crime Commission said it was "the end of an era." Accardo may very well have been a gunman in the 1929 St. Valentine's Day Massacre, and he was on Chicago's public-enemy list in 1931. But that was just the beginning of a long, dark career. For decades, he controlled the Outfit, and despite numerous arrests for activities ranging from murder and kidnapping to extortion, union racketeering and gambling, he never served any jail time. A 1960 conviction on tax evasion was overturned on appeal: the Big Tuna (apparently, he once caught a tuna weighing 400 lb., or 180 kg) was slick. He was also aggressive: another of his nicknames, "Joe Batters," alluded to his handling of a baseball bat — and not for the game.


Impact

The legacy of crime resulting from the Great Depression has three fronts: (1) crowd street violence spurred by economic desperation and labor's effort to achieve union recognition by employers (2) continued existence and expansion of organized crime and, (3) the continued existence and expansion of federal law enforcement, most notably the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Street Violence

Violence resulting from food riots, farmer protests, and unemployment marches largely subsided as the New Deal gained momentum in 1933 and 1934. Labor violence became less pronounced with the industrial mobilization for World War II. New forms of violent protest came in the 1950s as part of the civil rights movement in which black Americans sought to end racial discrimination and segregation (keeping races apart in public places). The push for recognition of civil rights for racial minorities during the 1930s had been largely suppressed by the New Deal. Roosevelt had sought to maintain the loyal support of white Southern Democrats so as to get his economic recovery programs through Congress. Following World War II the patience of black Americans had further eroded over unjust racial segregation laws. Civil disobedience strategies inspired by Dr. Martin Luther King drew attacks from local police forces just as labor strikers had in the 1930s. The National Guard and U.S. troops were used to restore peace. These forms of confrontation gave way to race riots in the mid and late 1960s. Major clashes in inner cities across the United States left behind considerable property damage and racial tensions.

Anti-war protests beginning in 1966 against U.S. involvement in Vietnam also led to numerous incidents of street violence. Two notable incidents were the riot between protesters and police outside the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1968 and the shooting of protesters by National Guard troops on the campus of Kent State University in 1969. As food riots and unemployment unrest were largely quelled by New Deal policies, civil rights confrontations resulted in the passage of major legislation in the mid-1960s, and anti-war protests contributed to the withdrawal of U.S. forces from Southeast Asia.

Organized Crime

Organized crime involving the rise of the American Mafia, largely unchallenged during the Great Depression, continued through the century. The FBI focused first on gangsters and outlaws and then political extremists. Local authorities dealt with street crowd violence and labor strife. However the face of organized crime changed in America between the 1930s and 2000. The Irish and Jewish gangs of the early twentieth century virtually disappeared. New criminal gangs of black Americans, Asians, Jamaicans, and Latin Americans, all dealing in drugs, besieged the traditional American Mafia.

The focus of the federal government after World War II continued to be the activities of Italian Americans. Congressional investigations in the 1950s and 1960s identified what it believed was a secret society of the Mafia that operated throughout the United States overseeing illegal activities. Twenty-four separate organizations composing the Mafia operated in twenty cities involved in gambling, drug trafficking, and loan sharking. The highly popular 1972 movie, The Godfather popularized the notion of a tightly-knit Mafia underworld.

A tool to assist law enforcement in curtailing crime, called the Organized Crime Control Act, was passed by Congress in 1970. Central to this act is the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). Notably, "Rico" is also the name of the gangster in the popular 1930 film Little Caesar. As part of the Organized Crime Control Act, RICO is actually a group of laws that define and set punishment for racketeering. Racketeering is very broadly defined and includes many categories of activities common to organized crime such as extortion, money laundering, bootlegging, and kidnapping. By 1975 the National Conference on Organized Crime estimated that what was considered organized crime cost the American economy over $50 billion a year. During the 1980s and 1990s many bosses and members of organized crime were convicted and sent to prison under RICO.

Biography: Alphonse "Al" Capone

1899–1947 Born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1899 to a poor Italian immigrant family, the young Al Capone lived in a lively, ethnically diverse tenement neighborhood. Capone entered Public School 7 at age five. Education prospects for Italian children at that time were very poor, as the school system was highly prejudiced against them. The schools were rigid, strict institutions where physical force was used to maintain discipline and fistfights between teachers and students were commonplace. Capone did well in school until the sixth grade, but at age 14, finding school a place of unreasonable rules, he lost his temper with a teacher after she hit him, he hit her in retaliation. Capone was expelled and never went back to school.

Young people in Capone's neighborhood ran in gangs—Italian gangs, Jewish gangs, and Irish gangs—which were not violent but merely boys who hung out together. Few slum schools had playgrounds or recreation activities so the formation of gangs substituted for this lack. Capone belonged to the South Brooklyn Rippers, Forty Thieves Juniors, and the Five Point Juniors, while at the same time he worked dutifully for years to help support his family. There was no indication he would go to a life of crime until his friend Johnny Torrio, from the neighborhood, who would later become a gangland leader, got 18-year-old Al Capone a bartending and bouncer job at the Harvard Inn. It was there, in a fight, that the left side of Capone's face was scared. From this injury Capone permanently acquired the nickname of "Scarface."

Capone's father died suddenly of a heart attack in 1920, when Capone was 19. Historians believe this lack of parental authority marked the beginning of Capone's criminal life. Torrio had moved to Chicago and called Capone to join him. Torrio became an influential lieutenant in Chicago's Colosimo mob, which engaged in the Prohibition-spawned rackets of brewing and distributing beer. Torrio and Capone took full advantage of the "business opportunities," and Torrio soon gained full control of the gang.

In 1925 Torrio was seriously wounded in an assassination attempt and while he retired to Brooklyn, Capone took charge of the Colosimo gang. Capone had a fearless reputation, which grew as he eliminated rival gang after rival gang. By 1927 Capone had a bootleg monopoly across Chicago and Cook County. Capone pocketed well over $100 million a year from beer and liquor sales, gambling, dog tracks, dancehalls, and prostitution. Through bribery he kept law enforcement and politicians both in check.

Although he was in Florida at the time of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre on February 14, 1929, Capone was very likely behind the event. Several associates of the rival gang headed by "Bugs" Moran were murdered. Although Capone did not realize it at the time, the massacre and the publicity stemming from it, much of which glamorized Capone to the public, caught the attention of federal government law enforcers.

In 1928 26-year old Ness, a Prohibition federal agent, was put in charge of gathering information on Al Capone's illegal activities. Assembling an incorruptible and fearless squad of nine agents, Ness and his men wreaked havoc on Capone's bootlegging activities. They raided and destroyed equipment in his breweries and distribution centers. Ness' men were nicknamed the "untouchables," and were later immortalized in the popular 1950s television series "The Untouchables," as well as in a 1987 Kevin Costner movie of the same name.

In 1931 a federal jury convicted Capone of income tax evasion and the judge sentenced him to eleven years in prison. Released from Alcatraz after eight years, Capone, now suffering from complications of syphilis, retired to his Palm Island, Florida, home where he died in 1947.

By 2000 organized crime became more associated with the "war on drugs," a massive law enforcement effort to stop international drug trafficking. What was now considered organized crime was associated with no particular ethnic group but with drug cartels. Its definition included not only organized groups but any collection of individuals engaging in continuing criminal activities, including street gangs.

Organized crime was difficult to eliminate because it is actually comprised of complex and loosely coordinated activities by diverse groups. It was made up of a variety of enterprises that are not necessarily centrally controlled by any particular group or organization and alliances may constantly shift. In addition organized crime had gone global. According to Louis J. Freeh, a former director of the FBI, worldwide alliances in 2001 were being forged in every criminal field, from trafficking in drugs and money laundering, to counterfeiting, to the illicit sale of nuclear materials. The challenge of containing or eradicating organized crime remained a problem, just as it was during the Great Depression.

Further Growth of the FBI

During the Great Depression the FBI gained greatly in public respect. Federal law enforcement grew along with other parts of the federal government dealing with economic recovery. Following World War II in 1945, the FBI began undergoing further change. Both its size and jurisdiction (range of authority) greatly expanded. The FBI began conducting background security investigations for the White House and other government agencies. Headed by Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee, a committee of congressmen traveled the country in the early 1950s investigating all levels of corruption, including the organized crime syndicate. Organized crime, however, did not receive full attention of the FBI until 1972 following J. Edgar Hoover's death. At the time of his death Hoover had been with the Bureau for almost 55 years, 48 of those years serving as its director. He believed to the end that he and his Special Agents had been the guardians of the country's moral values.

In 2000 the FBI, adhering to its motto of Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity, served as the U.S. Department of Justice's principle investigative arm. Compared to its lack of federal jurisdiction in 1930, the Bureau in 2000 had investigative jurisdiction over violations in more than 200 categories of federal crimes. The FBI also investigated violations under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It also continued its background investigations for the Executive Branch and government agencies. As of 2001 the FBI had five top priority areas: domestic terrorism national foreign intelligence organized crime/drug cases violent crimes and white-collar crimes.


Did Time magazine aid Al Capone? - History

This is my history and guide to my adopted home - Terre Haute, Indiana.

When I first moved here in October, 2001 people delighted in telling me that Terre Haute was once known as "Sin City" because of the gambling, prostitution, political corruption and labour problems that once went on here.

Most references to Terre Haute as being called "Sin City" refer to two printed articles, one was in Time Magazine and the other in a magazine called "Stag". None of the places referencing these articles give any quotes from them or give any details such as issue number or date of publication these include Urban Dictionary and Wikipedia. There are others, but these but they seem to be quoting from the Urban Dictionary or Wikipedia.

I think I've tracked down both articles and neither mention "Sin City" at all. The article in Stag is entitled "Nighttime Girls of Terre Haute" by Stephen Hull and it appeared in the November 1955, Volume 6, No. 11 issue. The magazine appeared to have to catered to a male audience and that particular issue also contained articles entitled "She was Loaded to Blow", "Even the Flesh Burned". "I Rode the Giant Whirlpool", "I Sucked in the Sea", "World of Brothels" and "Why I Shot Joan Tyler", which should give the general idea of what sort of level this magazine was.

Stag, november 1955 issue, cover and index page

The other article, I believe, was the one in Time Magazine entitled "Indiana: Open House in Terre Haute" which appeared in the February 21st, 1969 issue.

There were several other articles published in a similar vein such as "Indiana's Delinquent City" in the Saturday Evening Post of February 11th , 1961 "The Teenage Torturers of Terre Haute" in True Danger of February 1963 "Our Brothels Stay, Says Mayor 'There is Virtue in Vice'" in Truth! of August 1969 and "Legendary Madame Brown" in the Terre Haute Spectator of June 16th, 1979. The above list comes from the Vigo County Library website.

Platted in 1816, Terre Haute started life as a port on the Wabash River and developed into an agricultural and pork packing center. Pork packing was started in Terre Haute by Benjamin Gilman in 1824, and was to be one of the principal enterprises in the city for over 100 years. With development of the National Road (1835), Wabash and Erie Canal (1849), and railways (1852) came prosperity and the city quickly grew and by 1870 was something of a boomtown. By then the major industries were coal mining, iron and steel mills and hominy production alongside glass making, distilleries and breweries. In 1870, Vigo County ranked third in the state in coal mining and fifth in manufacturing. Employment was high, the wages were good and soon there were people who were only too happy to entertain the people and separate them from their money and the gambling houses and brothels started appearing. These probably weren't the first, as both practices were probably around since the early days of the town, but they certainly became more noticeable, and some even attracted the attention of the national press. For the amount of vice and corruption that was carried on here one thing that Terre Haute stayed clear of was the organized crime that plagued larger cities.

Even as far back as 1906, people were trying to keep some sort of control over Terre Haute's red light district. Edwin J. Bidaman, an ex-police force officer, was elected mayor in 1904. At first he was praised in his efforts to control the red light district, but his softly, softly approach annoyed some members of the city council, even though the defeated mayor, Henry C. Steeg had done next to nothing about the gambling, prostitution and other vices in Terre Haute.

Steeg had been supported, some say controlled, by Democratic leader John E. Lamb. A former congressman and an outstanding trial lawyer, Lamb represented virtually every privately owned municipal utility. Opponents accused him of negotiating favorable deals with the city on behalf of his clients at the taxpayers' expense. Whereas, even his political opponents said that Bidaman was an honest man.

At the time, the city ordnances stated that saloons must be closed at 11 p.m. during the week and all day on Sunday but almost all stayed open nearly all night and opened on Sundays. Bidaman had eliminated the use of slot machines but permitted gambling upstairs in two-story businesses. It seems he couldn't please anybody. Saloonkeepers were unhappy, but so were many ministers and church groups.

Bidaman was impeached by a 6-3 vote of the City Council on June 27th, 1906. Bidaman refused to leave office and secured a temporary restraining order. On July 6th, at 4:15 p.m., Indiana Appellate Court Judge Wood D. Robinson, serving as special judge, dissolved the restraining order and Bidaman was coerced to abandon his challenge. City Controller Frank M. Buckingham succeeded him as mayor the next day. This wasn't the first attempt to get rid of Bidaman. The City Council had tried to impeach him around six months earlier but couldn't get the 6 votes necessary - they only managed to get 5.

Bidaman was perhaps unfairly impeached, he was never accused of anything unlawful, but although he was making some sort of headway, he wasn't clearing the red light district as fast as some on the city council would have liked. Don M. Nixon, editor of the Saturday Spectator wrote of Bidaman, "The people love Edwin J. Bidaman for the enemies he has made. Few men could be more fortunate."

At a meeting on August 7th, 1906, the Board of Public Safety issued new rules concerning the area trying to move the more lurid west of Third Street. The order directed "all immoral characters" to remove themselves from Fourth Street and from Eagle Street, between Third and Fourth streets. Prostitutes in brothels on those streets remaining after August 20th, 1906, were subject to arrest and fine. Earlier attempts at moving these places met with protests that they would suffer undue hardship and so they stayed. This attempt also failed and the brothels were still there 60 years later.

Charles Monroe Fortune was elected city judge of Terre Haute in 1905. In 1908 he resigned this post after being elected Circuit Judge. In January 1914, he brought to light the widespread election rigging of which Terre Haute was the centre. Taking office on January 5th, 1914, just 12 days later, on January 17th, Mayor Donn M. Roberts was arrested on charges concerning bribery and fraud with an $8,000 bond. Roberts, the sheriff and circuit judge, Eli Redman, were among the 132 people indicted. Eventually, over 100 people would be found guilty of their part in the scheme. One of the people making the arrests were United States Marshal Frank Storen from Indianapolis.

The November 1913 elections in Terre Haute was something that is now more likely seen in the news about some third world country or somewhere run by a despotic dictator, but which was apparently pretty common in United States elections of the time. There were slush funds to buy votes, false registrations and if those methods didn't work, gangs of thugs to threaten people at the election booths.

Up until then there was little or no no federal oversight of state elections and what prosecutions there were, were always blocked. Before the trial started several southern Democrats, including Kentucky's Senator Ollie James and Congressman A. O. Stanley tried to stop the prosecutions saying that the federal courts had no jurisdiction over state elections and that the Supreme Court were assaulting the rights of sovereign states. Roberts wrote to Stanley saying that with the actions of the Supreme Court "the white man had just as well move out of the South and turn the offices over to the Negroes." The Supreme Court's argument, delivered by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, was that "We regard it equally unquestionable that the right to have one's vote counted is as open to protection by Congress as the right to put a ballot in the box."

The trials started in March, 1914, in Indianapolis and 80 of the accused pled guilty. The trial was attended by women of the Mississippi Valley Suffrage Conference who wanted to see how elections were run by the men who also denied them the right to vote. Women finally got the vote with the passing of the Nineteenth Amendment on August 18th, 1920.

One city employee testified that at the instigation of Edward Holler, the police chief, he wrote out fictitious registration cards and that he had simply made up the names on the cards as well as given them an age and place of birth. At his testimony, Holler said that at Roberts suggestion he had 2,500 of these registration cards made. The cards were given to "floaters" who were paid $5 to vote. One of these "floaters", Cortlandt Rector, testified that he'd been paid $8 to vote 10 times. Another testified that he'd voted a total of 22 times during the election.

Another employee testified that when he reported to Roberts that one precinct proved troublesome because they could not be bought or intimidated, Roberts replied that he should "get something to put into their pockets and have them arrested for carrying concealed weapons." An election and registration inspector said that he'd given out 500 tokens worth $1 each redeemable in local saloons. Roberts also organized the collection of a $6,000 "slush fund" from saloons and gambling houses promising them they'd be put out of business if they didn't pay.

Those on trial included mayor Donn M. Roberts circuit judge Eli H. Redman controller Elmer E. Talbott sheriff Dennis Shea county sealer of weights and measures Maurice Walsh president of the board of public works Harry S. Montgomery city inspector of weights and measures John M. Masselink city judge Thomas B. Smith board of public works member George Ehrenhardt Vigo county Democratic party secretary Edward R. Driscoll street commissioner Joseph O'Mara undertaker and Progressive party election official Arthur Gillis.

In April 1915, Roberts was sent to Fort Leavenworth federal prison, Kansas, for six years and fined $2,000 by Judge A. B. Anderson who said he was the "arch conspirator". The circuit judge Eli H. Redman and the sheriff were imprisoned for 5 years and fined $1,000 each. Redman died whilst imprisoned at Fort Leavenworth. It took an entire railroad car to transport all the prisoners down to Kansas to start their prison terms. An appellate judge later said Roberts' crime was "worse than dynamite that it amounted to treason." It wasn't the end of Roberts political career and he came close to becoming mayor of Terre Haute again in the 1921 election, losing to Republican Ora D. Davis by only 552 votes.

One of the defense witnesses, William Davern, a clerk with the Terre Haute Brewing Company was caught lying on oath and imprisoned for perjury.

The New York Times wrote that "The misfortune of Mayor Roberts and his accomplices and henchmen was in not noticing that the political fashions, like others, change once in a while, and what is safe and even commendable one year may be dangerous and reprehensible the next." Which is pretty damning of the whole election process at the time.

In 1916, there were reportedly 900 prostitutes and 400 madams in Terre Haute in 1916. For nearly forty years, between 1901 and 1942, one of the best known Madams in Terre Haute was Edith Brown. Born on May 10th, 1874, she left her parent's farm, located near Paris, Illinois in 1891 aged 17. She arrived in Terre Haute and became a domestic maid. In 1901, when she was 27, she became he madam in a brothel located at 213 Mulberry Street. Five years later, in 1906, she kept a brothel at 318 Eagle Street. A law was enacted that no brothels were allowed east of Third Street and so, on December 14th, 1915, she bought a 16 room, 2-storey yellow brick house at 206 North Second Street.

taken around 1900
Image from Legendary Madame Brown - Spectator (Terre Haute), June 16th, 1979 edition

In 1918, this house opened as a brothel with the name of the Circle R Hotel having been sumptuously redecorated with oriental rugs and the finest furniture, china, silver, glass and mirrors, it even boasted a Tiffany glass chandelier. The house had a music room, complete with grand piano, Madam's sitting room, another sitting room, living room, dining room and a barroom, with a bar that had come from Chauncey Rose's Prairie House hotel, which in 1855 had become Terre Haute House. The outside of the house was also striking with a low wrought-iron fence, a Tiffany glass canopy over the front entrance, garden figures and flowers and shrubs laid out in a formal garden.

Edith Brown's house at 206 North Second Street
Image from Legendary Madame Brown - Spectator (Terre Haute), June 16th, 1979 edition

As well as the first radio in Terre Haute, Edith Brown also had the first electric car as well as a Cadillac limousine. Her driver was Homer Budd for many years and later, "Red" Ferry. During prohibition (1920 to 1933) Edith used the limousine to run bootleg liquor from Kentucky - who's suspect such a respectable looking lady in such a fine car?

A visitor to the house from those days remembers that.

It was a very dignified place - not bawdy. Everything was formal and the girls paraded in beautiful evening gowns. The house was attractively in a very formal, controlled setting and meticulously clean. Everything was orderly. It was a $5 house when others were $1. Drinks were $1 apiece and that was high in those days. On some Saturday nights, the house was formal. Men had to wear tuxedos and the girls were in evening gowns. Dinner and champagne were served, at a beautifully appointed table, and the cost was $25.

In the early years Edith had a financial benefactor, or maybe several. The house had been furnished with the help of a prominent local furniture store owner. In 1927, she married George Edward Gosnell in Hot Springs, Arkansas. "Eddie" was the owner of a roadhouse and then the private Spring Brook Rod and Gun Club. The two lived more or less separate lives, Eddie in his own house near his club and Edith in the house in North Second Street with her secretary and companion Edith "Jean" Bialorucki who was a widow from Toledo.

Edith gave generously to the Terre Haute Boys Club which was located at 220 North Third Street and during the depression years which started with the stock market crash of October 29th 1929, but with effects lasting until the late 1930's and early 1940's.

Brown continued to run her brothel until 1942. She turned the North Second house into apartments and continued to live there. The tide was changing for the brothels gambling rooms and bars by then anyway. Helen Bergune who represented the Federal Government was already talking to local businesses about ways to put them out of business, but it wasn't until redevelopment in the 1970's that Terre Haute finally lost it's Red Light district.

Edith eventually bought a house in Sarasota, Florida. "Eddie" joined her for the winters. Edith died in Sarasota on October 31st, 1956 aged 82. She left $5,000 to the Terre Haute Boys Club. Her famous brothel at 206 North Second Street was demolished in 1970 by the Department of Redevelopment.

After the boom-times of the 1880's, Terre Haute began a slow decline in the 1920's. There were repeated floods and a succession of bitter labor disputes, including a 1935 general strike. The mines lost money and the rail yards sharply diminished. Prohibition killed off the breweries and glass making in the city sharply declined as a result. The city would still draw visitors to the city though, including infamous gangster Al Capone when he wanted to get away from Chicago. Two of Capone's favourite sayings were "I am just a businessman, giving the people what they want" and "All I do is satisfy a public demand", things that more than one business owner in Terre Haute at the time would agree with.

Terre Haute had a reputation of being a bad labor town since the 1890's. A street car strike in 1914 meant that a federal judge Francis E. Baker had to issue an injunction against the Street Car Men's Union of Terre Haute to stop them interfering with the street cars belonging to the Terre Haute, Indianapolis and Eastern Traction Company in any way on March 17th, 1914.

Pro-labor federal legislation in the 1930s, such as the Norris - Laguardia Act in 1932, National Labor Relations Act in 1935 and the Fair Labor Standards Act in 1938, bolstered unionization even more. Sporadic strikes included three packing plant walkouts that caused livestock markets to close and the city's meat supplies to dwindle. At the Columbian Enameling and Stamping Company plant, management's refusal to arbitrate with the new Federal Labor Union #19694 on the matter of a closed shop precipitated a strike on March 23rd, 1935.

Columbian Enameling and Stamping Company, Terre Haute, Ind.

After four months of impasse and the introduction of 58 armed men from Chicago to "guard" the plant, the city's unions announced a "labor holiday" for July 22nd, 1935. The general strike, just the third in United States history, involved around 22,000 people throughout the city and shut down all business except for critical services. Governor Paul V. McNutt declared martial law and sent 1,500 National Guardsmen to the city. After two days of some violence and 185 arrests and with the troops firing tear gas bombs from 26.5mm Manville guns and using rifle butts against the pickets, the strike ended. One of the soldiers, private Lee Thomas had two ribs broken after being struck with bricks and stones. Martial law, however, remained in effect for six months more. Afterward, the parties regrouped to do more battle via the press and the courtroom. The Greater Terre Haute Movement, spearheaded by the newly formed Junior Chamber of Commerce, tried to improve relations by holding informal meetings with all sides represented. Difficulties persisted nonetheless in attracting new industry and in keeping established companies. The city government seemed unable to surmount the economic straits or curb the flourishing vice and gambling.

Major problems also occurred 15 years later when Allis - Chalmers chose Terre Haute for a brand new engineering plant.

Allis-Chalmers, Transformer Assembly Building, Terre Haute

This photograph, not a postcard, has the printed text.

Allis-Chalmers
Transformer and Circuit Breaker Assembly Building
Circuit breaker and small transformer aisle on left, test apparatus aisle in center.
Construction by Austin Company, W. O. 3486, Photo #186176, 2-19-57

Allis-Chalmers, Transformer Assembly Building, Terre Haute

This photograph, not a postcard, has the printed text.

Allis-Chalmers
Transformer and Circuit Breaker Assembly Building
Large transformer assembly bay in foreground, height 92 ft., length 540 ft.
Construction by Austin Company, W. O. 3486, Photo #186177, 2-19-57

The Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co. of West Allis, Wisconsin was an American manufacturer with diverse interests, perhaps most famous for their bright orange farm tractors. The company eventually divested its manufacturing businesses and today is known as Allis-Chalmers Energy, and is based in Houston, Texas. As well as tractors the company also manufactured combine harvesters, hydroturbines, valves and pumps, compressors, electric motors, crushing and screening equipment, air purification and coal gasification equipment.

On April 28, 1951, the Milwaukee based Allis-Chalmers company announced that Terre Haute had been chosen as the site of a new plant to manufacture compressors for J-65 turbojet engines under the largest contract ever issued by the Curtiss - Wright Corporation. The $10 million plant was to employ between 3,500 and 4,000 people and the engines would be used in the A-4 Skyhawk, B-57 Canberra, F-11 Tiger, F-84F Thunderstreak, FJ-3 Fury, FJ-4 Fury and Lockheed XF-104 Starfighter.

Allis-Chalmers acquired a 215 acre site at 13th Street and Aythorne Avenue and the Terre Haute Chamber of Commerce planned to use the old interurban car barns at 2770 Wabash Avenue as a facility to train the engineers whilst the main plant was being built. On May 28, 1951, the plant and equipment were moved into the pilot plant / training facility.

On May 7, 1952, members of Local 1164 of the United Auto Workers went on strike. Construction of the more-than-half completed main plant stopped on June 20, 1952. Even though Allis-Chalmers threatened to pull out of Terre Haute the strike dragged on for 14 weeks. The Air Force set Tuesday, July 8, at 7:59 a.m., as the deadline for the resumption of work. Without a settlement, its mechanics would remove its machines and tools from the pilot plant. At 7 a.m. that morning, the union met in a tent adjoining the pilot plant and 250 of its 340 members voted to remain on strike. As warned, later that day air force personnel entered the building and started dismantling the equipment.

Things came to a head on Monday, July 28, 1952, which Mayor Ralph Tucker described as "a dark day in history of the City of Terre Haute." About 250 members of the Operating Engineers formed a "flying wedge" at the picket line guarding the gate at Allis-Chalmers’ pilot plant. Blocking traffic on U.S. Highway 40, the attack force broke through to allow five cars carrying 34 American Federation of Labor workers to enter the plant. The two sets of workers battled each other with fists, clubs and even knives and an American Federation of Labor worker was severely wounded with a punctured lung after being stabbed in the chest.

The strike finally was settled on August 20, 1952 and production was finally underway by December 1, but on a much smaller scale than was originally anticipated. Just 700 people of the planned 3,500 plus were employed. The air force never did return the 29 machines it had removed from the plant in July, but instead gave them to other companies to fulfill the contract. Production of J-65 turbojets was terminated by the air force in 1956 and a contract to produce J-79 assemblies was cancelled in 1957.

Allis-Chalmers, despite the problems, surprisingly still believed in Terre Haute and in 1954 announced plans to erect another $4 million plant to build transformers and switch gear in Terre Haute. There were still problems though and Terre Haute was again told that unless productivity improved the equipment would be moved back to West Allis - the home of Allis-Chalmers. Completed in 1957/8, this factory closed just four years later in 1962.

The Red Light District in 1955

During the mayorship of Vernon R. McMillan (1943 to 1948) there were apparently no brothels in Terre Haute (Index of Historical Events). How this was done since no other mayor in 50 years had managed to do it, the article doesn't say. During the 1950's, the brothels reopened but on a smaller scale, with just 10 houses and not more than 30 working girls at any one time.

The Stag article "Nighttime Girls of Terre Haute" that appeared in the November, 1955 issue is very thin on verifiable facts and written in a lurid style by Stephen Hull.. The article describes at least one bookmaker and four gambling houses that were open from 9am to midnight on Wabash Avenue. Wabash Avenue itself was described as "one of the most verminous skid rows to be found anywhere". Which I thought is odd, because that West end of Wabash Avenue could hardly ever be described as "skid row". Some of the best hotels in the city were situated here as well as many businesses. The red light district was described as being centred between Second and Mulberry Streets with the classiest brothel being run by a "Madame Rose". Street prostitutes could also be picked up along Fourth Street. Hull also described some of the sleazier bars where the prostitutes

"some of them - who couldn't be more than 20 years old, had no teeth. Did you ever see a broken-nosed, toothless female in a flour-sack dress, high on beer, try to look sexy?"

A "Window Girl"
Image from "Nighttime Girls of Terre Haute" - Stag, November 1955 edition
The magazine does state that some of the photos were not actually taken in Terre Haute, but doesn't say which ones.

The article goes on to describe what went on in the four gambling houses along Wabash Avenue where the players were charged by the hour for the use of the tables and a percentage taken from the pot. There was also a 10 dice game in several of these places. For a dime you got 5 throws of the 10 dice. If you threw 14 of ay one number then you won $5. The places also had pin-ball machines which paid out in cash - which was illegal in Indiana. One game that was common to all four places was Baseball Pool. During baseball season the scores were from the actual games, off-season and the scores were electronically generated "from a central control somewhere in Terre Haute and represent an investment of many thousands of dollars." The places were "clean and well-run no liquor is sold in them and the play seems to be honest. They operate openly and with little attempt at concealment."

Miners Gambling
Image from "Nighttime Girls of Terre Haute" - Stag, November 1955 edition
The magazine does state that some of the photos were not actually taken in Terre Haute, but doesn't say which ones.

Drugs were not a problem in Terre Haute, but drinking was. Hull reports that the Indiana Council for Children and Youth had recently complained that they had been unable to control the sale of alcohol to teenagers. Terre Haute's then most recent semi-annual share of the revenue generated by taxes and fees by the Indiana Alcoholic Beverage Commission was $44,383.

Stag shows and sexy movies also abounded in the city. Hull reported that "Once a Sinner" and "Over-Night Girl" were films showing in one theatre. The only references to a films named "Once a Sinner" at the Internet Movie Database shows two films, one a romance made in 1931.The other film of this name was a British made B crime movie made in 1950. "Over-Night Girl" was made in 1948 and about prostitution. Two dollars would buy a ticket to one of the many burlesque shows in town.

Burlesque Shows
Image from "Nighttime Girls of Terre Haute" - Stag, November 1955 edition
The magazine does state that some of the photos were not actually taken in Terre Haute, but doesn't say which ones.

Apparently people were happy with the way things were, despite earlier attempts to control the red light district. Hull interviewed a Terre Haute reporter who said.

"Our police are as good as any and better than most. They could close down the line [red light district] and padlock the gambling joints, if the people wanted it done. But they don't. Even the reformers around here don't holler up reform they do in most places."


Organized Crime in the 1920’s and Prohibition

What a time the 1920’s was, with the party atmosphere it was certainly a time of great criminal activity, with the prohibition laws in America and the world in an economic depression.

The people turned more and more to criminal activity, organized criminals such as the American mobsters and European crime syndicates thrived, most common people looked upon these organizations as heroes.

Criminals like Al Capone, Bonnie and Clyde and John Dillinger were headliners of the era.

Jobs were scarce and people needed to provide for their families, gangsterism was dangerous but provided an easy way to make money. When the American government passed the Eighteenth amendments outlawing alcohol, people who enjoyed a drink became criminal for doing so.

It was organized crime who supplied the booze. In January of 1920 the American government banned the sale and supply of alcohol, the government thought that this would curb crime and violence, prohibition did not achieve it’s goals, leading more toward higher crime rates and excessive violence.

Alcohol was seen as the devils advocate and banning the substance would help improve the quality of American lives. It caused an explosive growth in crime with more than double the amount of illegal bars and saloons operating than before prohibition.

The government set up the “Federal Prohibition Bureau” to police prohibition, this did not deter people and organized crime continued to be the main supplier of booze.

With a large coastline it was almost impossible to police with only five percent of alcohol ever being confiscated.

Bribing government officials was common, and people were increasingly crafty in the way they would hide alcohol such as hollowed out canes, false books and hip flasks. Violence on the streets increased as did unemployment.

The closure of all alcohol related industries was the main reason behind increased unemployment, hard working Americans suddenly were drinking a banned substance.

Police resources used to fight other crime were diverted to the prevention of alcohol consumption.The Criminal gangs that supplied the booze were ruthless with over inflated prices, often fighting each other for control of the trade. A whole black market was created around alcohol.

The quality of alcohol was poor and many people became sick, deaths from alcohol poisoning had risen 400%, people will argue that alcohol was less easily obtainable before prohibition since the bootlegging industry was so immense, you could purchase alcohol on almost any street in America, many home products were of poor quality however people were very inventive about the making of home alcohol.

Although a great idea in concept, prohibition was ultimately a failure the public grew less respectful of the law. Drink driving increased and public drunkenness also increased.

After thirteen long years the government finally saw that prohibition was not working, it had infact created more of a problem than it solved, finally the government abolished the prohibition laws.

Crime decreased and the criminal element was taken out of the industry, organized crime in the 1920’s flourished in America because of prohibition and it did not stop there, after the prohibition era they simply went on to other markets with their new found wealth.

Had prohibition never happened organized crime syndicates may not have become so wealthy or powerful.


Find Out More

Today, Capone’s story lives on in the movies - and in museums. You can find an actual section of wall from the St. Valentines Day massacre now on display in the Mob Museum in Las Vegas, NV.

LAS VEGAS, NV - FEBRUARY 13: A video is projected on a piece of the brick wall from the February . [+] 14, 1929, St. Valentine's Day Massacre as part of a display at The Mob Museum February 13, 2012 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Bullet holes are marked on the wall from where seven mob associates were gunned down in a Chicago garage. The museum, also known as the National Museum of Organized Crime and Law Enforcement, opens on February 14 and chronicles the history of organized crime in America and the efforts of law enforcement to combat it. (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images)

Geoff Schumacher, the Vice President of the exhibits and programs at The Mob Museum, spoke with me about how the museum obtained the wall and other memorabilia related to Capone, IRS-CI, and organized crime in the latest episode of the Taxgirl podcast.


The Untouchables & Elmer Irey vs. Al Capone

“The Untouchables” wasn’t a nickname given in jest but for their commitment to fighting crime. While policemen and prohibition officers elsewhere were bribed, coerced to look the other way, or perpetuated other acts of corruption, Elliot Ness and his squad of loyal federal agents never wavered. They tracked bootleggers and smugglers as they traveled to and from Canada and Europe. They hunted the most feared mobsters through Chicago’s city streets. Ness never once shied away from confrontation in “the crime capital of the world,” and he gained a legendary, almost mythical reputation early on that mirrored that of nemesis Al Capone.

Although Ness and The Untouchables weren’t responsible for Al Capone’s demise, they did harass the mafia kingpin and totaled 5,000 Prohibition violations against his name. While Ness sought Capone’s stashed caches of alcohol and undisclosed breweries, Elmer Irey, who has since been dubbed by Life magazine as “ one of the world’s greatest detectives ,” and his T-Men (Treasury Men) worked tirelessly behind closed doors to put Chicago’s Most Wanted man behind bars.

They operated in secret and received little, if any, limelight from the tabloids at that time. Irey’s T-Men were IRS special agents who were determined to wipe the grime away from corrupt city officials, invinceable gangsters, and pesky tax evaders.

Since its inception in 1919, the IRS’s historic reputation has never fallen below its 90 percent conviction rate for federal tax persecutions. Irey’s Intelligence Unit had two premier investigators for these landmark cases: Frank Wilson and Mike Malone. Wilson one of the accountants that followed the paper trail and backend dealings of Capone’s criminal empire. He was named the head of the Secret Service in 1937. Malone, known as “Mysterious Mike” to his family and friends, worked undercover in the most dangerous assignments. He assumed aliases — one posing as an Irish mobster named Pat O’Rourke, another as Mike Lepito, a Philadelphia racketeer who lived next door to one of Capone’s bodyguards.

His high-risk undercover work and the teamwork of the Intelligence Unit helped convict Capone for tax evasion and led to the arrest of several notable criminals like Enoch “Nucky” Johnson , who inspired the fictional character Nucky Thompson in the hit HBO series “Boardwalk Empire.”


Watch the video: Al Capone: Amazing Facts About the Mob Legend! Did You Know? Doc Bites (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Morrey

    The highest number of points is achieved.

  2. Orville

    really. All of the above is true. We can communicate on this theme.

  3. Munro

    Certainly. It was and with me. We can communicate on this theme. Here or in PM.



Write a message